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Previous studies have supported the theory that there is a positive association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in Western people. Diet plays an important role in determining serum ferritin concentration. Asian dietary patterns are different from Western dietary patterns, implying that there may be a difference in the association of ferritin with carotid atherosclerosis between Asian and Western people. However, few studies focus on the association between ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis among Asians. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum ferritin levels are associated with carotid atherosclerosis in an Asian adult population. A cross-sectional assessment was performed in 8302 adults in Tianjin, China. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques were assessed using ultrasonography, and serum ferritin was measured using the protein chip-chemiluminescence method. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between quartiles of serum ferritin concentration and carotid atherosclerosis. In the present study, the overall prevalence of IMT and carotid plaques in participants is 29·2 and 22·7 %, respectively. In women, after adjustments for potentially confounding factors, the OR of IMT and carotid plaques by increasing serum ferritin quartiles were 1·00, 1·39 (95 % CI 0·98–1·99), 1·39 (95 % CI 0·99–1·97), 1·81 (95 % CI 1·30–2·55) (Pfor trend<0·001) and 1·00, 1·24 (95 % CI 0·89–1·73), 1·18 (95 % CI 0·85–1·65), 1·59 (95 % CI 1·15–2·20) (Pfor trend<0·01), respectively. However, no association was found between serum ferritin and carotid atherosclerosis in men. The study demonstrated that increased serum ferritin levels are independently associated with IMT and carotid plaques in Asian women but not in Asian men.
Three iterative stabilised finite element methods based on local Gauss integration are proposed in order to solve the steady two-dimensional Smagorinsky model numerically. The Stokes iterative scheme, the Newton iterative scheme and the Oseen iterative scheme are adopted successively to deal with the nonlinear terms involved. Numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate their effectiveness. Furthermore, the effect of the parameters Re (the Reynolds number) and δ (the spatial filter radius) on the performance of the iterative numerical results is discussed.
The effects of boundaries such as grain boundaries and phase boundaries on low-field magnetoresistance (LFMR) have been investigated in single-phase lanthanum strontium manganates, in this case La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) and LSMO: zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposite thin films. In the pure LSMO films with similar grain size, it is found that the LFMR increases as the grain misorientation factor (β) increases. The LFMR in the nanocomposite films is greatly enhanced, as compared with single-phase films, due to the reduced grain size, and increased phase boundary (PB) and β effects. The composition study shows that the LFMR can be dramatically enhanced when the secondary phase content approaches the percolation threshold. The increased β and secondary phase concentration reduce the cross-section of electron conduction paths and favor the formation of the quasi-one-dimensional transport channels. Our results demonstrate that the reduction of cross-section of the electron conduction paths by tuning the grain orientation and secondary phase composition is necessary for enhancing LFMR effect.
Self-separated Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films were processed by a hydrothermal deposition and a rapid thermal separation method, followed by a sol–gel filling and sintering process. The films possess excellent piezoelectric and electromechanical properties close to those of bulk material. The maximum remnant polarization is over 30 μC/cm2 and the electromechanical coupling factor (kt) reaches as high as 0.52. The unique microstructure characteristics of the PZT films, such as their highly dense structure, columnar grains, well-connected grain boundaries, and well-dispersed nanopores, could all contribute to the enhanced piezoelectric and electromechanical properties.
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