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Dietary intake of ω-3 fatty acids has been associated with a decreased lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal phospholipids metabolism in the brain has been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of major psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, mood disorder. This study was conducted to determine whether essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPUFAs) levels in the erythrocyte membrane are correlate with severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as cognitive function, in subjects with AD.
The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Toyama School of Medicine.
Thirty out-patients (male/female = 6/24) with AD (n = 23) or amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 7) participated in the study. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were administered to assess cognitive function and severity of BPSD respectively. Caregiver burden was assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale (NPI-D). Fatty acids levels were analyzed using a gas chromatography system.
Concentrations of EPUFAs and ω-3 fatty acids were positively correlated with MMSE score. Also, EPUFAs levels were negatively correlated with the NPI Global and caregiver scores. Specifically, EPUFAs levels predicted dysphoria, euphoria and apathy scores of NPI.
These results suggest that abnormal phospholipids metabolism provided a biological basis for BPSD and cognitive impairments of AD.
The purpose of this study was to determine if perospirone, a second generation antipsychotic drug and partial agonist at serotonin-5-HT1A receptors, enhances electrophysiological activity, such as event-related potentials (ERPs), in frontal brain regions, as well as cognitive function in subjects with schizophrenia. P300 current source images were obtained by means of standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) before and after treatment with perospirone for 6 months. Perospirone significantly increased P300 current source density in the left superior frontal gyrus, and improved positive symptoms and performance on the script tasks, a measure of verbal social cognition. Perospirone also tended to enhance verbal learning memory in patients with schizophrenia. There was a significant correlation between the changes in P300 amplitudes on the left frontal lead and those in social cognition. These results suggest the changes in three-dimensional distribution of cortical activity, as demonstrated by sLORETA, may mediate some of the actions of antipsychotic drugs. the distinct cognition-enhancing profile of perospirone may be related to its actions on 5-HT1A receptors.
We studied a suitable procedure for preparing of water samples used in radiocarbon intercomparisons involving dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The water samples must have inter-batch consistency and stable 14C concentrations and no sterilizing agent (e.g., HgCl2) should be added, in order to avoid the production of hazardous material. Six water samples, containing widely different amounts and types of salts, DIC, and 14C concentrations (1–100 pMC), were prepared in order to assess the procedure. Sample consistency was investigated through δ13C and chemical compositions; their low variabilities indicate that our procedure can be applied to radiocarbon intercomparison. A specific sample preparation protocol was developed for this kind of applications.
This paper studies a special type of binomial splitting process. Such a process can be used to model a high dimensional corner parking problem as well as determining the depth of random PATRICIA (practical algorithm to retrieve information coded in alphanumeric) tries, which are a special class of digital tree data structures. The latter also has natural interpretations in terms of distinct values in independent and identically distributed geometric random variables and the occupancy problem in urn models. The corresponding distribution is marked by a logarithmic mean and a bounded variance, which is oscillating, if the binomial parameter p is not equal to ½, and asymptotic to one in the unbiased case. Also, the limiting distribution does not exist as a result of the periodic fluctuations.
We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, −0.121 to −0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period.
Mucosal mast cells (MMC) play a crucial role in the expulsion of Strongyloides ratti adults from the small intestine of mice. We reported the large intestinal parasitism of S. ratti in rats, and there has been no report on MMC in the large intestine of the natural host. We studied kinetics of MMC, together with eosinophils, in the upper and lower small intestines, caecum and colon of infected rats. Two distinct phases of mastocytosis were revealed: one in the upper small intestine triggered by stimulation of ‘ordinary’ adults, and the other in the colon stimulated by ‘immune-resistant’ adults that started parasitizing the colon around 19 days post-infection. In all 4 intestinal sites, the MMC peaks were observed 5–7 days after the number of adult worms became the maximum and the height of MMC peaks appeared to be dependent on the number of parasitic adults, suggesting an important role played by worms themselves in the MMC buildup.
Optical and near-infrared observations of novae give us useful information for understanding the diversity of nova eruptions. Classical nova V1723 Aql was discovered by F. Kabashima and K. Nishiyama on 2010 September 11. We have conducted photometric and spectroscopic observations of V1723 Aql in both optical and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength regions since its discovery. The V-band decline time by 2 mag after the maximum, t2, was ~12 d. The apparent Fe II emission lines were also seen in the optical spectra. The Rc- and Ic-band light curves exhibited rapid declines (0.16 mag d−1 in Rc) 20 days after the visual maximum, while the NIR (J, H, and Ks) showed slow decline rates (~0.07 mag d−1). This rapid reddening suggests that dust particles formed during the very early phase of the expansion in V1723 Aql.
Results of our experimental investigation on the ozone zero phenomenon
suggested us the importance of the electrode surface condition. This means
that the main cause of the phenomenon, that is, temporal decrease of ozone
concentration at the outlet of DBD type ozone generator and the recovery
characteristics from the phenomenon are considered as the surface reaction
process, which are influenced strongly by the surface condition. The surface
condition is never constant during the ozone generation and varies gradually
or remarkably with time depending on the experimental conditions. Therefore
we have been continued to make clear the cause of the phenomenon, for
example, the reproducibility of the phenomenon, using new electrodes and
together with the surface analysis technique etc. In this paper, we describe
on the above results and discussion.
Strongyloides ratti (Nagoya strain) is unique in that a portion of adults parasitizing the small intestine withstands ‘worm expulsion’, which starts at around day 8 post-infection (p.i.) by host immunity, and establishes in the large intestine after day 19 p.i. To investigate the mechanism, adults obtained from the small intestine at day 7 or 19 p.i. were transplanted into the colon of infection-primed immune rats. Adults obtained at day 7 p.i. were rejected quickly, whereas those obtained at day 19 p.i. could establish infection. Moreover, the body length and the number of intrauterine eggs increased in the large intestine. In a separate experiment, large intestinal parasitism was abolished by the treatment of host rats with an anti-oxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole. These results indicate that small intestinal adults between days 7 and 19 p.i. acquired the ability to parasitize the large intestine of immune rats, and that free radicals produced by the host may have played a significant role in the process.
Maternal food restriction is known to cause developmental hypertension in offspring. We have previously shown that maternal high-protein diet can reverse fetal programming of hypertension and that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations in maternal and fetal plasma were increased by maternal high-protein intake. Then, we hypothesized that isocaloric supplementation with BCAA to a maternal food restriction can reverse the adverse outcome. Pregnant rats were divided into four groups at 7.5 days postcoitum: normally nourished (NN) and 70% undernourished (UN) groups with and without BCAA supplementation (NN–standard diet (SD), NN–BCAA, UN–SD and UN–BCAA groups). Compared with pups in the NN groups, those in the UN–SD group had significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) at 8 and 16 weeks of age (P < 0.05). However, the elevation of SBP was not observed in offspring in the UN–BCAA group. Offspring glomeruli number of the UN groups was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of the NN groups, independent of BCAA supplementation. Angiotensin II receptor type 2 (ATR2) mRNA and protein expression in the kidney was significantly augmented in the UN–BCAA group at 30 weeks of age. In conclusion, BCAA supplementation during maternal food restriction prevents developmental hypertension together with increased ATR2 expression in adult offspring kidney.
Influence of the linear energy-momentum relationship in graphene on conductance and magnetoresistance (MR) in ferromagnetic metal (FM)/graphene/FM lateral junctions is studied in a numerical simulation formulated using the Kubo formula and recursive Green’s function method in a tight-binding model. It is shown that the contribution of electron tunneling through graphene should be considered in the electronic transport in metal/graphene/metal junctions, and that the Dirac point (DP) is effectively shifted by the band mixing between graphene and metal electrodes. It is shown that MR appears due to spin-dependent shift of DP or spin-dependent change in the electronic states at DPs. It is shown that the MR ratio caused by the latter mechanism can be very high when certain transition metal alloys are used for electrodes. These results do not essentially depend on the shape of the junction structure. However, to obtain high MR ratios, the effects of roughness should be small.
Exchange coupling observed recently in Fe/ Fe3O4 (001) junctions shows comparable intensity to that in Co/Ru/Co trilayers, and has potential applicability to spintronics devices. To clarify the mechanism of the exchange coupling, electronic and magnetic states of Fe/ Fe3O4 junctions are calculated in the first principles method by assuming four junction structures of bcc Fe and Fe3O4 layers. It is shown that the local moments of bcc Fe atoms at the interface increase, but those of Fe ions at the interface of Fe3O4 layer decrease. The total energy of the junctions is plotted as a function of distance between Fe and Fe3O4 layers. Calculated results of the coupling energy between Fe and Fe3O4 layers, however, are larger than experimental ones by two orders of magnitude, and they correspond to inter-atomic exchange interactions at the interface. In order to explain the experimental results, we propose a mechanism of exchange coupling mediated by impurity-like states of interfacial Fe atoms which possess reversed magnetic moments in bcc Fe layer. Frustration effects in exchange coupling between Fe and Fe3O4 layers are also discussed.
A wave is never found alone, but is mingled with as many other waves as there are uneven places in the object where said wave is produced. At one and the same time there will be moving over the greatest wave of a sea innumerable other waves, proceeding in different directions.
(Leonardo da Vinci, “Codice Atlantico”)
Introduction and overview
Central issues and scope
After our discussions of quasi-linear theory and nonlinear wave–particle interaction, it is appropriate to pause, to review where we've been, and to survey where we're going. Stepping back, one can say that the central issues which plasma turbulence theory must address may be classified as:
(1) mean field relaxation – how the mean distribution function evolves in the presence of turbulence, and what sort of heating, cross-field transport, etc. results from that evolution. Though much maligned, mean field theory forms the backbone of most approaches to turbulence. Chapter 3 deals with the most basic approach to the mean field theory of relaxation, namely quasi-linear theory – based upon closure using the linear response. Future chapters will discuss more advanced approaches to describing relaxation in a turbulent, collisionless plasma;
(2) response – how the distribution function evolves in response to a test perturbation in a turbulent collisionless plasma. Problems of response including nonlinear Landau damping, resonance broadening theory, propagator renormalization, etc. are discussed in Chapters 3 and 4, on the kinetics of nonlinear wave–particle interaction;