The concentrations of 15 elements and mineral grain-size distributions were determined for Late Quaternary loess sediments from the Chinese Loess Plateau. Particle-size distributions of the loess were approximately log-normal for each of three modes (i.e., 0.04 to 1 μm diameter, 2 to 20 μm, and 20 to 200 μm) that integrate the transport and deposition of eolian dust. The mass particle-size distributions of typical crustal elements (Si, Ca, Fe, Ti, K, Mn, and V) in paleosol and loess samples show patterns similar to those of mineral aerosols, but higher concentrations occur in the submicrometer sediment particles. Absolute principal component analysis of the elemental data suggests that the loess can be described in terms of synsedimentary and postdepositional concentration and subvertical migration of CaCO3 and various elements through the deposit. A variety of geochemical indicators in the loess are apparently sensitive to Asian monsoon variations; these include the mass ratio of course to fine particles, the concentration ratios of certain trace elements, the elemental fluxes associated with eolian dust, and the bulk concentration of Ca in the sediments.