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Brine beneath Taylor Glacier has been proposed to enter the proglacial west lobe of Lake Bonney (WLB) as well as from Blood Falls, a surface discharge point at the Taylor Glacier terminus. The brine strongly influences the geochemistry of the water column of WLB. Year-round measurements from this study are the first to definitively identify brine intrusions from a subglacial entry point into WLB. Furthermore, we excluded input from Blood Falls by focusing on winter dynamics when the absence of an open water moat prevents surface brine entry. Due to the extremely high salinities below the chemocline in WLB, density stratification is dominated by salinity, and temperature can be used as a passive tracer. Cold brine intrusions enter WLB at the glacier face and intrude into the water column at the depth of neutral buoyancy, where they can be identified by anomalously cold temperatures at that depth. High-resolution measurements also reveal under-ice internal waves associated with katabatic wind events, a novel finding that challenges long-held assumptions about the stability of the WLB water column.
Eugenius III began his pontificate facing a newly formed Roman commune in open rebellion, determined to wring political concessions from the papacy. He reached agreement with the commune on at least two occasions but found it impossible to find a lasting compromise. This chapter investigates to what extent Eugenius's troubles were a legacy of the Schism of 1130 and assesses his success in marginalizing the commune during the politically charged negotiations for the abortive imperial coronation of Conrad III, only to see it reinvigorated by the preaching of Arnold of Brescia, sent to Rome by Eugenius as a penance. His new palace at St Peter's brought the papacy closer to the abitato in the Tiber Bend where the majority of Romans lived.
Keywords: Otto of Freising; Tivoli; Tre Fontane; Giovanni Paparo; Patricius; Arnold of Brescia; Wibald of Stavelot and Corvey; Boso
Eugenius III is often presented simply as one in a succession of undistinguished popes between the death of Innocent II (1130–43) and the accession of Adrian IV (1154–9). His election is ascribed to the unwarranted influence on the papal Curia of Bernard of Clairvaux while his long absences from Rome are interpreted as signs of weakness and vacillation in the face of the growing power of a popular commune. Eugenius has been misrepresented and misunderstood precisely because the Roman context of his pontificate has been ignored; historians have too readily accepted a conventional view of Roman politics in the 1140s and have in consequence judged Eugeniusunfavourably. Almost twenty years ago, Adriaan Bredero presented a controversial interpretation of Roman affairs, which is mistaken on many key points.
On the election, for example, Bredero insisted that the electors had chosen Eugenius because they believed that he alone could put an end to the Roman rebellion. He would have been able to do this because his election would have led inevitably to the involvement in Roman affairs, first of St Bernard and then of the emperor-elect Conrad III (1138–52), over whom Bernard exerted great influence, and he would have come to Rome and restored order.
Cover crop residues are not widely used for weed control because, as a stand-alone tactic, they do not effectively suppress all weeds and their duration of weed control is too short. Field experiments were conducted in 1995 and 1996, under both irrigated and rainfed conditions, to quantify Amaranthus spp., Setaria spp., and soybean emergence and growth in residues of fall-planted, spring-killed barley, rye, triticale, wheat, and hairy vetch. For both weed species, seedling emergence was reduced 3 wk after soybean planting by rye and wheat residues (≥ 2, 170 kg ha−1) in 1996. In 1996, Amaranthus spp. canopy volume was reduced 38 to 71% by residues 3 wk after planting. Likewise, Setaria spp. canopy biomass was reduced 37 to 97% in residues 5 wk after planting over both years. The response comparison index was used to identify frequency by which weed growth was placed at a disadvantage relative to soybean growth. Amaranthus spp. and Setaria spp. growth suppressions 3 to 5 wk after planting indicate potential times for intervention with other integrated weed management tactics such as reduced postemergence herbicide rates and interrow cultivation.
The tufa deposits of the Ghaap Plateau escarpment provide a rich, yet minimally explored, geological archive of climate and environmental history coincident with hominin evolution in South Africa. This study examines the sedimentary and geochemical records of ancient and modern tufas from Buxton-Norlim Limeworks, Groot Kloof, and Gorrokop, to assess the potential of these sediments for providing reliable chronologies of high-resolution, paleoenvironmental information. Chronometric dating demonstrates that tufa formation has occurred from at least the terminal Pliocene through to the modern day. The stable isotope records show a trend toward higher, more variable δ18O and δ13C values with decreasing age from the end of the Pliocene onwards. The long-term increase in δ18O values corresponds to increasingly arid conditions, while increasing δ13C values reflect the changing proportion of C3/C4 vegetation in the local environment. Analysis of the Thabaseek Tufa, in particular, provides valuable evidence for reconstructing the depositional and chronological context of the enigmatic Taung Child (Australopithecus africanus). Collectively, the results of the present study demonstrate the potential of these deposits for developing high-precision records of climate change and ultimately, for understanding the causal processes relating climate and hominin evolution.
It is a curious quirk of legal scholarship that so much attention has been devoted to the rules and procedures that operate injury trials and so little to the way in which these rules and procedures operate in the vast majority of trials which are conducted without a jury. This “jury-centredness” as it has been called was noted almost thirty years ago by the American scholar Kenneth Culp Davis when he urged scholars and the legal profession to escape from the deep-seated habit of allowing all thinking about evidence law to be dominated by the needs of the 3% of trials that involve juries and to think instead about the needs of the remaining 97% of trials that are tried without a jury. It is certainly true that the withdrawal of the jury from many categories of cases throughout this century in many jurisdictions has not been accompanied by any instant changes in the law of evidence. Certain commentators have noted that in spite of Thayer's claim that the rules are the “child of the jury”, the rules of evidence have proved remarkably resilient in outlasting the demise of the jury. The parent may have ceased to exist in many legal proceedings but the child has lived on.
The detonation of a nuclear device in a US city would be catastrophic. Enormous loss of life and injuries would characterize an incident with profound human, political, social, and economic implications. Nevertheless, most responders have not received sufficient training about ionizing radiation, principles of radiation safety, or managing, diagnosing, and treating radiation-related injuries and illnesses. Members throughout the health care delivery system, including medical first responders, hospital first receivers, and health care institution support personnel such as janitors, hospital administrators, and security personnel, lack radiation-related training. This lack of knowledge can lead to failure of these groups to respond appropriately after a nuclear detonation or other major radiation incident and limit the effectiveness of the medical response and recovery effort. Efficacy of the response can be improved by getting each group the information it needs to do its job. This paper proposes a sustainable training strategy for spreading curricula throughout the necessary communities. It classifies the members of the health care delivery system into four tiers and identifies tasks for each tier and the radiation-relevant knowledge needed to perform these tasks. By providing education through additional modules to existing training structures, connecting radioactive contamination control to daily professional practices, and augmenting these systems with just-in-time training, the strategy creates a sustainable mechanism for giving members of the health care community improved ability to respond during a radiological or nuclear crisis, reducing fatalities, mitigating injuries, and improving the resiliency of the community.
BlumethalD, BaderJ, ChristensenD, KoernerJ, CuellarJ, HindsS, CrapoJ, GlassmanES, PotterAB, SingletaryL. A Sustainable Training Strategy for Improving Health Care Following a Catastrophic Radiological or Nuclear Incident. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(1):80-86.
The Laurentian Great Lakes represent the world's largest freshwater ecosystem and contain irreplaceable biodiversity. Lakewide Action and Management Plans (LAMPs) hold the highest potential for ecosystem management in the Great Lakes but have not specifically addressed biodiversity status or strategies for conservation. For four Great Lakes, recently completed biodiversity conservation strategies (blueprints) have assessed the status and threats to biodiversity and recommended strategies for conservation and restoration; a blueprint is under way also for Lake Superior. Here, we compare the completed blueprints and explore challenges to conservation planning for large ecosystems. We also assess whether earlier blueprints are being adopted and offer suggestions for more effective implementation. All of the blueprints focus on biodiversity in the lakes and coastal areas, and some include tributaries and migratory species. Biodiversity status was rated as fair (out of desirable range but restorable) in each lake, with some exceptions and considerable spatial variability. Aquatic invasive species ranked as a top threat to biodiversity in all four blueprints. Other highly ranked threats included incompatible development, climate change, terrestrial invasive species, dams and barriers, and non-point-source pollutants. The recommended strategies are characterized by six themes: coastal conservation, invasive species, connectivity and hydrology, fish restoration, nearshore water quality, and climate change. Each blueprint highlights high-priority strategies, but successful protection and restoration of Great Lakes biodiversity require revisiting these priorities in an adaptive approach.
Organic grain cropping systems can enhance a number of ecosystem services compared with conventional tilled (CT) systems. Recent results from a limited number of long-term agricultural research (LTAR) studies suggest that organic grain cropping systems can also increase several ecosystem services relative to conventional no-till (NT) cropping systems: soil C sequestration and soil N fertility (N mineralization potential) can be greater while global warming potential (GWP) can be lower in organic systems that use animal manures and cover crops compared with conventional NT systems. However, soil erosion from organic systems and nitrous oxide (N2O, a greenhouse gas) emissions from manure-based organic systems appear to be greater than from conventional NT systems, though data are limited. Also, crop yields, on average, continue to be lower and labor requirements greater in organic than in both tilled and NT conventional systems. Ecosystem services provided by organic systems may be improved by expanding crop rotations to include greater crop phenological diversity, improving nutrient management, and reducing tillage intensity and frequency. More diverse crop rotations, especially those that include perennial forages, can reduce weed pressure, economic risk, soil erosion, N2O emissions, animal manure inputs, and soil P loading, while increasing grain yield and soil fertility. Side-dressing animal manures in organic systems may increase corn nitrogen use efficiency and also minimize animal manure inputs. Management practices that reduce tillage frequency and intensity in organic systems are being developed to reduce soil erosion and labor and energy needs. On-going research promises to further augment ecosystem services provided by organic grain cropping systems.
In the conclusion to his masterly biography of Pope Gregory VII (1073–85), H. E. John Cowdrey notes the paradox that the pope so lionized by modern historians, to the extent that the age of reform bears his name, was largely forgotten in the twelfth century and made little impact on Christian thought, spirituality or canon law. Cowdrey is not alone in his observation that Gregory ‘receded from memory with remarkable speed and completeness’; when he was remembered, it was as a failure and as one who brought decline upon the church. For Cowdrey, the answer to this conundrum lay in the fact that Gregory VII was in fact far closer to the ideals of the sixth century than of the twelfth; he was a Benedictine monk and shared the worldview and oudook of Gregory the Great (590–604) rather than those of the so-called lawyer popes Alexander III (1159–81) and Innocent III (1198–1216). Yet within a century of Gregory’s death he was presented by Cardinal Boso as a model pope, who had overcome a schismatic emperor and the problems which his interference had precipitated in Rome. For Boso, writing for the instruction of the officials of the papal chamber, the very policies set out by Gregory VII were to be pursued and emulated. Far from being a peripheral and contradictory figure, with more in common with the distant past than the near future, Gregory was the perfect guide to the beleaguered Pope Alexander III, who was also struggling against a hostile emperor and his antipope.
We describe here the case of a 45-year-old man with a chronic history of heroin abuse who has received methadone maintenance therapy for 12 years. At admission, on this occasion, for stabilisation on methadone, he reported a two-year history of painful gynaecomastia and testicular atrophy. Investigations revealed abnormal sex hormone levels. Liver function tests, thyroid function tests, Brain (pituitary) MRI and viral screens were normal. Following assessment and abnormality in two morning total testosterone level measurements he was diagnosed with hypogonadism secondary to opioid use. Although he had a previous history of alcohol abuse, he was abstinent from alcohol use for five years at time of assessment. He was commenced on parenteral testosterone replacement with therapeutic benefit.
In light of the increased use of opioids, it is important to recognise and manage the endocrine complications of opioid use. The need for an empathic and adequate sexual history, physical examination and investigation is essential in patients who use opioids to ensure that cases of hormonal dysfunction are detected early and managed appropriately.
Although hyperprolactinaemia is associated with galactorrhoea, galactorrhoea often occurs without any hyperprolactinaemia. This has been well established, and it has been documented in women prescribed/using methadone and other opiates. One case series described amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea in ‘female heroin addicts’, but it has not before been described in a patient with hypoprolactinaemia.
We report a case of a 30 year old non-pregnant, non-puerperal, opioid-dependent, HIV positive woman on long-term methadone maintenance programme, who presented with bilateral, milky nipple discharge, associated with painful breast lumps, but with serum prolactin levels below the normal range. She was not prescribed any other medications likely to have effect on the endocrine system. This case highlights the need for prescribers to be alert to the implications of long-term use of opioids.
The meteorological characteristics and hydrological response of an extreme warm, and cold summer in the McMurdo Dry Valleys are compared. The driver behind the warmer summer conditions was the occurrence of down-valley winds, which were not present during the colder summer. Occurrence of the summer down-valley winds coincided with lower than typical mean sea level pressure in the Ross Sea region. There was no significant difference in the amount of solar radiation received during the two summers. Compared to the cold summer, glaciological and hydrological response to the warm summer in Taylor Valley included significant glacier mass loss, and 3- to nearly 6000-fold increase in annual streamflow. Lake levels decreased slightly during the cold summer, and increased between 0.54 and 1.01 m during the warm summer, effectively erasing the prior 14 years of lake level lowering in a period of three months. Lake level rise during the warm summer was shown to be strongly associated with and increase in degree days above freezing at higher elevations. We suggest that strong summer down-valley winds may have been responsible for the generation of large glacial lakes during the Last Glacial Maximum when ice core records recorded annual temperatures significantly colder than present.
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems is a multi-disciplinary journal which focuses on the science that underpins economically environmentally and socially sustainable approaches to agriculture and food production. The journal publishes original research and review articles on the economic, ecological and environmental impacts of agriculture; the effective use of renewable resources and biodiversity in agro-ecosystems; and the technological and sociological implications of sustainable food systems. It also contains an open discussion Forum, which presents lively discussions on new and provocative topics. However, the opinions of the Forum and responses are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems or Cambridge University Press.