To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
inhaled loxapine has shown efficiency in the treatment of the mild-moderate agitation syndrome of schyzophrenia and mania patients. Its rapid response and calming effect non-sedative allow to hypothesize reasonable efficiency and tolerability in borderline personality disorder diagnosed patients.
analyze the efficiency and tolerability of inhaled loxapine as a pharmacological approach in the treatment of agitation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) clinical diagnosed patients.
Materials and method
an application was administered for every agitation episode in BPD patients treated with inhaled loxapine in the emergency room or the psychiatric ward, which included B aRS and CGI-S scales for the evaluation of each episode and its severity, before and after its use. Other secondary measures of efficiency were taken into account, such as requirement of physical restrain.
in the majority of evaluated episodes inhaled loxapine decreased notably initial B aRS and CGI-S values and no serious clinical side effects attributable to this medication were observed.
in our sample, inhaled loxapine was efficiency and well tolerated pharmacological intervention for agitation in BPD patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
To examine timing of eating across ten European countries.
Cross-sectional analysis of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study using standardized 24 h diet recalls collected during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined food consumption occasions were assessed during the recall interview. We present time of consumption of meals and snacks as well as the later:earlier energy intake ratio, with earlier and later intakes defined as 06.00–14.00 and 15.00–24.00 hours, respectively. Type III tests were used to examine associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle and health variables with timing of energy intake.
Ten Western European countries.
In total, 22 985 women and 13 035 men aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
A south–north gradient was observed for timing of eating, with later consumption of meals and snacks in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries. However, the energy load was reversed, with the later:earlier energy intake ratio ranging from 0·68 (France) to 1·39 (Norway) among women, and from 0·71 (Greece) to 1·35 (the Netherlands) among men. Among women, country, age, education, marital status, smoking, day of recall and season were all independently associated with timing of energy intake (all P<0·05). Among men, the corresponding variables were country, age, education, smoking, physical activity, BMI and day of recall (all P<0·05).
We found pronounced differences in timing of eating across Europe, with later meal timetables but greater energy load earlier during the day in Mediterranean countries compared with Central and Northern European countries.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.