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In the aftermath of collective violence, reconciliation is supposed to ensure that violent conflict does not re-erupt after official treaties have brought it to a halt. This requires attention to the psychological processes that were shaped by the group’s role as victims or perpetrators of violence, as well as to the sociopolitical context in the aftermath of violence. Based on central conceptualisations of reconciliation in political and social psychology, we review five broad categories of psychological processes that obstruct or facilitate reconciliation in the aftermath of collective violence: Identity and identity threats, collective memories of collective victimhood, acknowledgement versus denial of collective victimisation, emotions, and justice. We discuss these processes from the perspective of victim and perpetrator groups, and review examples of interventions that utilise these processes with the aim of increasing willingness for reconciliation and positive outcomes of reconciliation in the aftermath of collective violence in different contexts.
Despite their importance in the formation and evolution of stellar clusters and galaxies, the formation of high-mass stars remains poorly understood. We recently started a systematic observational study of the 22 GHz water and 44 GHz class I methanol masers in high-mass star-forming regions as a four-year KaVA large program. Our sample consists of 87 high-mass young stellar objects (HM-YSOs) in various evolutionary phases, many of which are associated with two or more different maser species. The primary scientific goals are to measure the spatial distributions and 3-dimensional velocity fields of multiple maser species, and understand the dynamical evolution of HM-YSOs and their circumstellar structures, in conjunction with follow-up observations with JVN/EAVN (6.7 GHz class II methanol masers), VERA, and ALMA. In this paper we present details of our KaVA large program, including the first-year results and observing/data analysis plans for the second year and beyond.