To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Workplace violence (WPV) is a worldwide health problem with major individual and societal consequences. Previously identified predictors of WPV include working in psychiatry and work stress.
To investigate WPV trends during Norwegian doctors’ careers and assess individual long-term predictors in a longitudinal study.
Two nationwide medical student cohorts (n=1052) who graduated 6 years apart were surveyed at graduation (T1, 1993/94 and 1999) and 4 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20 (T5) years after graduation (Figure 1). WPV was measured as multiple threats or acts of violence experienced at least twice. Individual predictors were obtained at T1 and work-related factors at T2–T5. WPV was analysed using repeated measures (Generalized Estimating Equations).
The prevalence of multiple threats and acts of violence declined at T2–T5 (p<0.001). Adjusted predictors of threats were male gender (odds ratio, OR 2.76, [95% confidence interval] 1.73–4.40; p<0.001), vulnerability traits (OR 0.90, [0.82–0.99]; p=0.031), older cohort (OR 1.63,[1.04–2.58], p=0.035) and working in psychiatry (OR 7.50, [4.42–12.71]; p<0.001). Adjusted predictors of acts were male gender (OR 3.37, [1.45–7.84]; p=0.005), older cohort (OR 6.08, [1.68–21.97]; p=0.006) and working in psychiatry (OR 12.34, [5.40–28.23]; p<0.001).
Higher rates of multiple threats and acts of violence were observed during early medical careers, with men at higher risk. Low levels of vulnerability traits (neuroticism) predicted independently the experience of violent threats. A cohort effect indicated a reduction in WPV (both threats and acts) in the younger cohort.
Avian electrocutions are a global conservation problem. Power outages associated with electrocutions are problematic for electric utilities focused on delivering reliable electric power. We used contextual data, photographs, line voltage, outage type and assessments of power line components to quantify outage-causing avian electrocutions throughout each of Iran’s 31 provinces. We evaluated records of 222 avian-caused outages involving 235 electrocuted birds in 2018. Of these, 14.5% involved species of conservation concern, and a few (at least eight) sparked fires when the plumage of electrocuted birds ignited and fell into dry vegetation. Most avian-caused outages (96%) involved distribution voltages, and 91% involved phase-to-ground contacts attributable to grounded concrete pylons with grounded steel crossarms. These are the most common type of power line structure in Iran. Insulators were involved in 37% of outage-causing avian electrocutions, fused cutouts 29%, transformers 33%, and midspan collisions 1%. Given the numbers of these components in the electrical system, fused cutouts and transformers were involved in more outage-causing avian electrocutions than expected due to chance. The average body size of electrocuted birds was largest for incidents involving suspension insulators, smaller for birds electrocuted on other insulators, and smallest for electrocutions on fused cutouts and transformers. Given that most avian electrocutions do not cause outages and given the similarity across electric systems in the region, our findings likely indicate a much larger avian electrocution concern throughout the middle east. Retrofitting power line components to reduce avian contacts would reduce impacts to wildlife and improve the electrical system’s reliability, reduce costs associated with unplanned outages, and reduce risks associated power line ignitions of fires.
Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) affects 33–46% of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and may be a risk factor for neuropsychological and functional deficits. However, the role of RBD on neuropsychological functioning in PD has yet to be fully determined. We, therefore, examined differences in neurocognitive performance, functional capacity, and psychiatric symptoms among nondemented PD patients with probable RBD (PD/pRBD+) and without (PD/pRBD−), and healthy comparison participants (HC).
Totally, 172 participants (58 PD/pRBD+; 65 PD/pRBD−; 49 HC) completed an RBD sleep questionnaire, psychiatric/clinical questionnaires, performance-based and self-reported functional capacity measures, and underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological battery assessing attention/working memory, language, visuospatial function, verbal and visual learning and memory, and executive function.
Controlling for psychiatric symptom severity, the PD/pRBD+ group had poorer executive functioning and learning performance than the PD/pRBD− group and poorer neuropsychological functioning across all individual cognitive domains than the HCs. In contrast, PD/pRBD− patients had significantly lower scores than HCs only in the language domain. Moreover, PD/pRBD+ patients demonstrated significantly poorer medication management skills compared to HCs. Both PD groups reported greater depressive and anxiety severity compared to HCs; PD/pRBD+ group also endorsed greater severity of apathy compared to HCs.
The presence of pRBD is associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning in PD such that PD patients with pRBD have poorer cognitive, functional, and emotional outcomes compared to HC participants and/or PD patients without pRBD. Our findings underscore the importance of RBD assessment for improved detection and treatment of neuropsychological deficits (e.g., targeted cognitive interventions).
Language is the main investigative and communicative tool in psychiatry and adequate understanding of language is essential for thorough assessment by the clinician, and for patient satisfaction. Interference with communication impairs our ability to assess a patient comprehensively. In a Department of Health survey of British Asians in hospital, more than half had experienced difficulties in communication and reported dissatisfaction with existing interpretation services.
Audit whether language needs and Ethnicity are addressed in an adult inpatient sample and evaluate consequent impact on hospital admission duration.
Casenotes of patients, who were identified as having language needs, were audited against National Institute for Mental Health in England(NIMHE) standards for the provision of an interpreter at every medical review(standard=100%). Electronic patient data was analysed for recording of ethnicity, language, admission duration and demographic data.
Sample size 3028. 3028(100%) had ethnicity recorded and 1434(47%) had spoken language recorded. Of 23 case notes audited, an interpreter was present on 28.3% of occasions. White British patients had average admission durations of 39.8 days compared to 53.7 days in Black/minority ethnic groups(BME). English speaking patients spent 43.4 days in hospital compared to 74.9 days for non-English speaking patients. BME/Non-English speaking patients spent 78.8 days in hospital compared to 42.1 days for English speaking/White British patients.
The study highlights an immediate need for addressing language/interpretation services within the trust. The implications of longer hospital admission duration on service user experience/dissatisfaction with services and financial implications for the Trust are evident. Further training for staff in cultural awareness and documentation of needs has been recommended.
Since the launch of the Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) the field of materials informatics (MI) emerged to remove the bottlenecks limiting the pathway towards rapid materials discovery. Although the machine learning (ML) and optimization techniques underlying MI were developed well over a decade ago, programs such as the MGI encouraged researchers to make the technical advancements that make these tools suitable for the unique challenges in materials science and engineering. Overall, MI has seen a remarkable rate in adoption over the past decade. However, for the continued growth of MI, the educational challenges associated with applying data science techniques to analyse materials science and engineering problems must be addressed. In this paper, we will discuss the growing use of materials informatics in academia and industry, highlight the need for educational advances in materials informatics, and discuss the implementation of a materials informatics course into the curriculum to jump-start interested students with the skills required to succeed in materials informatics projects.
Evolution and the formation of bars in the galactic disks is studied in the context of Modified Gravity (MOG) by using N-body simulations. It is found that changing the value of free parameters of the model can effectively alter the strength of the bar and disk’s stability.
Introduction: Youth injured by violence is a major public health concern in Canada. It is the fourth leading cause of death in youth and the foremost reason youth visit an emergency department (ED). In Winnipeg, 20% of youth who visit an ED with an injury due to violence will have an ED visit for a subsequent violent injury within one year. Youth injured by violence are in a reflective and receptive state of mind, rendering the ED setting appropriate for intervention. Methods: We completed a randomized control trial in November 2015 comparing wraparound care for youth age 14 - 24 who were injured by violence to standard ED care. Youth were excluded if their injury was due to child maltreatment, sexual assault or self-harm. An adapted pre-consent randomization methodology was used. The intervention was developed using a community based participatory research approach. Wraparound care was delivered by a support worker with lived experience with violence. Support workers were on call 24/7 in order to start the intervention in the ED and take advantage of the “teachable moment.” Care continued in the community for approximately one year. Results: A total of 133 youth were randomized (68 intervention, 65 control) in one year. There was no difference in age, gender, or severity of injury between the two groups. Patients randomized to the intervention spent a median of 30 minutes less in the ED than those receiving standard care (p=0.22). Youth are safely housed, have enrolled in education opportunities, and are engaged in addictions care. Results of a chart review examining repeat visits to the ED for violent injury, substance use and mental health will be completed in Spring 2016 and will be presented. Conclusion: There were no differences between standard care and intervention groups on baseline characteristics reflecting effective randomization. The introduction of an intervention at bedside in the ED did not have a negative impact on patient length of stay.