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Background: Identification of hospitalized patients with enteric multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) carriage, combined with implementation of targeted infection control interventions, may help reduce MDRO transmission. However, the optimal surveillance approach has not been defined. We sought to determine whether daily serial rectal surveillance for MDROs detects more incident cases (acquisition) of MDRO colonization in medical intensive care unit (MICU) patients than admission and discharge surveillance alone. Methods: Prospective longitudinal observational single-center study from January 11, 2017, to January 11, 2018. Inclusion criteria were ≥3 consecutive MICU days and ≥2 rectal or stool swabs per MICU admission. Daily rectal or stool swabs were collected from patients and cultured for MDROs, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacterales (3GCR), and extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) (as a subset of 3GCR). MDRO detection at any time during the MICU stay was used to calculate prevalent colonization. Incident colonization (acquisition) was defined as new detection of an MDRO after at least 1 prior negative swab. We then determined the proportion of prevalent and incident cases detected by daily testing that were also detected when only first swabs (admission) and last swabs (discharge) were tested. Data were analyzed using SAS version 9.4 software. Results: In total, 939 MICU stays of 842 patients were analyzed. Patient characteristics were median age 64 years (interquartile range [IQR], 51–74), median MICU length of stay 5 days (IQR, 3–8), median number of samples per admission 3 (IQR, 2–5), and median Charlson index 4 (IQR, 2–7). Prevalent colonization with any MDRO was detected by daily swabbing in 401 stays (42.7%). Compared to daily serial swabbing, an admission- and discharge-only approach detected ≥86% of MDRO cases (ie, overall prevalent MDRO colonization). Detection of incident MDRO colonization by an admission- or discharge-only approach would have detected fewer cases than daily swabbing (Figure 1); ≥34% of total MDRO acquisitions would have been missed. Conclusions: Testing patients upon admission and discharge to an MICU may fail to detect MDRO acquisition in more than one-third of patients, thereby reducing the effectiveness of MDRO control programs that are targeted against known MDRO carriers. The poor performance of a single discharge swab may be due to intermittent or low-level MDRO shedding, inadequate sampling, or transient MDRO colonization. Additional research is needed to determine the optimal surveillance approach of enteric MDRO carriage.
The electrical conductivity of dry polycrystalline olivine compacts (hot-pressed and sintered pellets) was measured at pressures of 1.0–4.0 GPa, at temperatures of 1073–1423 K, and at different oxygen fugacities via the use of a YJ-3000t multi-anvil press. Oxygen fugacity was controlled successfully by means of five solid buffers: Fe3O4-Fe2O3, Ni-NiO, Fe-Fe3O4, Fe-FeO and Mo-MoO2. Within the selected frequency range of 102–106 Hz, the experimental results indicate that the grain interior conduction mechanism is characterized by a semi-circular curve on an impedance diagram. As a function of increasing pressure, the electrical conductivity of polycrystalline olivine compacts decreases, whereas the activation enthalpy and the temperature-independent pre-exponential factors increase slightly. The activation energy and activation volume of polycrystalline olivine compacts were determined to be 141.02±2.53 kJ/mol and 0.25±0.05 cm3/mol, respectively. At a pressure of 4.0 GPa, electrical conductivity was observed to increase as a function of increasing oxygen fugacity, and the relationship between electrical conductivity and oxygen fugacity can be described as log10 (σ) = (2.47±0.085) + (0.096±0.023)×log10fO2 + (–0.55±0.011)/T, which presents the exponential factor q (˜0.096). Our observations demonstrate that the primary conduction mechanism for polycrystalline olivine compacts is a small polaron.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) attitude determination and positioning play an important role in many navigation applications. However, the two GNSS-based problems are usually treated separately. This ignores the constraint information of the GNSS antenna array and the accuracy is limited. To improve the performance of navigation, an integrated attitude and position determination method based on an affine constraint model is presented. In the first part, the GNSS array model and affine constrained attitude determination method are compared with the unconstrained methods. Then the integrated attitude and position determination method is presented. The performance of the proposed method is tested with a series of static data and dynamic experimental GNSS data. The results show that the proposed method can improve the success rate of ambiguity resolution to further improve the accuracy of attitude determination and relative positioning compared to the unconstrained methods.
Cretaceous non-marine deposits are widespread in China and have been studied comprehensively. The Songliao Basin in northeast China is thought to be well suited for investigation of Cretaceous biostratigraphy. However, despite much research having been conducted in the basin, little is known about its Late Cretaceous biostratigraphy and paleoenvironment. Here, we establish a high-resolution biostratigraphy of the Late Cretaceous based on ostracods from borehole SK1(n) in the Songliao Basin, northeast China. As part of the present study, 45 species assigned to 20 genera have been recovered, with one new species (Ilyocypris bisulcata n. sp.) and five ostracod assemblages: the Cypridea gunsulinensis–Mongolocypris magna assemblage, which is marked by the first occurrence (F.O.) of Ilyocyprimorpha with nodes and spines; the Ilyocyprimorpha–Limnocypridea sunliaonensis–Periacanthella assemblage, which ranges from the F.O. of Ilyocyprimorpha with nodes and spines to the F.O. of Strumosia sp.; the Strumosia inandita assemblage from the F.O. of Strumosia sp. to the lower occurrence (L.O.) of Strumosia inandita; the Talicypridea amoena–Metacypris kaitunensis–Ziziphocypris simakovi assemblage from the F.O. of Mongolocypris apiculata (Cea) and Talicypridea amoena to the F.O. of Ilyocypris sp.; and the Ilyocypris assemblage from the F.O. of Ilyocypris sp. to the L.O. of Ilyocypris bisulcata n. sp.
Moreover, the zonal fossil Ilyocypris bisulcata n. sp. of Zone 5 is here described for the first time from the upper Mingshui Formation, and Paleocene charophyte genera including Neochara and Grovesicahra have been found to coexist with the Zone 5 fauna. The age of the Ilyocypris Assemblage is assigned to the latest Maastrichtian to the earliest Danian.
Flow velocities of a dilute gas–solid two-phase flow in a vertical sudden expansion were measured using phase Doppler anemometry to study the behaviour of the turbulence modulation for the stronger shear for various particle mass loadings, inlet Reynolds numbers and particle diameters. The measurements show that the particles changed the gas turbulence by elongation of the entire gas flow field in the downstream direction, which displaced the axial profile of the section-averaged fluctuation velocity in comparison with that of the single-phase flow, and by either the particle inertia reducing the local turbulence or the wake eddy effects enhancing the turbulence. Both mechanisms resulted in an apparent turbulence modulation, which has not been referred to in the related literature, and have led to an ambiguous understanding of turbulence modulation. The elongation and inlet effects should be eliminated to estimate whether the gas turbulence was really modified. The linear relationship between the gas mean velocity gradient and the root-mean-square fluctuation velocity, which was found to be similar to that in single-phase flows, gradually disappeared as the flow developed and the shear intensity reduced. The linear relationship also varied with different conditions. Specifically, the turbulence modulation was enhanced by higher particle mass loadings and the linear relationship disappeared with increasing particle mass loading. This linearity can perhaps be regarded as a criterion for determining the effect of stronger turbulence modulation.
The changes in optical properties and damage mechanism of ZnO/silicone white paint caused by <200 keV protons in space were investigated in terms of ground-based simulation testing. The energies of protons were chosen as 50, 90, and 110 keV. The results show that the change in solar absorptance Δαs increases with increasing irradiation fluence as well as the proton energy. On the basis of photoluminescence spectroscopy, it is revealed that with increasing proton fluence, the 660-nm emission band related to the interstitial Zn-ions changes little, the 405-nm emission band related to the Zn vacancies decreases and tends to disappear, the 460-nm emission band related to the double ionized oxygen vacancies decreases, and the emission band related to the singly ionized oxygen vacancies increases. SRIM simulation analysis indicates that the damage effect of ZnO/silicone white paint caused by proton exposure would be aggravated due to the organic silicone binder. The proton irradiation leads to ionization of Zn atoms, formation of free oxygen and oxygen vacancies, and degradation of the organic silicone binder. It is believed that the optical degradation of ZnO/silicone white paint, induced by <200 keV protons, can be attributed to the combined effect of these three processes.
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