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Understanding control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth with multiple herbicide sites of action, including synthetic auxins, is crucial for growers to minimize GR Palmer amaranth interference with crops. Field studies in 2013 and 2014 and a greenhouse study in 2014 were conducted in Stoneville, MS, to evaluate POST control of GR Palmer amaranth with 2,4-D alone and in mixtures with glyphosate and/or glufosinate. In the greenhouse study, control of 5- and 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth was 87% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ae ha−1. Dry weight reduction of GR Palmer amaranth was ≥81% with 2,4-D at 0.84 kg ha−1. In field studies, mixtures of glufosinate at 0.59 kg ai ha−1 and 2,4-D at 0.56 or 1.12 kg ae ha−1 controlled 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth 87% at 28 d after treatment (DAT). Averaged across glyphosate treatments, glufosinate applied alone applied to 5- to 10-cm GR Palmer amaranth reduced dry weight at 28 DAT to 20 g m−2 from 82 g m−2 and was comparable with that following 2,4-D applied alone at 1.12 kg ae ha−1 and mixtures of glufosinate plus 2,4-D at 0.56 and 1.12 kg ae ha−1. Mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate provided ≥92% control of 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth at 28 DAT. When applied to 15- to 20-cm plants, mixtures of 2,4-D plus glufosinate reduced GR Palmer amaranth density to ≤5 plants m−2 compared with 65 plants m−2 where no 2,4-D or glufosinate was applied. Glufosinate and 2,4-D are viable control options for 5- to 10-cm or 15- to 20-cm GR Palmer amaranth. However, 2,4-D did not improve GR Palmer amaranth control when added to any herbicide mixture except glyphosate and glufosinate applied to 15- to 20-cm plants at the 28 DAT evaluation.
Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) are sites identified as being globally important for the conservation of bird populations on the basis of an internationally agreed set of criteria. We present the first review of the development and spread of the IBA concept since it was launched by BirdLife International (then ICBP) in 1979 and examine some of the characteristics of the resulting inventory. Over 13,000 global and regional IBAs have so far been identified and documented in terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems in almost all of the world’s countries and territories, making this the largest global network of sites of significance for biodiversity. IBAs have been identified using standardised, data-driven criteria that have been developed and applied at global and regional levels. These criteria capture multiple dimensions of a site’s significance for avian biodiversity and relate to populations of globally threatened species (68.6% of the 10,746 IBAs that meet global criteria), restricted-range species (25.4%), biome-restricted species (27.5%) and congregatory species (50.3%); many global IBAs (52.7%) trigger two or more of these criteria. IBAs range in size from < 1 km2 to over 300,000 km2 and have an approximately log-normal size distribution (median = 125.0 km2, mean = 1,202.6 km2). They cover approximately 6.7% of the terrestrial, 1.6% of the marine and 3.1% of the total surface area of the Earth. The launch in 2016 of the KBA Global Standard, which aims to identify, document and conserve sites that contribute to the global persistence of wider biodiversity, and whose criteria for site identification build on those developed for IBAs, is a logical evolution of the IBA concept. The role of IBAs in conservation planning, policy and practice is reviewed elsewhere. Future technical priorities for the IBA initiative include completion of the global inventory, particularly in the marine environment, keeping the dataset up to date, and improving the systematic monitoring of these sites.
BirdLife International´s Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA) Programme has identified, documented and mapped over 13,000 sites of international importance for birds. IBAs have been influential with governments, multilateral agreements, businesses and others in: (1) informing governments’ efforts to expand protected area networks (in particular to meet their commitments through the Convention on Biological Diversity); (2) supporting the identification of Ecologically or Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) in the marine realm, (3) identifying Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention; (4) identifying sites of importance for species under the Convention on Migratory Species and its sister agreements; (5) identifying Special Protected Areas under the EU Birds Directive; (6) applying the environmental safeguards of international finance institutions such as the International Finance Corporation; (7) supporting the private sector to manage environmental risk in its operations; and (8) helping donor organisations like the Critical Ecosystems Partnership Fund (CEPF) to prioritise investment in site-based conservation. The identification of IBAs (and IBAs in Danger: the most threatened of these) has also triggered conservation and management actions at site level, most notably by civil society organisations and local conservation groups. IBA data have therefore been widely used by stakeholders at different levels to help conserve a network of sites essential to maintaining the populations and habitats of birds as well as other biodiversity. The experience of IBA identification and conservation is shaping the design and implementation of the recently launched Key Biodiversity Areas (KBA) Partnership and programme, as IBAs form a core part of the KBA network.
Hemorrhage remains the major cause of preventable death after trauma. Recent data suggest that earlier blood product administration may improve outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether opportunities exist for blood product transfusion by ground Emergency Medical Services (EMS).
This was a single EMS agency retrospective study of ground and helicopter responses from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 for adult trauma patients transported from the scene of injury who met predetermined hemodynamic (HD) parameters for potential transfusion (heart rate [HR]≥120 and/or systolic blood pressure [SBP]≤90).
A total of 7,900 scene trauma ground transports occurred during the study period. Of 420 patients meeting HD criteria for transfusion, 53 (12.6%) had a significant mechanism of injury (MOI). Outcome data were available for 51 patients; 17 received blood products during their emergency department (ED) resuscitation. The percentage of patients receiving blood products based upon HD criteria ranged from 1.0% (HR) to 5.9% (SBP) to 38.1% (HR+SBP). In all, 74 Helicopter EMS (HEMS) transports met HD criteria for blood transfusion, of which, 28 patients received prehospital blood transfusion. Statistically significant total patient care time differences were noted for both the HR and the SBP cohorts, with HEMS having longer time intervals; no statistically significant difference in mean total patient care time was noted in the HR+SBP cohort.
In this study population, HD parameters alone did not predict need for ED blood product administration. Despite longer transport times, only one-third of HEMS patients meeting HD criteria for blood administration received prehospital transfusion. While one-third of ground Advanced Life Support (ALS) transport patients manifesting HD compromise received blood products in the ED, this represented 0.2% of total trauma transports over the study period. Given complex logistical issues involved in prehospital blood product administration, opportunities for ground administration appear limited within the described system.
MixFM, ZielinskiMD, MyersLA, BernsKS, LukeA, StubbsJR, ZietlowSP, JenkinsDH, SztajnkrycerMD. Prehospital Blood Product Administration Opportunities in Ground Transport ALS EMS – A Descriptive Study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(3):230–236.
Background: In vitro models have suggested that stents affect atherosclerotic plaques symmetrically because of their outward radial forces. We evaluated the effects of stents on carotid plaque and the arterial wall using carotid ultrasound in carotid stenting patients to see whether these effects were borne out in vivo. Methods: From a carotid stent database, 30 consecutive patients were selected. All had carotid Doppler ultrasound performed pre- and poststenting. The diameters of the lumen at the level of stenotic plaque pre- and poststenting, the dorsal and ventral plaque thickness, and of the outer arterial wall diameter were measured. Plaque thickness was measured at the level of maximal stenosis. Nonparametric tests were used to determine whether the stent effect and luminal enlargement were based on wall remodeling or on total arterial expansion. Results: The patients were followed for an average of 22 months. Eighteen patients were male, with an average age of 70 years. A total of 87% of patients were symptomatic ipsilateral to the side of stenosis. Nine patients had angioplasty intraprocedurally. The luminal diameter increased poststenting in the region of severe stenosis. Plaque thickness, both ventrally and dorsally, decreased poststenting, with no significant difference between the ventral and dorsal plaque effects. The outer arterial wall diameters did not change. The measured lumen in the stent increased over time poststenting. Conclusions: Self-expanding nitinol stents alter the baseline ventral and dorsal plaque to a significant degree and do not significantly affect the native arterial wall and the overall arterial diameter.
Rattail fescue infestations are increasing in dryland conservation-tillage winter wheat cropping systems in the inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. Rattail fescue typically is controlled with cultivation in conventional tillage farming systems. However, reduced soil disturbance has allowed infestations to increase significantly. The objectives of this research were to determine the effectiveness of glyphosate rates and application timings on control of rattail fescue during a chemical-fallow period in winter wheat cropping systems. Chemical-fallow field studies were conducted during two growing seasons at nine sites throughout the PNW. Glyphosate was applied early POST, late POST, or sequentially in early plus late POST timings. Additionally, paraquat + diuron was applied early and late POST alone or sequentially with glyphosate. Sequential application treatments (glyphosate followed by [fb] glyphosate, paraquat + diuron fb glyphosate, and glyphosate fb paraquat + diuron) controlled rattail fescue (∼ 94% in Idaho and Washington, ∼ 74% in Oregon) and reduced panicle number (∼ 85% in Idaho, ∼ 30% in Oregon and Washington) equivalent to or greater than one-time treatments. Rattail fescue control and panicle reduction generally increased with increasing rates of glyphosate within application timings. Paraquat + diuron usually provided similar control and reduced rattail fescue panicle number compared to glyphosate treatments applied at the same application timing. Although not completely effective, sequential applications of either glyphosate or paraquat + diuron, fb glyphosate will provide effective control during chemical fallow.
To describe the incidence and pattern of traumatic spinal cord injury and cauda equina injury (SCI) in a geographically defined region of Canada.
The study period was April 1, 1997 to March 31, 2000. Data were gathered from three provincial sources: administrative data from the Alberta Ministry of Health and Wellness, records from the Alberta Trauma Registry, and death certificates from the Office of the Medical Examiner.
From all three data sources, 450 cases of SCI were identified. Of these, 71 (15.8%) died prior to hospitalization. The annual incidence rate was 52.5/million population (95% CI: 47.7, 57.4). For those who survived to hospital admission, the incidence rate was 44.3/million/year (95% CI: 39.8, 48.7). The incidence rates for males were consistently higher than for females for all age groups. Motor vehicle collisions accounted for 56.4% of injuries, followed by falls (19.1%). The highest incidence of motor vehicle-related SCI occurred to those between 15 and 29 years (60/million/year). Fall-related injuries primarily occurred to those older than 60 years (45/million/year). Rural residents were 2.5 times as likely to be injured as urban residents.
Prevention strategies for SCI should target males of all ages, adolescents and young adults of both sexes, rural residents, motor vehicle collisions, and fall prevention for those older than 60 years.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) certifies a suite of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to address specific aspects of the performance of X-ray powder diffraction instruments. This report describes SRM 1878b, the third generation of this powder diffraction SRM. SRM 1878b is intended for use in the preparation of calibration standards for the quantitative analyses of α-quartz by X-ray powder diffraction in accordance to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Analytical Method 7500, or equivalent. A unit of SRM 1878b consists of approximately 5 g of α-quartz powder bottled in an argon atmosphere. It is certified with respect to crystalline phase purity, or amorphous phase content, and lattice parameter. Neutron powder diffraction, both time of flight and constant wavelength, was used to certify the phase purity using SRM 676a as an internal standard. A NIST-built diffractometer, incorporating many advanced design features was used for certification measurements for lattice parameters.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) certifies a suite of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to address specific aspects of the performance of X-ray powder diffraction instruments. This report describes SRM 1976b, the third generation of this powder diffraction SRM. SRM 1976b consists of a sintered alumina disc, approximately 25.6 mm in diameter by 2.2 mm in thickness, intended for use in the calibration of X-ray powder diffraction equipment with respect to line position and intensity as a function of 2θ-angle. The sintered form of the SRM eliminates the effect of sample loading procedures on intensity measurements. Certified data include the lattice parameters and relative peak intensity values from 13 lines in the 2θ region between 20° and 145° using CuKα radiation. A NIST-built diffractometer, incorporating many advanced and unique design features was used to make the certification measurements.
Cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion associated with middle cerebral artery (MCA) embolic occlusion requires prompt revascularization to prevent devastating stroke. With the advent of endovascular techniques for chemical and mechanical thrombolysis, the clinical outcome of patients with major arterial occlusions will improve. Finding the most expedient pathway to the site of end organ occlusion for thrombolysis is important.
We present two cases of acute stroke secondary to thrombotic occlusion of the cervical ICA associated with MCA embolic occlusion treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis via catheter navigation through the posterior communicating artery to the site of MCA arterial occlusion. No attempt was made to transverse the occluded ICA.
Near complete restoration of flow was achieved in one patient and minimal vessel reopening was observed in the other patient. Both patients had good outcomes.
Intraarterial thrombolysis via Circle of Willis collaterals such as the posterior communicating artery for the treatment of acute thrombotic occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery associated with embolic occlusion of the middle cerebral artery is a therapeutic option. This treatment option avoids the potential complications of navigating through an occluded proximal internal carotid artery and may expedite reopening of the MCA.
Molecular pathology: lymphoma and leukemia
Donald H. C. Macdonald, Department of Haematology, Imperial College, London, UK,
Andreas Reiter, Medizinische Klinik, Univers¨atsmedizin Mannheim, Germany,
Nicholas C. P. Cross, Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory, University of Southampton, Salisbury District Hospital, Salisbury, UK
The “8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome” (EMS) is an extremely rare hematological malignancy characterized by disruption and constitutive activation of fibroblast growth-factor receptor type 1 (FGFR1; 1). The disease is also referred to as “stem-cell leukemia/lymphoma syndrome” (SCLL) or “myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with FGFR1 abnormalities” (ICD-O code 9967/3; 2,3). Clinically, EMS is typically a biphenotypic disorder that may present as a myeloproliferative neoplasm, acute leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma, usually in conjunction with prominent eosinophilia. Although uncommon, EMS is of interest because of its stem-cell origin, marked genotype/phenotype correlations and diverse range of FGFR1 fusions, which all demonstrate a common pathogenic mechanism. Cell-line and animal studies have dissected the signaling pathways that are critical for transformation and may ultimately lead to molecularly targeted therapy.
Clinical and laboratory descriptions of more than 40 cases of EMS have been published and, although the clinical course is highly variable, some common features have emerged, as summarized in Table 75.1. The age range at onset is between 5 months and 84 years, with a median of 32 and a slight male to female predominance of 1.5:1. EMS may present as a myeloid and/or lymphoid malignancy; the myeloid presentation may be either a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and the lymphoid presentation is typically either B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) or T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL).
Molecular pathways underlying carcinogenesis: signal transduction
Fabiola Cecchi, Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda,MD, USA,
Young H. Lee, Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA,
Donald P. Bottaro, Urologic Oncology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), also known as scatter factor (SF), was discovered on the basis of its ability to promote liver regeneration, and independently for its mitogenic activity on epithelial cells and its ability to induce cell scatter (1). HGF is secreted primarily by mesenchymal cells and drives cell motility, proliferation, survival, and morphogenesis by binding to the Met receptor tyrosine kinase (TK) present on a variety of target cell types (1–6). HGF/Met signaling is critical for normal development and adult homeostasis: deletion of either gene lethally disrupts embryogenesis (4,6) and up-regulation of HGF expression after kidney, liver, or heart injury protects against tissue damage and promotes repair and regeneration in adults (1,7–11). Under normal conditions, Met activation is tightly regulated by paracrine ligand delivery, ligand activation, and receptor internalization, dephosphorylation, and degradation (1). Despite this, HGF/Met signaling contributes to tumorigenesis, tumor angiogenesis, and metastasis in several prevalent cancers, a realization that has driven rapid growth in the development of experimental therapeutics targeting the pathway.
HGF and Met structure and function
The human HGF gene consists of 18 exons and 16 introns spanning 68 Mb on chromosome 7q21.11 (1). Five mRNA transcripts arise from alternative splicing: two encode full-length HGF forms and three encode truncated isoforms that bind Met, but differ in their biological activities (1). HGF protein is a plasminogen family member consisting of an amino-terminal heparin-binding domain (N), four kringle domains (K1–4) and a carboxyl-terminal serine-protease-like domain (Figure 17.1a). Unlike other plasminogen family members, HGF has no proteolytic activity (1). The HGF N and K1 domains contain the primary Met binding sites (12), and the protease-like domain contains an important secondary Met binding site (13). Proteolytic processing of the single-chain HGF precursor results in the active disulfide-linked heterodimer; the amino-terminal α-chain contains N and K1–4, and the β-chain contains the protease-like region (1).