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Cognitive developmental research continues to shift from a mechanistic paradigm toward a more contextualized approach, especially in the search to uncover contextual factors that may play a role in cognitive development (see Rogoff, Dahl, & Callahan, 2018). This is certainly the case in the memory literature, where there exists rich documentation of children’s memory skills, but less research on the origins of mnemonic strategies and how they are supported by contextual aspects of children’s everyday lives. This chapter builds on the existing literature on children’s deliberate memory and strategy use and highlights one exemplar of this shift, namely the evolution of a program of research by Ornstein, Coffman and colleagues, the Classroom Memory Study. This collaborative work began as an effort to characterize children’s changing skills over time while simultaneously working to identify mechanisms in the elementary classroom context that may underlie children’s developing strategies for remembering – and has now evolved to include an examination of other cognitive outcomes as well as the development of experimental manipulations that can lead to teacher interventions that may facilitate children’s cognitive growth.
To develop an international template to support patient submissions in Health Technology Assessments (HTAs). This was to be based on the experience and feedback from the implementation and use of the Scottish Medicines Consortium's (SMC) Summary Information for Patient Groups (SIP).
To gather feedback on the SMC experience, web-based surveys were conducted with pharmaceutical companies and patient groups familiar with the SMC SIP. Semistructured interviews with representatives from HTA bodies were undertaken, along with patient group discussions with those less familiar with the SIP, to explore issues around the approach. These qualitative data informed the development of an international SIP template.
Survey data indicated that 82 percent (18 of 22 respondents) of pharmaceutical company representatives felt that the SIP was worthwhile; 88 percent (15/17) of patient group respondents found the SIP helpful. Both groups highlighted the need for additional support and guidance around plain language summaries. Further suggestions included provision of a glossary of terms and cost-effectiveness information. Patient group interviews supported the survey findings and led to the development of a new template. HTA bodies raised potential challenges around buy-in, timing, and bias connected to the SIP approach.
The international SIP template is another approach to support deliberative processes in HTA. Although challenges remain around writing summaries for lay audiences, along with feasibility considerations for HTA bodies, the SIP approach should support more meaningful patient involvement in HTAs.
The introduction situates the book amid the dangers and opportunities for feminism in the twenty-first century and argues for its importance in addressing a gap in contemporary feminist literary studies. It also offers summaries of the chapters, explains the sectioning of the book into the sections ‘Frontiers’, ‘Fields’, and‘Forms’, and offers reflections on the process of feminist commissioning.
Guides on being a feminist by writers such as Caitlin Moran are increasingly popular. This chapter contrasts these new feminist manuals with the recent resurgence of feminist manifestos. It examines common features in manuals by Moran, Laurie Penny, Roxanne Gay, Chamananda Ngozi Adichie, and Emer O’Toole, including their narrative tone and their reluctance to engage with the rich legacy feminist work that precedes them. Feminism, in these works, is an individual realisation rather than an encounter with history or a political change induced by reading or activism. In contrast, Sara Ahmed’s ‘Killjoy Manifesto’, the document ‘Xenofeminism: A Politics for Alienation’ by the collective Laboria Cuboniks, and the Trans Heath Manifesto by activists from Edinburgh Action for Trans Health, provide exciting points from which to think about collective action, showing solidarity, and the importance of feminist knowledge-sharing. The chapter concludes that feminist manuals fail to move feminist thinking forward, whereas the manifestos speak directly to the problems, challenges, and political opportunities of collective feminist action in the twenty-first century.
The New Feminist Literary Studies presents sixteen essays by leading and emerging scholars that examine contemporary feminism and the most pressing issues of today. The book is divided into three sections. This first section , 'Frontiers', contains essays on issues and phenomena that may be considered, if not new, then newly and sometimes uneasily prominent in the public eye: transfeminism, the sexual violence highlighted by #MeToo, Black motherhood, migration, sex worker rights, and celebrity feminism. Essays in the second section, 'Fields', specifically intervene into long-constituted or relatively new academic fields and areas of theory: disability studies, eco-theory, queer studies, and Marxist feminism. Finally, the third section, 'Forms', is dedicated to literary genres and tackles novels of domesticity, feminist dystopias, young adult fiction, feminist manuals and manifestos, memoir, and poetry. Together these essays provide new interventions into the thinking and theorising of contemporary feminism.
Chapter 1 examines autobiographical accounts of rape in Tracey Emin’s Strangeland (2005), Jana Leo’s Rape New York (2009), and Virginie Despentes’s King Kong Theory (2006). Starting with Emin’s naming and shaming of her rapist as feminist praxis, the chapter continues by focusing upon the powerfully political messages about rape and its social significance delivered by Leo and Despentes. The close readings I offer in this chapter demonstrate that what may initially be recognised as factual descriptions of violence are accounts skilfully crafted to deliver maximum intensity, or what I term ‘affective audacity’. This is channelled to persuade the reader to agree with the wider societal arguments they make. The chapter pays considerable attention to the formal and rhetorical structure of what I describe as ‘body-essays’ to argue that Leo and Despentes repurpose their sexual traumas to argue against social inequality, and that all three authors exhibit new audacity in their resistance of victimhood and refusal of silence.
A short afterward suggests the new audacity archive can be expanded through the inclusion of other writers not tackled in this text and that we will need feminism’s new audacity in these troubled times.
Chapter 2 is concerned with the role of the writer as artist. It focuses on three auto/biographical texts which document the ugly difficulties of writing the self: Alison Bechdel’s Are You My Mother? (2012), Sheila Heti’s How Should a Person Be? (2012), and Kate Zambreno’s Heroines (2012). None of these texts is a pure autobiography: Bechdel’s graphic memoir follows her psychotherapeutic unravelling of her relationship with her mother; Heti’s ‘novel from life’ recounts a crucial friendship between Sheila and her artist friend Margaux; and Kate Zambreno’s Heroines is part memoir, part biographical essay about female writers such as Virginia Woolf, Vivien(e) Eliot, and Zelda Fitzgerald, who she dubs the ‘mad wives’ of modernism. All three texts are interested in female genius and tell of the unravelling of the self from others en route to becoming an artist. I argue that ugliness is crucial to their aesthetic projects: the ugliness of the self and its secrets, the ugliness of writer’s block, the ugliness of betrayal, and the ugly terrain of genius.
In the introduction I define the term ‘new audacity’ as the recent refusal of shame, silence, and a boldness in tackling difficult topics in life-writing by feminists. I introduce the authors I will be studying, define feminism for the project, and discuss the history of experimental feminist life-writing and new audacity’s precurssors. I also show how new audacity writing is different to French autofiction, new narrative, and the new sincerity, and provide a chapter summary.
Chapter 4 analyses recent writing by and about trans people with a twofold aim: to examine how they challenge binary thinking, and to explore their understanding of how gender identity interacts with and is circumscribed by heteropatriarchal capitalist institutions and norms. I examine how Juliet Jacques’ Trans: A Memoir (2015) and ‘Weekend in Brighton’ (2015), Maggie Nelson’s The Argonauts (2015), and Paul Preciado’s Testo Junkie: Sex, Drugs, and Biopolitics in the Pharmacopornographic Era (2013) abandon the tradition within earlier trans life-writing of focusing upon transition as the dramatic apex of the narrative. In different manners, all of these writers are arguing for an expansion of the term ‘trans’. In the case of Nelson and Preciado this extends, controversially, to name other states of flux, such as the pregnant female body or the flow of information and data. This chapter examines these audacious attempts to both naturalise and expand ‘trans’, as well as Jacques’s dedramatizing prose, arguing that these writers testify to a new twenty-first-century understanding of gender identity from which feminism, social behaviour, and societal organisation can be reappraised.