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The iconic image of Wilfred Owen as the ‘poet of pity’ has reinforced a one-dimensional understanding of his poems that are more than just the sum of their emotional impact: they reimagine and exceed his major literary influences. This chapter explores the multi-layered achievement of Owen's work, both formal and thematic, that continues to invite re-reading and interpretation. In bearing witness for those unable and/or unwilling to articulate their war experiences, he turned his perspective outwards, away from the solipsism of his adolescence and pre-war adulthood, towards the soldiers he led and with whom he served. Yet Owen saw only five poems published in his lifetime; his posthumous reputation was shaped by other poets including Siegfried Sassoon, Edith Sitwell, Edmund Blunden, Cecil Day-Lewis, and Jon Stallworthy. This chapter therefore also explores the cultivation of Owen’s mythic status and his poems’ place in national memory.
A History of World War One Poetry aims to represent the global and multifaceted poetry that emerged from 1914–1918. While poetry did and does not occupy the same place in all national imaginaries, it was a literary genre that flourished during the Great War. The Introduction interrogates not only the term ‘war poetry’ but also the question of ‘who is entitled to write war poetry’. It argues that the poetry that emerged from World War One extended far beyond the British soldier-poet canon, reinforced by influential studies such as Paul Fussell's The Great War and Modern Memory. Rather, as the chapters demonstrate, it was generated and read by men and by women, combatant and non-combatant, and across a continuum in which protest and patriotism, modernity and tradition, propaganda and remembrance, humour and pathos, co-existed, if uneasily.
Situating First World War poetry in a truly global context, this book reaches beyond the British soldier-poet canon. A History of World War One Poetry examines popular and literary, ephemeral and enduring poems that the cataclysm of 1914-1918 inspired. Across Europe, poets wrestled with the same problem: how to represent a global conflict, dominated by modern technology, involving millions of combatants and countless civilians. For literary scholars this has meant discovering and engaging with the work of men and women writing in other languages, on other fronts, and from different national perspectives. Poems are presented in their original languages and in English translations, some for the very first time, while a Coda reflects on the study and significance of First World War poetry in the wake of the Centenary. A History of World War One Poetry offers a new perspective on the literary and human experience of 1914-1918.
The Coda addresses the multifaceted and diverse cultural memory of the war contained in and inspired by the poetry of 1914–1918. It reflects how the study of First World War poetry remains energised in the wake of the Centenary through the expansion of online resources which have made possible the cataloguing of an ever-increasing and diverse poetic corpus. Moreover, such digital, less-constricted access means that the twenty-first-century eyes that gaze back at that corpus are more diverse than ever before. Rather than a lieu de memoire, this History aims to be a springboard for ongoing scholarship.
To systematically audit the extent of unhealthy sponsorship within junior community sporting clubs and ascertain whether differences exist across geographical areas and sport types.
Club sponsorship data were assessed to determine the extent of unhealthy food/beverage, alcohol and gambling sponsorship using a cross-sectional design. Differences across geographical areas were assessed using logistic regressions.
A stratified random sampling procedure was used to select thirty communities across the state of Victoria, Australia. Within each community, local clubs across the top eight participating junior sports were selected for audit.
Sponsorship data were collected from 191 club websites and Facebook pages in September–November 2019.
Unhealthy sponsorships represented 8·9 % of all identified sponsorship arrangements. A quarter of all clubs accepted alcohol (25·6 %) and unhealthy food sponsors (25·9 %), and one-fifth of all clubs accepted high-risk food (unhealthy brands with large market share) (18·1 %) and gambling sponsors (20·4 %). Acceptance of unhealthy sponsorship differed across sport types with football, netball, cricket and soccer clubs having the greatest numbers. Compared with metro areas, a significantly greater proportion of sporting clubs in regional areas were affiliated with unhealthy food (32·7 % v. 19·6 %) and high-risk food sponsors (26·9 % v. 9·8 %). A higher proportion of clubs in low socio-economic status (SES), compared with the high SES areas, were affiliated with alcohol (33·9 % v. 16·5 %) and gambling sponsors (27·4 % v. 12·6 %).
Victorian children participating in community junior sports are being exposed to marketing of unhealthy brands and products. Public health intervention is necessary to protect children from this exposure.
To institute facility-wide Kamishibai card (K-card) rounding for central venous catheter (CVC) maintenance bundle education and adherence and to evaluate its impact on bundle reliability and central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates.
Quality improvement project.
Inpatient units at a large, academic freestanding children’s hospital.
Data for inpatients with a CVC in place for ≥1 day between November 1, 2017 and October 31, 2018 were included.
A K-card was developed based on 7 core elements in our CVC maintenance bundle. During monthly audits, auditors used the K-cards to ask bedside nurses standardized questions and to conduct medical record documentation reviews in real time. Adherence to every bundle element was required for the audit to be considered “adherent.” We recorded bundle reliability prospectively, and we compared reliability and CLABSI rates at baseline and 1 year after the intervention.
During the study period, 2,321 K-card audits were performed for 1,051 unique patients. Overall maintenance bundle reliability increased significantly from 43% at baseline to 78% at 12 months after implementation (P < .001). The hospital-wide CLABSI rate decreased from 1.35 during the 12-month baseline period to 1.17 during the 12-month intervention period, but the change was not statistically significant (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60–1.24; P = .41).
Hospital-wide CVC K-card rounding facilitated standardized data collection, discussion of reliability, and real-time feedback to nurses. Maintenance bundle reliability increased after implementation, accompanied by a nonsignificant decrease in the CLABSI rate.
An improved understanding of diagnostic and treatment practices for patients with rare primary mitochondrial disorders can support benchmarking against guidelines and establish priorities for evaluative research. We aimed to describe physician care for patients with mitochondrial diseases in Canada, including variation in care.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Canadian physicians involved in the diagnosis and/or ongoing care of patients with mitochondrial diseases. We used snowball sampling to identify potentially eligible participants, who were contacted by mail up to five times and invited to complete a questionnaire by mail or internet. The questionnaire addressed: personal experience in providing care for mitochondrial disorders; diagnostic and treatment practices; challenges in accessing tests or treatments; and views regarding research priorities.
We received 58 survey responses (52% response rate). Most respondents (83%) reported spending 20% or less of their clinical practice time caring for patients with mitochondrial disorders. We identified important variation in diagnostic care, although assessments frequently reported as diagnostically helpful (e.g., brain magnetic resonance imaging, MRI/MR spectroscopy) were also recommended in published guidelines. Approximately half (49%) of participants would recommend “mitochondrial cocktails” for all or most patients, but we identified variation in responses regarding specific vitamins and cofactors. A majority of physicians recommended studies on the development of effective therapies as the top research priority.
While Canadian physicians’ views about diagnostic care and disease management are aligned with published recommendations, important variations in care reflect persistent areas of uncertainty and a need for empirical evidence to support and update standard protocols.