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The brown planthoppers (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the white-backed planthoppers (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) annually migrate from tropical and subtropical regions to temperate regions in Asia, including Japan, Korea and northern China. To elucidate the genetic divergence based on geography of planthoppers and to estimate their migration route on the basis of molecular data, we analysed a part of their mitochondrial genome sequences. Sequences of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) – transfer RNA for Leu (trnL2) – cox2 were determined for 579 BPH (1,928 bp) and 464 WBPH (1,927 bp) individuals collected from 31 and 25 locations, respectively, in East and Southeast Asia. Thirty and 20 mitochondrial haplotypes were detected for BPH and WBPH, respectively. Single populations of both planthoppers included multiple haplotypes, and many haplotypes were shared in some populations and areas. The most frequently detected haplotypes accounted for approximately 50% of all BPH and WBPH individuals. To evaluate gene flow among planthoppers in different regions in Asia, pairwise fixation index (Fst) values were calculated. For BPH, high Fst values (0.580–0.926) were shown between planthoppers in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and the other areas and moderate Fst values (0.176–0.362) were observed between those in southern Philippines and other areas. For WBPH, the Fst value was the highest between Taiwan and southern Vietnam (0.236), and low among the other areas. AMOVA indicated no genetic structure among eight areas, excluding southern Philippines and PNG, for BPH, and among ten areas for WBPH. These data indicate that both planthoppers do not show much differentiation of local populations and/or have genetically intermixed Asian populations. These data also indicate that it may be difficult to distinguish regional planthopper populations on the basis of differences in mitochondrial sequences.
We have fabricated Bi2212 and Bi2223 bulk samples by shock compaction technique. Seed crystals were added to the starting materials in order to promote crystallization. The grain size of the prepared sample was increased by the addition of seed crystals to the starting material.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is one of the major enzymes for the degradation of catecholamines. It has been suggested that catecholaminergic neurotransmission is involved in characterization of personality. Previous studies on the association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and personality traits in healthy subjects have produced inconsistent results. Therefore, the relationship between this polymorphism and personality was re-examined in 478 Japanese healthy volunteers. Personality traits were assessed by the Temperament and Character inventory (TCI), and the COMT genotypes were determined by a PCR-RFLP method. in total, there were no significant differences among the Val/Val, Val/Met, and Met/Met genotypes in seven TCI dimension scores. Similarly, no significant relationship was found between the COMT genotypes and the TCI dimensions when males and females were analyzed separately. The present study thus suggests that the COMT Val158Met polymorphism is not associated with personality traits in Japanese healthy subjects.
The purpose of this study was to report the first case (to our knowlege) of primary laryngeal aspergillosis in a patient with underlying CD4+ T lymphocytopenia. Laryngeal involvement of Aspergillus is more commonly seen as a part of a wider infection involving the respiratory system in an immunocompromised host. However, primary infection of the larynx is extremely rare. Although there were 12 cases of primary laryngeal aspergillosis previously reported in healthy subjects, there is no known study describing immunological findings in detail. We report a case of primary laryngeal aspergillosis in a healthy 79-year-old male. The examination of his immunity subsequently revealed that there was a marked decline in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes and a decrease in the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+. It is suggested that it is essential to examine the defence mechanisms, specifically cell-mediated immunity in a patient showing primary laryngeal aspergillosis.
In this study, we discuss a method for cross-sectional thin specimen preparation from a specific site using a combination of a focused ion beam (FIB) system and an intermediate voltage transmission electron microscope (TEM). A FIB-TEM compatible specimen holder was newly developed for the method. The thinning of the specimen using the FIB system and the observation of inside structure of the ion milled area in a TEM to localize a specific site were alternately carried out. The TEM fitted with both scanning transmitted electron detector and secondary electron detector enabled us to localize the specific site in a halfway milled specimen with the positional accuracy of better than 0.1 µm. The method was applied to the characterization of a precipitate in a steel. A submicron large precipitate was thinned exactly at its center for the characterization by a high-resolution electron microscopy and an elemental mapping.
Sarcoidosis affects many different organ systems. However, laryngeal involvement is rare and most cases with laryngeal involvement affect the supraglottis, occasionally secondarily extending to the vocal fold. The features of sarcoidosis in the supraglottic region have been described in several reports, but vocal fold involvement has not been presented in detail. We report an unusual case of laryngeal sarcoidosis initially involving the vocal folds in a 66-year-old man, associated with hypercalcaemia. Our report describes characteristics of the involved vocal folds. Hypercalcaemia is one of the characteristics of sarcoidosis. We concluded that laryngeal sarcoidosis should be added to the differential diagnosis of vocal fold lesions, particularly in patients with hypercalcaemia.
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