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As Sarah McNamer reminds us, meditative devotional works are not primarily ‘aesthetic artefacts. They had serious, practical work to do: to teach their readers, through iterative affective performance, how to feel.’ In such texts, shareable narrative experience, through reading or hearing, becomes an intensely personal refraction of such experience recreated in inward verisimilitude; for, as Jennifer Bryan points out: ‘“Inward” here is more concrete and lifelike … Inward beholding creates personal and intimate knowledge, knowledge that pertains to the reader's soul alone.’ These are both valid comments from scholars who understand well how such texts work in the imaginations – in the souls – of late medieval readers. The approaches of such scholars, which are truly valuable, tend more often than not to have the reader and the reading experience rather than the processes of literary translation in mind. There is nothing wrong with this. This essay, however, pays attention to a special kind of reader – the reader of the Latin tradition who performs his reading in textual form by translating it. These text-making readers teach reading and feeling in their own different ways, which become all the more interesting and revealing when we encounter them treating the same material.
And, outside the Bible, what material in late medieval English religious literary mainstream culture is more important than the meditative tradition of the Meditationes vitae Christi? This study accordingly addresses the issue of how, in this vitally important area of late medieval English devotional literary culture, each choice of translation – down to the smallest preposition, change of wording or shift of voice – affects the configuration of narrative experience and reader interiorities, especially in devotional works setting out to engage the imaginations of their readers and to teach them not only how and what to imagine but also how to dispose themselves with regard to variable topographies of interiority. Whatever a translator's motivations, the tiniest details of such treatment entail experiential and ideological variation significant to the ongoing formation of the piety and habitus of readers and hearers. Translations of the same source present particularly useful opportunities for scrutinizing productive variancy in linguistic quantities and in features that may sometimes seem small but which may also have considerable semantic, ideological, theological and affective reach and import.
In March 2020, academic medical center (AMC) pharmacies were compelled to implement practice changes in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. These changes were described by survey data collected by the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program which were interpreted by a multi-institutional team of AMC pharmacists and physician investigators.
The CTSA program surveyed 60 AMC pharmacy departments. The survey included event timing, impact on pharmacy services, and corrective actions taken.
Almost all departments (98.4%) reported at least one disruption. Shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE) were common (91.5%) as were drug shortages (66.0%). To manage drug shortages, drug prioritization protocols were utilized, new drug supply vendors were identified (79.3%), and onsite compounding was initiated. PPE shortages were managed by incorporating the risk mitigation strategies recommended by FDA and others. Research pharmacists supported new clinical research initiatives at most institutions (84.0%), introduced use of virtual site visits, and shipped investigational drugs directly to patients. Some pharmacies formulated novel investigational products for clinical trial use. Those AMC pharmacies within networked health systems assisted partner rural and inner-city hospitals by sourcing commercial and investigational drugs to alleviate local disease outbreaks and shortages in underserved populations. Pharmacy-based vaccination practice was expanded to include a wider range of pediatric and adult vaccines.
The COVID-19 pandemic radically altered hospital pharmacy practice. By adopting innovative methods and adapting to regulatory imperatives, pharmacies at CTSA sites played an extremely important role supporting continuity of care and collaborating on critical clinical research initiatives.
There is strong evidence that foods containing dietary fibre protect against colorectal cancer, resulting at least in part from its anti-proliferative properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of supplementation with two non-digestible carbohydrates, resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose (PD), on crypt cell proliferative state (CCPS) in the macroscopically normal rectal mucosa of healthy individuals. We also investigated relationships between expression of regulators of apoptosis and of the cell cycle on markers of CCPS. Seventy-five healthy participants were supplemented with RS and/or PD or placebo for 50 d in a 2 × 2 factorial design in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (the Dietary Intervention, Stem cells and Colorectal Cancer (DISC) Study). CCPS was assessed, and the expression of regulators of the cell cycle and of apoptosis was measured by quantitative PCR in rectal mucosal biopsies. SCFA concentrations were quantified in faecal samples collected pre- and post-intervention. Supplementation with RS increased the total number of mitotic cells within the crypt by 60 % (P = 0·001) compared with placebo. This effect was limited to older participants (aged ≥50 years). No other differences were observed for the treatments with PD or RS as compared with their respective controls. PD did not influence any of the measured variables. RS, however, increased cell proliferation in the crypts of the macroscopically-normal rectum of older adults. Our findings suggest that the effects of RS on CCPS are not only dose, type of RS and health status-specific but are also influenced by age.
The Earth is a powerful organic chemist, transforming vast quantities of carbon through complex processes, leading to diverse suites of products that include the fossil fuels upon which modern societies depend. When exploring how the Earth operates as an organic chemist, it is tempting to turn to how organic reactions are traditionally studied in chemistry labs. While highly informative, especially in terms of insights gained into reaction mechanisms, this approach can also be a source of frustration, as many of the reactants and conditions employed in chemistry labs have few or no parallels to geologic processes. The primary goal of this chapter is to provide examples of predicting thermodynamic influences and using the predictions to design experiments that reveal the mechanisms of how reactions occur at the elevated temperatures and pressures encountered in the Earth. This work is ongoing, and we hope this chapter will inspire numerous and diverse experimental and theoretical advances in hydrothermal organic geochemistry.
Adolescence is a high-risk period for the onset of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Identification of preceding patterns of internalizing and externalizing symptoms that are associated with subsequent suicidal thoughts may offer a better understanding of how to prevent adolescent suicide.
Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, a prospective population-based Canadian cohort, contained Child Behavior Checklist items which were used to examine profiles and transitions of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children, aged 6–11 years (n = 8266). The association between these profiles/transitions and suicidal thoughts in adolescents was examined using multivariate logistic regression modeling.
Latent profile analyses identified four measurement invariant profiles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms at ages 6/7 and 10/11: (1) low on all symptoms, (2) moderate on all symptoms, (3) high on all symptoms, and (4) high on hyperactivity/inattention and internalizing. Recurrent (homotypic or heterotypic) and increasing symptoms from 6/7 to 10/11 were associated with suicidal thoughts in adolescence, compared to those with stable low symptoms. Those with decreasing symptoms from 6/7 to 10/11 were not at increased risk of suicidal thought in adolescence.
While patterns of recurrent symptoms were associated with suicidal thoughts, a similar association was observed between profiles at age 10/11 years and suicidal thoughts. This suggests that the recent assessments of mental health symptoms in children may be as sufficient a predictor of adolescent suicidal thought as transition profiles.
In order to give an idea of the repertoire of sacred translating in late medieval England, this chapter examines the attitudes, procedures, and ambitions of translators in a representative and revealing sample of texts, namely the Ormulum; the Psalter commentary-translation of Richard Rolle; the Early Version and the Later Version of the Wycliffite Bible; the Glossed Gospels; the Stanzaic Life of Christ; Nicholas Love's Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ; A Mirror to Devout People, and Osbern Bokenham's Legendys of Hooly Wummen.
Translators of Middle English religious works were obliged to communicate in the vernacular the sententia (the teaching/ significance) of their sources for the benefit of their readers and hearers. The most intimidating task they might face was translating holy Scripture, whose ultimate author was God himself. Whether they translated the Bible, saints’ lives, visionary revelations, biblical commentaries, liturgical or pastoral works, translators did so under the constraint, permission, and licence of the Church and its traditions of doctrine and interpretation. Biblical and ecclesiastical auctoritas was complemented, however, by another principle, frequently advertised in prologues: that of a good and diligent conscience on the part of the translator. Exculpation through good intent was a powerful resource for the sincere textual labourer. After all, bad faith and impurity of motive (such as intellectual pride) were sins, whereas mere linguistic bungling and want of literary talent were not. The Carthusian maker of a fifteenth-century life of Christ, A Mirror to Devout People, expressed this principle crisply with the plea “ho so cunne not escuse the werke lete hym escuse the entent” (whoever cannot excuse the work, let him excuse the intent).
What general conception, then, did medieval religious translators have of their craft? We need look no further than the great dictionary of the age, the Catholicon of Joannes Januensis: “translatio est expositio sententie per aliam linguam” (translation is the exposition of meaning/ teaching through/ by another language). Translation, then, was akin to commentary or exposition: not only were the linguistic unpacking and reinscription of the source part of the skill-set of the translator, so too was the interpretative elaboration of its contents.
Chaucer’s God considers how characters invoke God, both in terms of the everyday language of late medieval England and in the ways that the idea of God is reflected in Chaucer’s fiction. Conventional, non-theological utterances of the names for God by Chaucer’s characters as part of their, by turns, outwardly pious and unthinkingly impious phraseologies are discussed in the opening section, God Woot – ‘God knows’. Under the heading God Forwoot – ‘God foreknows’, some of the more challenging invocations of God are considered, such as the implications of divine foreknowledge and predestination on human free will in the Knight’s Tale, the Nun’s Priest’s Tale and Troilus and Criseyde. The concluding section, God in a Cruel World, asks whether in the Clerk’s Tale and the Franklin’s Tale, if Chaucer allowed his tales to reflect, and characters to reflect upon, the heretical notion of a God lacking in compassion for humanity.
Chaucer lived in a society that was aware of childhood and adolescence as distinctive stages of human life and which inherited practices whereby young people were brought up and trained for adulthood. Informally, at home, children were introduced to social norms, religion and work. Those from wealthier families underwent more formal education, mastering literacy at home, in schools or in great households, where they learnt reading, rules of courtesy, French and, in the case of some boys, Latin. Chaucer’s works refer in passing to most of these processes, with particular attention to adolescents, including university scholars. During the fifteenth century his works in general came to be seen as having educational value. The Astrolabe, first written for his son Lewis, seems to have been used for teaching reading to other young children while his major writings were recommended as suitable literature for older ones.
This is not a collection of essays on Chaucer in the normal sense. Neither is it a ‘Companion’ or ‘Guide’ or ‘Handbook’ to Chaucer. It does not have the primary intention of providing readings of the texts of Chaucer (even though it contains much illuminating treatment of his works). It endeavours to be more lastingly helpful than that. Its key aim is to enhance the independence and critical capacities of modern readers of Chaucer by giving them a rich repertoire of contexts – historical and conceptual information and perspectives – through which to read, interpret and enjoy the primary text themselves with greater confidence and assurance.
Medieval literary theory, generated in the educational system and commentary tradition, consisted of systems and conceptual tools for interpreting and communicating the teachings of canonical works. It also offered a range of roles for a writer to adopt or cite for reworking authors (auctores) and authority (auctoritas), as well as materials of lesser prestige. A fascinating hierarchy of literary roles, as variously practised by writers, was delineated by St Bonaventure. This ascended from the humble scribe (a mere copyist), via the compiler (a re-arranger adding nothing of his own) and then the commentator (who ostensibly only explicates the words of the others), to the author, an autonomous asserter who only resorts to the words of others to confirm his own self-styled materials. These roles had considerable implications for Chaucer. This chapter also looks at the terminology for interpreting texts deriving from the academic prologue (accessus) and at different schemes for the understanding of levels of meaning within texts. It closes with a brief mention of the relationship between prescriptive poetics and interpretation in medieval rhetorical tradition.
However well-regarded Chaucer’s works were during his lifetime, it was his immediate successors who fashioned him into the ‘father of English poetry’ they then bequeathed to the subsequent English literary tradition. In particular, the poets Thomas Hoccleve and John Lydgate not only represented Chaucer in this manner in their own, widely disseminated works, they were also instrumental in the broad dissemination of Chaucer’s works. Importantly, these activities were motivated not just by admiration but also by a politico-literary context in which Hoccleve and Lydgate, unlike Chaucer, were asked to produce works that spoke both for a prince and to a prince. Their invention of Chaucer’s literary authority cannot then be separated from their intervention into politics, and this conflation they also bequeathed to the English literary tradition, where it remained plainly visible in the works of their own successors, and where it persists, more obscurely, to the present.
Readers of Chaucer’s poetry hear in it a distinctive and individual voice. More than any other medieval English poet, Chaucer seems to invite the question ‘what was he like?’. The many official records about him have no occasion to shed light on this question. Though Thomas Hoccleve arranged that a lifelike portrait of his dear master should appear in copies of his Regiment, this does not carry us too far into knowing what the poet was really like. Chaucer, for example, despite apparently always saying the best, seemed to have reserved his true opinions, leaving both contemporaries and readers alike to wonder what he really thought – be it about fellow-writers like Hoccleve and Lydgate, or Criseyde, or about his fictional Merchant. Moreover, not only does he persistently credit others with the best that can be said of them, he also discredits himself. It is perhaps appropriate, then, that the ironic Chaucer should represent himself as a reserved and private sort of person – one conceivably well equipped to cope with the many vicissitudes of his time, as the poet evidently did.