To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging food- and waterborne pathogen that causes cyclosporiasis, a gastrointestinal disease in humans. The parasite is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions; however, its prevalence is largely dependent on environmental factors, such as climate and rainfall patterns. The objective of this paper was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of C. cayetanensis in water and to determine if geography, water source and other variables influence this prevalence. A literature search was performed using search terms relating to water and C. cayetanensis in MEDLINE®, CAB Direct, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, Agricola databases and Environmental Science Index. Observational studies published in English after 1979 were eligible. Screening, data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment were performed independently by two reviewers. A multi-level random-effects meta-analysis was completed to determine the prevalence of C. cayetanensis in water and subgroup meta-analyses were performed to explore between-study heterogeneity. The search identified 828 unique articles, and after the screening, 33 articles were included in the review. The pooled prevalence of C. cayetanensis in water was 6.90% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.25%–13.05%, I2 = 84.38%]. Subgroup meta-analyses revealed significant differences in the prevalence between continents. Additionally, laboratory methods between studies were highly variable and these findings highlight the need for further environmental research on C. cayetanensis in water using detection methods that include PCR and sequencing to accurately identify the organism. The results of this study can be used to help assess the risk of waterborne cyclosporiasis.
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) provide important benefits to human beings but can also transmit pathogens. Information on the breadth of canine zoonoses and vectorborne research in North America is scarce. A scoping review was conducted to examine (1) the number and type of canine zoonoses and vectorborne studies in domestic dogs conducted in North America since the start of the 21st century; (2) the main research methods reported; (3) the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) countries in which research was conducted; and (4) whether collaborative integrated terminology was reported in objectives or methods sections. Title/abstract screening, full-text screening, and data-charting were completed by two reviewers. We identified 507 publications evaluating 43 zoonotic or vectorborne pathogens in domestic dogs. Most studies (n = 391 of 512 (76.37%)) were conducted in the USA. The five most frequently researched pathogens were Ehrlichia spp. (n = 81 of 507 (15.98%)), Borrelia burgdorferi (n = 64 of 507 (12.62%)), Leptospira spp. (n = 54 of 507 (10.65%)), Rabies virus (n = 42 of 507 (8.28%)), and Influenza viruses (n = 41 of 507 (8.09%)). These pathogens can cause moderate to severe health outcomes in human beings and in dogs irrespective of IHDI ranking; our review highlights important counts of research conduct among North American countries.
The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics to prevent or control colibacillosis in broilers. Studies found eligible were conducted controlled trials in broilers that evaluated an antibiotic intervention, with at least one of the following outcomes: mortality, feed conversion ratio (FCR), condemnations at slaughter, or total antibiotic use. Four electronic databases plus the gray literature were searched. Abstracts were screened for eligibility and data were extracted from eligible trials. Risk of bias was evaluated.
Seven trials reported eligible outcomes in a format that allowed data extraction; all reported results for FCR and one also reported mortality. Due to the heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes evaluated, it was not feasible to conduct meta-analysis.
Qualitatively, for FCR, comparisons between an antibiotic and an alternative product did not show a significant benefit for either. Some of the comparisons between an antibiotic and a no-treatment placebo showed a numerical benefit to antibiotics, but with wide confidence intervals. The risk-of-bias assessment revealed concerns with reporting of key trial features.
The results of this review do not provide compelling evidence for or against the efficacy of antibiotics for the control of colibacillosis.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted to address the question, ‘What is the efficacy of litter management strategies to reduce morbidity, mortality, condemnation at slaughter, or total antibiotic use in broilers?’ Eligible studies were clinical trials published in English evaluating the efficacy of litter management in broilers on morbidity, condemnations at slaughter, mortality, or total antibiotic use. Multiple databases and two conference proceedings were searched for relevant literature. After relevance screening and data extraction, there were 50 trials evaluating litter type, 22 trials evaluating litter additives, 10 trials comparing fresh to re-used litter, and six trials evaluating floor type. NMAs were conducted for mortality (61 trials) and for the presence or absence of footpad lesions (15 trials). There were no differences in mortality among the litter types, floor types, or additives. For footpad lesions, peat moss appeared beneficial compared to straw, based on a small number of comparisons. In a pairwise meta-analysis, there was no association between fresh versus used litter on the risk of mortality, although there was considerable heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 66%). There was poor reporting of key design features in many studies, and analyses rarely accounted for non-independence of observations within flocks.
To implement effective stewardship in food animal production, it is essential that producers and veterinarians are aware of preventive interventions to reduce illness in livestock. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR/MA) provide transparent, replicable, and quality-assessed overviews. At present, it is unknown how many SR/MA evaluate preventive antibiotic use or management practices aimed at reducing disease risk in animal agriculture. Further, the quality of existing reviews is unknown. Our aim was to identify reviews investigating these topics and to provide an assessment of their quality. Thirty-eight relevant reviews were identified. Quality assessment was based on the AMSTAR 2 framework for the critical appraisal of systematic reviews. The quality of most of the reviews captured was classified as critically low (84.2%, n = 32/38), and only a small percentage of the evaluated reviews did not contain critical weaknesses (7.9%, n = 3/38). Particularly, a small number of reviews reported the development of an a priori protocol (15.8%, n = 6/38), and few reviews stated that key review steps were conducted in duplicate (study selection/screening: 26.3%, n = 10/38; data extraction: 15.8%, n = 6/38). The development of high-quality reviews summarizing evidence on approaches to antibiotic reduction is essential, and thus greater adherence to quality conduct guidelines for synthesis research is crucial.
Livestock producers are encouraged to reduce the use of antibiotics belonging to classes of medical importance to humans. We conducted a scoping review on non-antibiotic interventions in the form of products or management practices that could potentially reduce the need for antibiotics in beef and veal animals living under intensive production conditions. Our objectives were to systematically describe the research on this broad topic, identify specific topics that could feasibly support systematic reviews, and identify knowledge gaps. Multiple databases were searched. Two reviewers independently screened and charted the data. From the 13,598 articles screened, 722 relevant articles were charted. The number of relevant articles increased steadily from 1990. The Western European research was dominated by veal production studies whereas the North American research was dominated by beef production studies. The interventions and outcomes measured were diverse. The four most frequent interventions included non-antibiotic feed additives, vaccinations, breed type, and feed type. The four most frequent outcomes were indices of immunity, non-specific morbidity, respiratory disease, and mortality. There were seven topic areas evaluated in clinical trials that may share enough commonality to support systemic reviews. There was a dearth of studies in which interventions were compared to antibiotic comparison groups.
This editorial summarizes the key observations from a special issue of Animal Health Research Reviews comprising 14 articles related to the efficacy of antimicrobial and non-antimicrobial approaches to reduce disease in beef, dairy cattle, swine, and broiler chickens. The articles used evidence-based methods, including scoping reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and network meta-analyses. Despite finding evidence of efficacy for some of the interventions examined, across the body of research, there was a lack of replication and inconsistency in outcomes among the included trials, and concerns related to completeness of reporting and trial design and execution. There is an urgent need for more and better data to inform antimicrobial stewardship practices in animal agriculture.
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are used to summarize and interpret evidence for clinical decision-making in human health. The extent of the application of these methods in veterinary medicine and animal agriculture is unknown. The goal of this scoping study was to ascertain trends in the publication of systematic reviews and meta-analyses examining animal health, animal performance, and on-farm food safety. Online databases were searched for reviews published between 1993 and 2018 that focused on relevant outcomes in domestic livestock, companion animals, or wildlife species. In total 1787 titles and abstracts underwent data characterization. Dairy cattle, fish, and pigs were the most common target commodity groups. Few articles investigated both health and performance outcomes (only health: n = 418; only performance: n = 701; both health and performance: n = 103). Most of the reviews (67.6%, n = 1208/1787) described a meta-analysis but did not state in the title or abstract that a systematic review was also conducted, which is potentially problematic. Adherence to reporting guidelines is recommended for all systematic reviews and meta-analyses. For research areas with many reviews, an evidence repository is recommended. For less well-reviewed areas, additional investigation may be necessary to identify the reasons for the lack of synthesis research.
Prevention and control of respiratory disease is a major contributor to antibiotic use in swine. A systematic review was conducted to address the question, ‘What is the comparative efficacy of antimicrobials for the prevention of swine respiratory disease?’ Eligible studies were controlled trials published in English evaluating prophylactic antibiotics in swine, where clinical morbidity, mortality, or total antibiotic use was assessed. Four databases and the gray literature were searched for relevant articles. Two reviewers working independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility followed by full-text articles, and then extracted data and evaluated risk of bias for eligible trials. There were 44 eligible trials from 36 publications. Clinical morbidity was evaluated in eight trials where antibiotics were used in nursery pigs and 10 trials where antibiotics were used in grower pigs. Mortality was measured in 22 trials in nursery pigs and 12 trials in grower pigs. There was heterogeneity in the antibiotic interventions and comparisons published in the literature; thus, there was insufficient evidence to allow quantification of the efficacy, or relative efficacy, of antibiotic interventions. Concerns related to statistical non-independence and quality of reporting were noted in the included trials.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis (MA) was conducted to address the question, ‘What is the efficacy of bacterial vaccines to prevent respiratory disease in swine?’ Four electronic databases and the grey literature were searched to identify clinical trials in healthy swine where at least one intervention arm was a commercially available vaccine for one or more bacterial pathogens associated with respiratory disease in swine, including Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia, Actinobacillus suis, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella multocida, Stretococcus suis, Haemophils parasuis, and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. To be eligible, trials had to measure at least one of the following outcomes: incidence of clinical morbidity, mortality, lung lesions, or total antibiotic use. There were 179 eligible trials identified in 146 publications. Network MA was undertaken for morbidity, mortality, and the presence or absence of non-specific lung lesions. However, there was not a sufficient body of research evaluating the same interventions and outcomes to allow a meaningful synthesis of the comparative efficacy of the vaccines. To build this body of research, additional rigor in trial design and analysis, and detailed reporting of trial methods and results are warranted.
Research in big data, informatics, and bioinformatics has grown dramatically (Andreu-Perez J, et al., 2015, IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics 19, 1193–1208). Advances in gene sequencing technologies, surveillance systems, and electronic medical records have increased the amount of health data available. Unconventional data sources such as social media, wearable sensors, and internet search engine activity have also contributed to the influx of health data. The purpose of this study was to describe how ‘big data’, ‘informatics’, and ‘bioinformatics’ have been used in the animal health and veterinary medical literature and to map and chart publications using these terms through time. A scoping review methodology was used. A literature search of the terms ‘big data’, ‘informatics’, and ‘bioinformatics’ was conducted in the context of animal health and veterinary medicine. Relevance screening on abstract and full-text was conducted sequentially. In order for articles to be relevant, they must have used the words ‘big data’, ‘informatics’, or ‘bioinformatics’ in the title or abstract and full-text and have dealt with one of the major animal species encountered in veterinary medicine. Data items collected for all relevant articles included species, geographic region, first author affiliation, and journal of publication. The study level, study type, and data sources were collected for primary studies. After relevance screening, 1093 were classified. While there was a steady increase in ‘bioinformatics’ articles between 1995 and the end of the study period, ‘informatics’ articles reached their peak in 2012, then declined. The first ‘big data’ publication in animal health and veterinary medicine was in 2012. While few articles used the term ‘big data’ (n = 14), recent growth in ‘big data’ articles was observed. All geographic regions produced publications in ‘informatics’ and ‘bioinformatics’ while only North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia/Oceania produced publications about ‘big data’. ‘Bioinformatics’ primary studies tended to use genetic data and tended to be conducted at the genetic level. In contrast, ‘informatics’ primary studies tended to use non-genetic data sources and conducted at an organismal level. The rapidly evolving definition of ‘big data’ may lead to avoidance of the term.
There is a growing concern about the role of the environment in the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). In this systematic review, we summarize evidence for increases of ARG in the natural environment associated with potential sources of ARB and ARG such as agricultural facilities and wastewater treatment plants. A total of 5247 citations were identified, including studies that ascertained both ARG and ARB outcomes. All studies were screened for relevance to the question and methodology. This paper summarizes the evidence only for those studies with ARG outcomes (n = 24). Sixteen studies were at high (n = 3) or at unclear (n = 13) risk of bias in the estimation of source effects due to lack of information or failure to control for confounders. Statistical methods were used in nine studies; three studies assessed the effect of multiple sources using modeling approaches, and none reported effect measures. Most studies reported higher ARG concentration downstream/near the source, but heterogeneous findings hindered making any sound conclusions. To quantify increases of ARG in the environment due to specific point sources, there is a need for studies that emphasize analytic or design control of confounding, and that provide effect measure estimates.
Acupuncture has become increasingly popular in veterinary medicine. Within the scientific literature there is debate regarding its efficacy. Due to the complex nature of acupuncture, a scoping review was undertaken to identify and categorize the evidence related to acupuncture in companion animals (dogs, cats, and horses). Our search identified 843 relevant citations. Narrative reviews represented the largest proportion of studies (43%). We identified 179 experimental studies and 175 case reports/case series that examined the efficacy of acupuncture. Dogs were the most common subjects in the experimental trials. The most common indication for use was musculoskeletal conditions, and the most commonly evaluated outcome categories among experimental trials were pain and cardiovascular parameters. The limited number of controlled trials and the breadth of indications for use, outcome categories, and types of acupuncture evaluated present challenges for future systematic reviews or meta-analyses. There is a need for high-quality randomized controlled trials addressing the most common clinical uses of acupuncture, and using consistent and clinically relevant outcomes, to inform conclusions regarding the efficacy of acupuncture in companion animals.
Herein we describe a protocol for a systematic review of the evidence on whether point sources of anthropogenic effluent are associated with an increase in antibiotic resistance in the adjacent environment. The review question was based on the Population, Exposure, Comparator, Outcome, Study Design (PECOS) framework as follows: Is the prevalence or concentration of antibiotic resistant bacteria or resistance genes (O) in soil, water, air or free-living wildlife (P) higher in close proximity to, or downstream from, known or suspected sources of anthropogenic effluent (E) compared to areas more distant from or upstream from these sources (C)? A comprehensive search strategy was created to capture all relevant, published literature. Criteria for two stages of eligibility screening were developed to exclude publications that were not relevant to the question, and determine if the study used a design that permitted estimation of an association between a source and levels of resistance. A decision matrix was created for assessment of risk of bias to internal validity due to sample selection bias, information bias, and confounding. The goal of this protocol is to provide a method for determining the state of knowledge about the effect of point sources on antibiotic resistance in the environment.
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, particularly the O157(:H7) serogroup, has become a worldwide public health concern. Since cattle feces are often implicated as the source of E. coli O157 in human infections, considerable resources have been devoted to defining the epidemiology and ecology of E. coli O157 in cattle environments so that control might begin at the farm level. Diagnostic limitations and the complexity of often interrelated microbial, animal, herd, environmental and production factors have hindered the determination of the epidemiology, ecology and subsequent farm-level control of E. coli O157. The widespread distribution of E. coli O157, the transitory nature of fecal shedding, multiple potential environmental sources, lack of species specificity, and age-, feed- and time-related differences in cattle prevalence are documented. However, the significance and/or role of these factors in the epidemiology and ecology of E. coli O157 is still unclear. Cattle are a major source of E. coli O157, but it may be simplistic to believe that most herds are relatively closed systems with small percentages of cattle serving as true reservoirs. Practical on-farm control may require explicit definitions of the seemingly complex system(s) and the microbial, animal, herd, environmental and production factors involved in the multiplication, maintenance and transmission of E. coli O157.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.