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The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
Skelton's afterlife is rather more complicated than his critical reception alone. That reception has been well charted, in particular by A. S. G. Edwards in his volume in the Critical Heritage series: a volume that doubles as an anthology of criticism and also, in the Introduction, an allusion index (Edwards 1981). Skelton was a poet who divided opinion from within his own lifetime, and it was not until the twentieth century that his reputation decisively recovered from Pope's sneering dismissal of him as ‘beastly Skelton’ (Edwards 1981: No. 27, p. 75). That recovery, significantly, was led not by critics but by other poets, beginning cautiously in the eighteenth century (where this study ends) but bursting into dominance with the rise of modernism. The resurgence of interest in him in turn opened the way for the emphasis in more recent decades on historicism and textual scholarship, fields where fierce disagreement is less likely to thrive. That summary, however, leaves out two of the most striking characteristics of his afterlife. One is that the verse form he invented, skeltonics, was given the link to his name, in the adjectival form ‘skeltonical’, as early as 1589, and the link has been retained ever since: a twinning of form with poet unique in English poetry (even the ‘Shakespearean sonnet’ is a much later term). As the anonymous poem Pimlyco, or Runne Red-Cap noted in 1609, there was no need to name Skelton for him to be recognised: if one
only should hys Rymes recite,
These (all would cry) did Skelton write.
(Edwards 1981: No. 17, p. 67)
The other notable characteristic is that for much of the sixteenth century he was given an alternative afterlife as ‘merry Skelton’, a jestbook character who developed a career of his own, sometimes but by no means always independent of his poetry, such as again bespeaks a high measure of popular recognition. In the 1580s and 1590s, you did not need to belong to a cultural elite to know about Skelton, though what you thought you knew might vary radically depending on whether or not you were a member.
High quality evidence for test accuracy can be scarce. We assessed the test accuracy of two tests (Actim Partus and PartoSure) for the prediction of preterm birth. Twenty published full-text papers were included whilst conference abstracts were excluded. Since systematic reviews of diagnostic tests on other topics may need to rely on data from conference abstracts, we test whether the findings of our review would change with conference abstracts included.
Conference citations previously excluded (n=108) were re-screened for inclusion using the following criteria: i) the diagnostic test was Actim Partus or PartoSure ii) test accuracy data of preterm delivery within seven days was reported iii) the population was women with signs/symptoms of preterm labor with intact membranes. Relevant test accuracy data were extracted and used to calculate sensitivity and specificity. Pooled sensitivity and specificity for each test were run using data from full-text papers and conference abstracts combined. These values were compared with the pooled sensitivities and specificities produced for the systematic review using full-text papers only.
Preliminary pooled sensitivities of the sixteen full-text Actim Partus studies and sixteen full-texts and two abstracts were 0.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68, 0.83) and 0.76 (95% CI 0.69, 0.83) respectively whilst pooled specificities were 0.81 (95% CI 0.76, 0.85).and 0.80 (95% CI 0.75, 0.84) respectively. Preliminary, pooled sensitivities of the four full-text PartoSure studies and four full-texts and three abstracts were 0.83 (95% CI 0.61, 0.94) and 0.82 (95% CI 0.65, 0.92), respectively, whilst pooled specificities were 0.95 (95% CI 0.89, 0.98) and 0.96 (95% CI 0.94, 0.97), respectively.
Our findings suggest that the test accuracy results would not alter substantially with the inclusion of conference abstracts. However, work is ongoing to investigate how the assessment of heterogeneity and risk of bias across studies would alter given the difficulties associated with limited methodological reporting from conference abstracts.
Making predictions about aliens is not an easy task. Most previous work has focused on extrapolating from empirical observations and mechanistic understanding of physics, chemistry and biology. Another approach is to utilize theory to make predictions that are not tied to details of Earth. Here we show how evolutionary theory can be used to make predictions about aliens. We argue that aliens will undergo natural selection – something that should not be taken for granted but that rests on firm theoretical grounds. Given aliens undergo natural selection we can say something about their evolution. In particular, we can say something about how complexity will arise in space. Complexity has increased on the Earth as a result of a handful of events, known as the major transitions in individuality. Major transitions occur when groups of individuals come together to form a new higher level of the individual, such as when single-celled organisms evolved into multicellular organisms. Both theory and empirical data suggest that extreme conditions are required for major transitions to occur. We suggest that major transitions are likely to be the route to complexity on other planets, and that we should expect them to have been favoured by similarly restrictive conditions. Thus, we can make specific predictions about the biological makeup of complex aliens.
Gower is the only medieval English author of whom we have a tomb effigy. The tomb erected (and possibly recycled) for Chaucer in the 1550s once had a portrait of him, engraved or perhaps painted on its rear wall tablet, but that has long since gone. Gower lies in splendor with his head resting on the three volumes of his works, watched over by the virtues, and recently repainted in vivid gloss, in what was once the priory church of St. Mary Overy and is now Southwark Cathedral. Between those two incarnations, it was St. Saviour's, the parish church of the Globe Theatre, where Shakespeare's younger brother is buried; and it may perhaps have been Shakespeare's familiarity with the tomb, as well as his familiarity with a widely known story, that encouraged him to turn to Gower as the inspiration for and the presenter of Pericles. The tomb presumably represents the form in which the poet himself wished to be remembered, his works outliving the mortal body represented in the effigy. Gower was a man who thought about mortality; and he did so most evidently, not at the ends of his more overtly religious or moralizing works, but at the end of the Confessio Amantis, in that moment when we are required to rethink all that as readers we thought we knew. When the lover's confession is complete and all the tales are told, the narrator encounters Venus. She asks his name; and he answers, “John Gower.” It is a crucial moment analogous to Beatrice's naming of Dante––a moment of total self-knowledge, though with the opposite import, not about salvation, but about death. For she follows that up with a brutal reminder of his own mortality: “Remembre wel hou thou art old.” It is now one of the most famous lines in the whole poem; but in context, it is an extraordinary statement, because it is completely unexpected, by both lover and readers, and the shock it delivers is enough to knock him unconscious. It may not do that to the readers; but it still has a powerful effect, and not just in narrative terms, in the discovery that this is not a typically young lover, as one had assumed.
Health anxiety, hypochondriasis and personality disturbance commonly coexist. The impact of personality status was assessed in a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial (RCT).
To test the impact of personality status using ICD-11 criteria on the clinical and cost outcomes of treatment with cognitive–behavioural therapy for health anxiety (CBT-HA) and standard care over 2 years.
Personality dysfunction was assessed at baseline in 444 patients before randomisation and independent assessment of costs and outcomes made on four occasions over 2 years.
In total, 381 patients (86%) had some personality dysfunction with 184 (41%) satisfying the ICD criteria for personality disorder. Those with no personality dysfunction showed no treatment differences (P = 0.90) and worse social function with CBT-HA compared with standard care (P<0.03) whereas all other personality groups showed greater improvement with CBT-HA maintained over 2 years (P<0.001). Less benefit was shown in those with more severe personality disorder (P<0.05). Costs were less with CBT-HA except for non-significant greater differences in those with moderate or severe personality disorder.
The results contradict the hypothesis that personality disorder impairs response to CBT in health anxiety in both the short and medium term.
What happens when an emotion is unreadable? This book gives a full account of how emotions work in the mind and the body, according to both medieval and modern theories (Introduction, Saunders); how they function within a society or a group, notably that of the Round Table, or of the audience and readers of Arthurian literature (Gilbert, Lynch, Radulescu); the disjunction between emotion and effective action (Lynch); the mechanisms by which the emotions of a fictional character can be mirrored in a reader (Larrington); the capacity of sounds – even sounds with no semantic content – to convey feeling (Brandsma); and whether (or how far) emotions can be transferred across cultures (Rikhardsdottir). Their overlap and intersection with other schemata, of the passions or the vices, are discussed, along with the specific terms used to describe fear or anger or shame (Fuksas). The bodily expressions most commonly attached to specific emotions are explored, of going pale or red, changing expression, flinching or weeping. Medieval authors will typically portray emotions so as to suggest some kind of social function for their readers: how a king, or a knight, should act as well as feel. The model underlying all of these is the assumption that emotions are communicated socially. Even if the character feeling the emotion keeps it to him- or herself, the reader is granted privileged access to their unexpressed thoughts or feelings. Kings may be under an obligation not to be too open about their emotions (Baden-Daintree), but the readers will be shown what they feel; lovers may blush in public before retreating to their chamber or some other isolated spot to lament their state, as an abundance of Arthurian and other romances demonstrate, but the symptoms will be thoroughly familiar to readers trained to recognize them. But what happens when a bodily sign of emotion carries neither a familiar meaning nor an explanation within the text?
Sir Thomas Malory can be a particularly challenging, or imaginatively engaging, author in this respect. Of all Arthurian writers, Malory is one of the least forthcoming about expressions of emotion, not least in comparison with the abundance found in his French sources. Many of the emotions he does describe, or their outward expressions (kneeling, weeping, drawing a sword), carry their meanings with them in all the ways this book has discussed.
Literary texts complicate our understanding of medieval emotions; they not only represent characters experiencing emotion and reaction emotionally to the behaviour of others within the text, but also evoke and play upon emotion in the audiences which heard these texts performed or read. The presentation and depiction of emotion in the single most prominent and influential story matter of the Middle Ages, the Arthurian legend, is the subject of this volume. Covering texts written in English, French, Dutch, German, Latin and Norwegian, the essays presented here explore notions of embodiment, the affective quality of the construction of mind, and the intermediary role of the voice as both an embodied and consciously articulating emotion.
Frank Brandsma teaches Comparative Literature (Middle Ages) at Utrecht University; Carolyne Larrington is a Fellow in medieval English at St John's College, Oxford; Corinne Saunders is Professor of Medieval Literature in the Department of English Studies and Co-Director of the Centre for Medical Humanities at the University of Durham.
Contributors: Anne Baden-Daintree, Frank Brandsma, Helen Cooper, Anatole Pierre Fuksas, Jane Gilbert, Carolyne Larrington, Andrew Lynch, Raluca Radulescu, Sif Rikhardsdottir, Corinne Saunders,
Background: Clinical perfectionism is a risk and maintaining factor for anxiety disorders, depression and eating disorders. Aims: The aim was to examine the psychometric properties of the 12-item Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire (CPQ). Method: The research involved two samples. Study 1 comprised a nonclinical sample (n = 206) recruited via the internet. Study 2 comprised individuals in treatment for an eating disorder (n = 129) and a community sample (n = 80). Results: Study 1 factor analysis results indicated a two-factor structure. The CPQ had strong correlations with measures of perfectionism and psychopathology, acceptable internal consistency, and discriminative and incremental validity. The results of Study 2 suggested the same two-factor structure, acceptable internal consistency, and construct validity, with the CPQ discriminating between the eating disorder and control groups. Readability was assessed as a US grade 4 reading level (student age range 9–10 years). Conclusions: The findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the CPQ in a clinical eating disorder and two separate community samples. Although further research is required the CPQ has promising evidence as a reliable and valid measure of clinical perfectionism.