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The present study, conducted in collaboration between the Departments of Psychiatry in Swiss Universities and the World Health Organization, had two main goals: to develop assessment methods which could subsequently be used in the Swiss centres in a standard manner; and to make arrangements for continuing collaboration between the centres in Switzerland and the acquisition of new knowledge about the distinctions between depression and cognitive impairment. For this aim, three different groups of elderly patients of either sex were selected during the period of November 1989 to July 1991 for inclusion in the study. The first two groups included the first ten patients of either sex over 60 years of age consecutively contacting the participating institutions and showing depression with or without clinically significant symptoms of cognitive impairment; the control group included patients showing no depression or clinically significant symptoms of cognitive impairment. A total of 125 patients were included in the initial evaluation, 69 of which were reassessed at a seven-month follow up (on average). Each patient was administered a number of clinician-rated or self-report instruments for the assessment of depression, cognitive impairment, disabilities, physical status and onset of disorders. The study has shown that a variety of instruments can be used for the reliable assessment of depression or cognitive impairment in the elderly; but the instruments for the assessment of depression differentiate only poorly between patients with or without cognitive impairment. Because of the importance of identifying both depressed and cognitively impaired patients among the elderly, different assessment instruments targeted at the different symptom clusters need to be administered simultaneously.
Scholars have often characterized wisdom as a trait – a stable and invariable individual disposition. However, recent advances in behavioral sciences suggest that many features of wisdom can be viewed as situation-specific states – concrete instances of wise and not so wise behavior. We critically examine the evidence concerning the trait vs. state aspects of wisdom. First, we review the common individual qualities attributed to wisdom. The extent to which these qualities are seen as stable traits vs. variable states varies among both laypeople and scientists, and new evidence shows that pertinent folk theories about wisdom vary substantially across cultures as well. Next, we present empirical research on wisdom in everyday situations which demonstrates the systematic variability of wisdom-related characteristics as a function of situational demands and induced mindsets. To resolve the trait vs. state debate in wisdom, we argue for a whole trait theoretical framework, conceptualizing traits as a density distribution of states. Based on theoretical and empirical insights, we conclude by providing recommendations for best practices when measuring trait- and state-components of wisdom.
A nationwide population-based cohort was used to examine the severity of liver cirrhosis and risk of mortality from oral cancer.
The cohort consisted of 3583 patients with oral cancer treated by surgery between 2008 and 2011 in Taiwan. They were grouped on the basis of normal liver function (n = 3471), cirrhosis without decompensation (n = 72) and cirrhosis with decompensation (n = 40). The primary endpoint was mortality. Hazard ratios of death were also determined.
The mortality rates in the respective groups were 14.8 per cent, 20.8 per cent and 37.5 per cent at one year (p < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratios of death at one year for each group compared to the normal group were 2.01 (p = 0.021) for cirrhotic patients without decompensation, 4.84 (p < 0.001) for those with decompensation and 2.65 (p < 0.001) for those receiving chemotherapy.
Liver cirrhosis can be used to predict one-year mortality in oral cancer patients. Chemotherapy should be used with caution and underlying co-morbidities should be managed in cirrhotic patients to reduce mortality risk.
Optical control is a reversible and convenient technology, able to be measured in real-time, which makes it excellent for application to microfluidic, biomechanical, and electro-mechanical devices. These advantages are especially attractive for photo-responsive materials. In this study, we developed a new photo-responsive, electrostrictive material from a composite material made by mixing a dielectric polymer P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) and an organic photoconductive material TiOPc. The photo-responsibility of the material has been validated by corresponding actuators. We found that under white light illumination, deformation will increase which can be attributed to a decrease in the TiOPc impedance. We identified that the optimal TiOPc concentration for actuator applications is 10% P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)/TiOPc. Moreover, controlling the fluid flow within the capillary tube through light illumination also validated the photo-responsive actuator. Our results show that the mechanism and the photo-responsive material can be used to pursue further study on light controlling microfluidic, and related electro-mechanical devices.
Optical and tactile single scanning probes usually are used in dimensional metrology
applications, especially for roughness, form, thickness and surface profile measurements.
To perform assessments with nanometre level of accuracy, specific ultra-high precision
machines have been developed by the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) such as the LNE,
VSL, METAS, SMD, generally in collaboration with industrials and academics partners. Such
developments are not devoted only to NMIs but many industrials develop and commercialize
their own ultra-high precision machines as the IBSPE and TNO companies. All these machines
provide optical and tactile precise measurements and cover a large domain of application
such as the form’s characterization of optical lenses. In this paper the performance and
capability of ultra-high precision machines of some National Metrology Institutes (LNE,
VSL, SMD and METAS) and industrials companies (TNO and IBSPE), involving together in the
IND10 European EMRP project titled “Optical and tactile metrology for absolute form
characterization”, will be detailed. Theirs probing systems and accuracies levels will be
evoked. Relevant results especially for measuring optical lenses will be also presented
This paper studies the behavior of second grade viscoelastic fluid past a cavity in a horizontal channel. The effects of Reynolds number, fluid elasticity and the aspect ratio of the cavity on the flow field are simulated numerically. The equations are converted into the vorticity and stream function equations. The solution is obtained by the finite difference method.
The behavior of viscoelastic fluids is quite different from the Newtonian fluid, due to the effects of fluid elasticity. Only one flow pattern appears when the Newtonian fluid past the cavity. However, three kinds of flow patterns appear while the viscoelastic fluids past the cavity by increasing Reynolds number from 20 to 300. The flow field is affected by the fluid elasticity as well as the aspect ratio of the cavity. The transitional flow pattern appears at lower Reynolds number as the higher elasticity fluid past the cavity with larger aspect ratio.
The working title of this book was “Combinatorics 18.315.” In the private language of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Course 18 is Mathematics, and 18.315 is the beginning graduate course in combinatorial theory. From the 1960s to the 1990s, 18.315 was taught primarily by the three permanent faculty in combinatorics, Gian-Carlo Rota, Daniel Kleitman, and Richard Stanley. Kleitman is a problem solver, with a prior career as a theoretical physicist. His way of teaching 18.315 was intuitive and humorous. With Kleitman, mathematics is fun. The experience of a Kleitman lecture can be gleaned from the transcripts of two talks. Stanley's way is the opposite of Kleitman. His lectures are careful, methodical, and packed with information. He does not waste words. The experience of a Stanley lecture is captured in the two books Enumerative Combinatorics I and II, now universally known as EC1 and EC2. Stanley's work is a major factor in making algebraic combinatorics a respectable flourishing mainstream area.
Gian-Carlo Rota was one of the most original and colourful mathematicians of the 20th century. His work on the foundations of combinatorics focused on the algebraic structures that lie behind diverse combinatorial areas, and created a new area of algebraic combinatorics. Written by two of his former students, this book is based on notes from his influential graduate courses and on face-to-face discussions. Topics include sets and valuations, partially ordered sets, distributive lattices, partitions and entropy, matching theory, free matrices, doubly stochastic matrices, Moebius functions, chains and antichains, Sperner theory, commuting equivalence relations and linear lattices, modular and geometric lattices, valuation rings, generating functions, umbral calculus, symmetric functions, Baxter algebras, unimodality of sequences, and location of zeros of polynomials. Many exercises and research problems are included, and unexplored areas of possible research are discussed. A must-have for all students and researchers in combinatorics and related areas.