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The effect of transport on core and peripheral body temperatures and heart rate was assessed in ten 18-month-old Coopworth ewes (Ovis aries) Manual recordings of core (rectal) temperatures were obtained, and automated logging of peripheral (external auditory canal and pinna) temperatures and heart rate was carried out on the day prior to (day 1) and during (day 2) a standardised transport procedure. Transport produced a significant increase in the rectal temperature, which declined following unloading. Peripheral measures of body temperature also exhibited changes with transport. However, both ear-canal and pinna temperatures declined during actual transport, reflecting to some extent the decline in ambient temperatures recorded externally by sensors on the ear tags of the animals. Peripheral measurement of temperature, particularly at the readily accessible ear canal, may offer potential as a technique for the long-term monitoring of thermal responses to stress. However, further research is required into the potentially confounding effects of ambient temperature and wind chill factors.
It has been claimed that the present farming environment does not meet foxes’ needs for social behaviour. In this study we measured the welfare of farmed blue foxes, Alopex lagopus, housed in two different social and spatial conditions: i) traditional housing (group T) where a male and a female cub were housed together and their vixen alone in standard (1.2m2) fox cages; and ii) family housing (group F) where a vixen and her five cubs were housed together in a connected six-cage system (7.2m2). Production-related welfare parameters (weight gain and the incidence of bite wounds on fur) as well as physiological ones (adrenal mass and serum Cortisol response to ACTH administration) were measured in these two groups.
No differences were found in any of the measured parameters between the vixens housed in traditional and family units. In cubs, there was less difference between the sexes in weight gain in group F than in group T, and a significantly lower weight gain was evident only in group T female cubs. The serum Cortisol level in response to an ACTH challenge was higher in group T cubs and independent of the sex of the animal, while heavier adrenals were observed in group T male cubs only. We conclude that the enlarged cage system combined with group housing had some beneficial effects on the measured performance- and welfare-related indicators in blue fox cubs.
Nowadays in Europe, farmed blue foxes are kept for most of the year in wire-mesh cages furnished with a platform for resting and observing the environment but without any opportunity for hiding from other foxes or from man. We studied the welfare effects of providing an elevated platform and two types of concealment screens in singly housed juvenile male blue foxes (n = 46) from August to December. The foxes were allocated to four experimental groups: group C had no furnishing in the cage, group P had a platform in the cage, group U had a platform and a concealment screen in the cage, and group O had a platform and a concealment screen on the outer wall of the cage. The blue foxes with platforms (groups P, U and O) spent the majority of their time on the platforms both when their cages were approached by man and as revealed by 24 h video recording. The 24 h recordings revealed that the foxes tended to avoid those locations in the cage where the screens obstructed their view (groups U and O); however, when the screens allowed the foxes to hide from an approaching man (group U), they were used for that purpose to some extent. There were no differences between the four groups in terms of growth, increase in rectal temperature after an acutely stressing situation, adrenal size, or fearfulness. The urinary cortisol: creatinine ratio showed that foxes in group U may have been less stressed than those in groups P and O in September, but no differences were observed in October. The concealment screens of group U may have improved the welfare of these blue foxes.
In Britain large numbers of animals are taken into captivity for treatment or care and then subsequently returned to the wild, but there are few data on the effectiveness of these rehabilitation programmes. In this study, over a period of four years 251 fox cubs that had been captive-reared were tagged and released; 90 were recovered. Survival rates were low, and road traffic accidents were found to be a major cause of mortality immediately following release. Recovery distances were lower than expected. The stress associated with captive-rearing meant that released foxes weighed less than wild-reared foxes, and they suffered further weight loss in the period immediately following release, even though an analysis of the stomach contents of animals recovered dead showed that released foxes rapidly learnt to hunt successfully.
It was concluded that captive-rearing is a problematic process for foxes, and contrary to predictions they face severe problems in adapting following release. Suggestions are made for the improvement of fox captive-rearing and release programmes, and the need for similar studies on other species is highlighted.
The release of animals from captivity frequently leads to a period of erratic movement behaviour which is thought to expose the animal to a high risk of mortality. Twenty-six foxes which had been reared at a wildlife hospital or captive-bred, were radio-collared when nearly full-grown and released without site acclimation. Immediately after release there was an erratic phase of behaviour, during which the foxes travelled widely and movement parameters were markedly elevated. For those foxes which survived, a second phase was entered after an average of 17.2 days, during which one small area only was used, and movement parameters were much reduced. In a second study, nine foxes were released following site acclimation in a pre-release pen; this process postponed but did not eliminate the phase of high movement activity.
This pattern of movement was compared with the dispersal behaviour of wild-reared foxes. It was concluded that released foxes, despite being proficient in other aspects of behaviour, were moving and behaving in a markedly abnormal manner and this resulted in a high death rate. The results are used to discuss methods of improving rehabilitation techniques.
The degree of domestication of an animal is difficult to estimate because the animal's phenotype depends not only on its genetic make-up but also on its experiences during ontogeny. In addition, comparisons between wild and domestic animals suffer from the lack of a proper reference population. In this study, we compared the offspring of silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) that had been selected specifically for tameness for more than 30 generations (NOVO) with normal Finnish farmed foxes (FIN) and with reciprocal hybrids between these two strains. All animals were housed under standard farm conditions without any extra handling. The NOVO foxes had higher domestication indexes and lower fearfulness scores than the FIN foxes, with their hybrids showing values in between. Almost all NOVO foxes started eating in the presence of a human and took a titbit from him, whereas only a few FIN foxes did so. Open field and urinary cortisol tests failed to discriminate between the genotypes. The NOVO cubs had lower levels of serum cortisol both before and after a stressful situation or ACTH injection and showed lower stress-induced hyperthermia than the FIN cubs, with the hybrids showing results in between. NOVO foxes can be used as a reference when developing and validating behavioural tests for use in the selection of less fearful silver foxes. The observed low fear levels and low stress hormone levels suggest better welfare in the NOVO foxes under standard farm conditions.
Childhood adversities (CAs) predict heightened risks of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE) among people exposed to adult traumatic events. Identifying which CAs put individuals at greatest risk for these adverse posttraumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) is important for targeting prevention interventions.
Data came from n = 999 patients ages 18–75 presenting to 29 U.S. emergency departments after a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and followed for 3 months, the amount of time traditionally used to define chronic PTSD, in the Advancing Understanding of Recovery After Trauma (AURORA) study. Six CA types were self-reported at baseline: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, emotional neglect and bullying. Both dichotomous measures of ever experiencing each CA type and numeric measures of exposure frequency were included in the analysis. Risk ratios (RRs) of these CA measures as well as complex interactions among these measures were examined as predictors of APNS 3 months post-MVC. APNS was defined as meeting self-reported criteria for either PTSD based on the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 and/or MDE based on the PROMIS Depression Short-Form 8b. We controlled for pre-MVC lifetime histories of PTSD and MDE. We also examined mediating effects through peritraumatic symptoms assessed in the emergency department and PTSD and MDE assessed in 2-week and 8-week follow-up surveys. Analyses were carried out with robust Poisson regression models.
Most participants (90.9%) reported at least rarely having experienced some CA. Ever experiencing each CA other than emotional neglect was univariably associated with 3-month APNS (RRs = 1.31–1.60). Each CA frequency was also univariably associated with 3-month APNS (RRs = 1.65–2.45). In multivariable models, joint associations of CAs with 3-month APNS were additive, with frequency of emotional abuse (RR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.43–2.87) and bullying (RR = 1.44; 95% CI = 0.99–2.10) being the strongest predictors. Control variable analyses found that these associations were largely explained by pre-MVC histories of PTSD and MDE.
Although individuals who experience frequent emotional abuse and bullying in childhood have a heightened risk of experiencing APNS after an adult MVC, these associations are largely mediated by prior histories of PTSD and MDE.
Previous research has revealed that intuitive confidence is an important predictor of how people choose between an intuitive and non-intuitive alternative when faced with information that opposes the intuitive response. In the current study, we investigated the speed of intuition generation as a predictor of intuitive confidence and participant choice in choice conflict situations. Participants predicted the outcomes of several National Basketball Association games, both with and without reference to a point spread. As hypothesized, the faster participants were to predict the outright winner of a game (i.e., generate an intuition) the more likely they were to predict the favourite against the point spread for that game (i.e., endorse the intuitive response). Overall, our findings are consistent with the notion that the speed of intuition generation acts as a determinant of intuitive confidence and a predictor of choice in situations featuring equally valid intuitive and non-intuitive alternatives.
Using capture-recapture analysis we estimate the effective size of the active Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) population that a typical laboratory can access to be about 7,300 workers. We also estimate that the time taken for half of the workers to leave the MTurk pool and be replaced is about 7 months. Each laboratory has its own population pool which overlaps, often extensively, with the hundreds of other laboratories using MTurk. Our estimate is based on a sample of 114,460 completed sessions from 33,408 unique participants and 689 sessions across seven laboratories in the US, Europe, and Australia from January 2012 to March 2015.
Previous research has demonstrated a link between illusory pattern perception and various irrational beliefs. On this basis, we hypothesized that participants who displayed greater degrees of illusory pattern perception would also be more likely to rate pseudo-profound bullshit statements as profound. We find support for this prediction across three experiments (N = 627) and four distinct measures of pattern perception. We further demonstrate that this observed relation is restricted to illusory pattern perception, with participants displaying greater endorsement of non-illusory patterns being no more likely to rate pseudo-profound bullshit statements as profound. Additionally, this relation is not a product of a general proclivity to rate all statements as profound and is not accounted for by individual differences in analytic thinking. Overall, we demonstrate that individuals with a tendency to go beyond the available data such that they uncritically endorse patterns where no patterns exist are also more likely to create and endorse false-meaning in meaningless pseudo-profound statements. These findings are discussed in the context of a proposed framework that views individuals’ receptivity to pseudo-profound bullshit as, in part, an unfortunate consequence of an otherwise adaptive process: that of pattern perception.
Anchoring effects are robust, varied and can be consequential. Researchers have provided a variety of alternative explanations for these effects. More recently, it has become apparent that anchoring effects might be produced by a variety of different processes, either acting simultaneously, or else individually in distinct situations. An unresolved issue is whether anchoring, aside from simple numeric priming, can transcend scales. That is, is it necessary that the anchor value and the target judgment are expressed in the same units? Despite some theoretical predictions to the contrary, this paper demonstrates semantic cross-scale anchoring in four experiments. Such effects are important for the direction of future theorising on the causes of anchoring effects and understanding the scope of their consequences in applied domains.
Excavated over two centuries ago, the Upton Lovell G2a ‘Wessex Culture’ burial has held a prominent place in research on Bronze Age Britain. In particular, was it the grave of a ‘shaman’ or a metalworker? We take a new approach to the grave goods, employing microwear analysis and scanning electron microscopy to map a history of interactions between people and materials, identifying evidence for the presence of Bronze Age gold on five artefacts, four for the first time. Advancing a new materialist approach, we identify a goldworking toolkit, linking gold, stone and copper objects within a chaîne opératoire, concluding that modern categorisations of these materials miss much of their complexity.
Vaccines serve as a major tool against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but vaccine hesitancy remains a major concern in the United States. Healthcare workers (HCWs) strongly influence a patient’s decision to get vaccinated. We evaluated HCW knowledge and attitudes regarding the COVID-19 vaccine.
The non-selective serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor agonist lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) holds promise as a treatment for some psychiatric disorders. Psychedelic drugs such as LSD have been suggested to have therapeutic actions through their effects on learning. The behavioural effects of LSD in humans, however, remain incompletely understood. Here we examined how LSD affects probabilistic reversal learning (PRL) in healthy humans.
Healthy volunteers received intravenous LSD (75 μg in 10 mL saline) or placebo (10 mL saline) in a within-subjects design and completed a PRL task. Participants had to learn through trial and error which of three stimuli was rewarded most of the time, and these contingencies switched in a reversal phase. Computational models of reinforcement learning (RL) were fitted to the behavioural data to assess how LSD affected the updating (‘learning rates’) and deployment of value representations (‘reinforcement sensitivity’) during choice, as well as ‘stimulus stickiness’ (choice repetition irrespective of reinforcement history).
Raw data measures assessing sensitivity to immediate feedback (‘win-stay’ and ‘lose-shift’ probabilities) were unaffected, whereas LSD increased the impact of the strength of initial learning on perseveration. Computational modelling revealed that the most pronounced effect of LSD was the enhancement of the reward learning rate. The punishment learning rate was also elevated. Stimulus stickiness was decreased by LSD, reflecting heightened exploration. Reinforcement sensitivity differed by phase.
Increased RL rates suggest LSD induced a state of heightened plasticity. These results indicate a potential mechanism through which revision of maladaptive associations could occur in the clinical application of LSD.
Hospital readmission is unsettling to patients and caregivers, costly to the healthcare system, and may leave patients at additional risk for hospital-acquired infections and other complications. We evaluated the association between comorbidities present during index coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization and the risk of 30-day readmission.
Design, setting, and participants:
We used the Premier Healthcare database to perform a retrospective cohort study of COVID-19 hospitalized patients discharged between April 2020 and March 2021 who were followed for 30 days after discharge to capture readmission to the same hospital.
Among the 331,136 unique patients in the index cohort, 36,827 (11.1%) had at least 1 all-cause readmission within 30 days. Of the readmitted patients, 11,382 (3.4%) were readmitted with COVID-19 as the primary diagnosis. In the multivariable model adjusted for demographics, hospital characteristics, coexisting comorbidities, and COVID-19 severity, each additional comorbidity category was associated with an 18% increase in the odds of all-cause readmission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17–1.19) and a 10% increase in the odds of readmission with COVID-19 as the primary readmission diagnosis (aOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.09–1.11). Lymphoma (aOR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.58–2.19), renal failure (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.25–1.40), and chronic lung disease (aOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.24–1.34) were most associated with readmission for COVID-19.
Readmission within 30 days was common among COVID-19 survivors. A better understanding of comorbidities associated with readmission will aid hospital care teams in improving postdischarge care. Additionally, it will assist hospital epidemiologists and quality administrators in planning resources, allocating staff, and managing bed-flow issues to improve patient care and safety.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant nosocomial pathogen in the ICU. MRSA contamination of healthcare personnel (HCP) gloves and gowns after providing care to patients with MRSA occurs at a rate of 14%–16% in the ICU setting. Little is known about whether the MRSA isolates identified on HCP gown and gloves following patient care activities are the same as MRSA isolates identified as colonizing or infecting the patient.
From a multisite cohort of 388 independent patient MRSA isolates and their corresponding HCP gown and glove isolates, we selected 91 isolates pairs using a probability to proportion size (PPS) sampling method. To determine whether the patient and HCP gown or gloves isolates were genetically similar, we used 5 comparative genomic typing methods: phylogenetic analysis, spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), large-scale BLAST score ratio (LSBSR), and single-nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis.
We identified that 56 (61.5%) of isolate pairs were genetically similar at least by 4 of the methods. Comparably, the spa typing and the LSBSR analyses revealed that >75% of the examined isolate pairs were concordant, with the thresholds established for each analysis.
Many of the patient MRSA isolates were genetically similar to those on the HCP gown or gloves following a patient care activity. This finding indicates that the patient is often the primary source of the MRSA isolates transmitted to the HCP, which can potentially be spread to other patients or hospital settings through HCP vectors. These results have important implications because they provide additional evidence for hospitals considering ending the use of contact precautions (gloves and gowns) for MRSA patients.
Major depressive disorder is often associated with maladaptive coping strategies, including rumination and thought suppression.
To assess the comparative effect of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram, and the serotonergic psychedelic psilocybin (COMP360), on rumination and thought suppression in major depressive disorder.
Based on data derived from a randomised clinical trial (N = 59), we performed exploratory analyses on the impact of escitalopram versus psilocybin (i.e. condition) on rumination and thought suppression from 1 week before to 6 weeks after treatment inception (i.e. time), using mixed analysis of variance. Condition responder versus non-responder subgroup analyses were also done, using the standard definition of ≥50% symptom reduction.
A time×condition interaction was found for rumination (F(1, 56) = 4.58, P = 0.037) and thought suppression (F(1,57) = 5.88, P = 0.019), with post hoc tests revealing significant decreases exclusively in the psilocybin condition. When analysing via response, a significant time×condition×response interaction for thought suppression (F(1,54) = 8.42, P = 0.005) and a significant time×response interaction for rumination (F(1,54) = 23.50, P < 0.001) were evident. Follow-up tests revealed that decreased thought suppression was exclusive to psilocybin responders, whereas rumination decreased in both responder groups. In the psilocybin arm, decreases in rumination and thought suppression correlated with ego dissolution and session-linked psychological insight.
These data provide further evidence on the therapeutic mechanisms of psilocybin and escitalopram in the treatment of depression.
The appearance of Beaker pottery in Britain and Ireland during the twenty-fifth century bc marks a significant archaeological horizon, being synchronous with the first metal artefacts. The adoption of arsenical copper, mostly from Ireland, was followed by that of tin-bronze around 2200 bc. However, whilst the copper mine of Ross Island in Ireland is securely dated to the Early Bronze Age, and further such mines in the UK have been dated to the Early and Middle Bronze Age, the evidence for the exploitation of tin ores, the other key ingredient to make bronze, has remained circumstantial. This article contains the detailed analyses of seven stone artefacts from securely dated contexts, using a combination of surface pXRF and microwear analysis. The results provide strong evidence that the tools were used in cassiterite processing. The combined analysis of these artefacts documents in detail the exploitation of Cornish tin during this early phase of metal use in Britain and Ireland.
The literature on the internalized stigma (or self-stigma) of mental illness has been expanding rapidly. We review the key findings of two meta-analyses of the correlates and consequences that occurred a decade apart (Livingston & Boyd, 2010, Del Rosal et al., 2020), showing that internalized stigma is related to less self-esteem, quality of life, and hope; and related to greater experienced stigma, perceived stigma, and symptom severity. For empowerment, the relationship of internalized stigma was somewhat weaker in 2020 than in 2010. Neither found significant relationships with sociodemographic variables. Although more longitudinal studies are needed to better test the causal direction of these relationships, the overall findings are consistent with the idea that internalized stigma impedes recovery and adds to the burden of mental illness. While, more work needs to be done to understand the effects of internalized stigma on people with a variety of intersectional identities. we briefly describe the literature on a few contrasting types of marginalized identities: gender (female and transgender), race/ethnicity (African Americans), and profession (mental health professionals with a lived experience of mental illness). These summaries highlight that the consequences of internalized stigma may vary across intersectional identities. We conclude with suggestions for future research.