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Among nursing home outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with ≥3 breakthrough infections when the predominant severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant circulating was the SARS-CoV-2 δ (delta) variant, fully vaccinated residents were 28% less likely to be infected than were unvaccinated residents. Once infected, they had approximately half the risk for all-cause hospitalization and all-cause death compared with unvaccinated infected residents.
The trade union movement around the world remains in the throes of a prolonged and deep decline, whether measured by membership and density, bargaining power in relation to employers or political influence over the ubiquitous neoliberal narrative that underpins the policies of many governments. Decline has not been arrested or reversed by the many strategic initiatives undertaken in recent years such as organising campaigns or coalition building, although it is possible that the state of the unions would be even more parlous if these initiatives had not been pursued. Against this bleak backcloth, there are some positive signs: unions representing specific occupations, such as school teachers, nurses and airline pilots, have retained high levels of density; and union confederations in many parts of Europe have launched successful general strikes against unpopular government reforms to pensions and welfare benefits. Unions need to position themselves as agencies that can help deal with the growing problems of wage stagnation, low wages, income inequality and insufficient economic demand. That in turn requires a coherent challenge to the dominant neoliberal narrative.
This paper critically reviews literature about design framing to clarify an understanding of what is meant by the construct of a design frame. It describes the origins of the term design frame and characterises three distinct definitions that can be found within the literature. It reviews empirical studies of design framing to highlight definitional confusion between studies. It discusses the significance of Dorst’s propositional model of design frames and juxtaposes design frames with other related constructs. It clarifies ways that the resolution of nomenclature for describing design framing might lead to a more coherent body of empirical research into this topic. It suggests that there is value in developing a better cognitive model of design framing and outlines potential steps towards such a model.
In the US Southwest and Northwest Mexico, people and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) have had a reciprocal relationship for millennia; turkeys supplied feathers, meat, and other resources, whereas people provided food, shelter, and care. To investigate how turkeys fit within subsistence, economic production, sociopolitical organization, and religious and ritual practice in the Mimbres Valley of southwestern New Mexico, we report on genetic (mtDNA) and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) data from turkeys recovered from Mimbres Classic period (AD 1000–1130) sites. Results indicate that Mimbres aviculturists had haplogroup H1 and H2 turkeys, and most ate maize-based diets similar to humans, but some ate nonmaize and mixed diets. We contextualize these data to other turkey studies from the northern Southwest and discuss how the human-turkey relationship began, the evidence for pens and restricting turkey movement, and the socioecological factors related to turkey management during the Classic period, particularly the challenges associated with providing maize to turkeys during times of environmental stress. This study has broad relevance to places where people managed wild, tame, and domestic animals, and we offer new insights into how prehispanic, small-scale, middle-range agricultural societies managed turkeys for ritual and utilitarian purposes.
Any role for spirituality in addressing the serious clinical and public health problems related to substance misuse and addiction might seem antiquated at best, and clinical malpractice at worst. Yet, from a phenomenological perspective, addiction often penetrates and pervades the core of conscious thought and behaviour, undermining personal values and meaning and purpose in life – factors that many people associate with a diminished sense of personal spirituality. Research on spiritual/religious identity and practices has shown that these both protect against the onset of substance misuse and help millions each year to recover from it. This chapter reviews the interplay of morality, spirituality/religion and substance misuse, suggests why addiction in particular is so prone to spiritual pathology, and describes why spirituality/religion have played such prominent roles in successful remission and stable recovery. Spiritually oriented treatment approaches to addiction are reviewed along with their implications for practice and research.
Pre-diagnostic deficits in social motivation are hypothesized to contribute to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a heritable neurodevelopmental condition. We evaluated psychometric properties of a social motivation index (SMI) using parent-report item-level data from 597 participants in a prospective cohort of infant siblings at high and low familial risk for ASD. We tested whether lower SMI scores at 6, 12, and 24 months were associated with a 24-month ASD diagnosis and whether social motivation’s course differed relative to familial ASD liability. The SMI displayed good internal consistency and temporal stability. Children diagnosed with ASD displayed lower mean SMI T-scores at all ages and a decrease in mean T-scores across age. Lower group-level 6-month scores corresponded with higher familial ASD liability. Among high-risk infants, strong decline in SMI T-scores was associated with 10-fold odds of diagnosis. Infant social motivation is quantifiable by parental report, differentiates children with versus without later ASD by age 6 months, and tracks with familial ASD liability, consistent with a diagnostic and susceptibility marker of ASD. Early decrements and decline in social motivation indicate increased likelihood of ASD, highlighting social motivation’s importance to risk assessment and clarification of the ontogeny of ASD.
The essays in this volume of the Journal continue its proud tradition of presenting cutting-edge research with a wide chronological and geographical, range, from eleventh-century Georgia (David IV's use of the methods described in De velitatione bellica) to fifteenth-century England and France (a detailed analysis of the use of the under-appreciated lancegay and similar weapons). Iberia and the Empire are also addressed, with a study of Aragonese leaders in the War of the Two Pedros, a discussion of Prince Ferdinand's battle-seeking strategy prior to the battle of Toro in 1476, and an analysis and transcription of a newly-discovered Habsburg battle plan of the early sixteenth century, drawn up for the war against Venice. The volume also embraces different approaches, from cultural-intellectual history (the afterlife of the medieval Christian Warrior), to experimental archaeology (the mechanics of raising trebuchets), to comparison of 'the face of battle' in a medieval illuminated manuscript with its depiction in modern films, to archivally-based administrative history (recruitment among the sub-gentry for Edward I's armies).
Cerebrospinal fluid shunt–associated surgical site infection surveillance for 3 months compared to 12 months after surgery captures 83% of cases with no significant differences in patient characteristics, surgery types, or pathogens. A shorter 3-month follow-up can reduce resource use and allow for more timely reporting of healthcare-associated infection rates for hospitals.
Research has shown that 20–30% of prisoners meet the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methylphenidate reduces ADHD symptoms, but effects in prisoners are uncertain because of comorbid mental health and substance use disorders.
To estimate the efficacy of an osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) in reducing ADHD symptoms in young adult prisoners with ADHD.
We conducted an 8-week parallel-arm, double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial of OROS-methylphenidate versus placebo in male prisoners (aged 16–25 years) meeting the DSM-5 criteria for ADHD. Primary outcome was ADHD symptoms at 8 weeks, using the investigator-rated Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS-O). Thirteen secondary outcomes were measured, including emotional dysregulation, mind wandering, violent attitudes, mental health symptoms, and prison officer and educational staff ratings of behaviour and aggression.
In the OROS-methylphenidate arm, mean CAARS-O score at 8 weeks was estimated to be reduced by 0.57 points relative to the placebo arm (95% CI −2.41 to 3.56), and non-significant. The responder rate, defined as a 20% reduction in CAARS-O score, was 48.3% for the OROS-methylphenidate arm and 47.9% for the placebo arm. No statistically significant trial arm differences were detected for any of the secondary outcomes. Mean final titrated dose was 53.8 mg in the OROS-methylphenidate arm.
ADHD symptoms did not respond to OROS-methylphenidate in young adult prisoners. The findings do not support routine treatment with OROS-methylphenidate in this population. Further research is needed to evaluate effects of higher average dosing and adherence to treatment, multi-modal treatments and preventative interventions in the community.
One in six nursing home residents and staff with positive SARS-CoV-2 tests ≥90 days after initial infection had specimen cycle thresholds (Ct) <30. Individuals with specimen Ct<30 were more likely to report symptoms but were not different from individuals with high Ct value specimens by other clinical and testing data.
Background: Previously, we reported decreasing postadmission urine-culture rates in hospitalized patients between 2012 and 2017, indicating a possible decrease in hospital-onset urinary tract infections or changes in diagnostic practices in acute-care hospitals (ACHs). In this study, we re-evaluated the trends using more recent data from 2017–2020 to assess whether new trends in hospital urine-culturing practices had emerged. Method: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of monthly urine-culture rates using microbiology data from 355 ACHs participating in the Premier Healthcare Database in 2017–2020. All cultures from the urinary tract collected on or before day 3 were defined as admission urine cultures and those collected on day 4 or later were defined as postadmission urine cultures. We included discharges from months where a hospital reported at least 1 urine culture with microbiology and antimicrobial susceptibility test results. Annual estimates of rates of admission culture and postadmission urine-culture rates were assessed using general estimating equation models with a negative binomial distribution accounting for hospital-level clustering and adjusting for hospital bed size, teaching status, urban–rural designation, discharge month, and census division. Estimated rate for each year (2018, 2019, and 2020) was compared to previous year’s estimated rate using rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) generated through the multivariable GEE models. Results: From 2017 to 2020, we included 8.7 million discharges and 1,943,540 urine cultures, of which 299,013 (15.4%) were postadmission urine cultures. In 2017–2020, unadjusted admission culture rates were 20.0, 19.6, 17.9, and 18.2 per 100 discharges respectively; similarly, unadjusted postadmission urine-culture rates were 8.6, 7.8, 7.0, and 7.5 per 1,000 patient days. In the multivariable analysis, adjusting for hospital characteristics, no significant changes in admission urine-culture rates were detected during 2017–2019; however, in 2020, admission urine-culture rates increased 6% compared to 2019 (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.09) (Fig. 1). Postadmission urine-culture rates decreased 4% in 2018 compared to 2017 (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.91–0.99) and 8% in 2019 compared to 2018 (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87–0.96). In 2020, postadmission urine-culture rates increased 10% compared to 2019 (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06–1.14) (Fig. 2). Factors significantly associated with postadmission urine-culture rates included discharge month and hospital bed size. For admission urine cultures, discharge month was the only significant factor. Conclusions: Between 2017–2019, postadmission urine-culture rates continued a decreasing trend, while admission culture rates remained unchanged. However, in 2020 both admission and postadmission urine culture rates increased significantly in comparison to 2019.
Considerable literature has examined the COVID-19 pandemic’s negative mental health sequelae. It is recognised that most people experiencing mental health problems present to primary care and the development of interventions to support GPs in the care of patients with mental health problems is a priority. This review examines interventions to enhance GP care of mental health disorders, with a view to reviewing how mental health needs might be addressed in the post-COVID-19 era.
Five electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and WHO ‘Global Research on COVID-19’) were searched from May – July 2021 for papers published in English following Arksey and O’Malley’s six-stage scoping review process.
The initial search identified 148 articles and a total of 29 were included in the review. These studies adopted a range of methodologies, most commonly randomised control trials, qualitative interviews and surveys. Results from included studies were divided into themes: Interventions to improve identification of mental health disorders, Interventions to support GPs, Therapeutic interventions, Telemedicine Interventions and Barriers and Facilitators to Intervention Implementation. Outcome measures reported included the Seven-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7), the Nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the ‘The Patient Global Impression of Change Scale’.
With increasing recognition of the mental health sequelae of COVID-19, there is a lack of large scale trials researching the acceptability or effectiveness of general practice interventions. Furthermore there is a lack of research regarding possible biological interventions (psychiatric medications) for mental health problems arising from the pandemic.