Neuroimaging research has shown that patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) present brain structural and functional alterations, but the results across imaging modalities and task paradigms are difficult to reconcile. Specifically, no meta-analyses have tested whether the same brain systems that are structurally different in SCZ patients are also involved in neurocognitive and social cognitive tasks. To answer this, we conducted separate meta-analyses of voxel-based morphometry, neurocognitive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and social cognitive fMRI studies. Next, with a multimodal approach, we identified the common alterations across meta-analyses. Further exploratory meta-analyses were performed taking into account several clinical variables (illness duration, medication status, and symptom severity). A cluster covering the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), and the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), presented shared structural and neurocognitive-related activation decreases, while the right angular gyrus presented shared decreases between structural and social cognitive-related activation. The exploratory meta-analyses replicated to some extent these findings, while new regions of alterations appeared in patient subgroups with specific clinical features. In conclusion, we found task-specific correlates of brain structure and function in SCZ, which help summarize and integrate a growing literature.