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To evaluate the construct validity of the NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIH TB-CB) in the healthy oldest-old (85+ years old).
Our sample from the McKnight Brain Aging Registry consists of 179 individuals, 85 to 99 years of age, screened for memory, neurological, and psychiatric disorders. Using previous research methods on a sample of 85 + y/o adults, we conducted confirmatory factor analyses on models of NIH TB-CB and same domain standard neuropsychological measures. We hypothesized the five-factor model (Reading, Vocabulary, Memory, Working Memory, and Executive/Speed) would have the best fit, consistent with younger populations. We assessed confirmatory and discriminant validity. We also evaluated demographic and computer use predictors of NIH TB-CB composite scores.
Findings suggest the six-factor model (Vocabulary, Reading, Memory, Working Memory, Executive, and Speed) had a better fit than alternative models. NIH TB-CB tests had good convergent and discriminant validity, though tests in the executive functioning domain had high inter-correlations with other cognitive domains. Computer use was strongly associated with higher NIH TB-CB overall and fluid cognition composite scores.
The NIH TB-CB is a valid assessment for the oldest-old samples, with relatively weak validity in the domain of executive functioning. Computer use’s impact on composite scores could be due to the executive demands of learning to use a tablet. Strong relationships of executive function with other cognitive domains could be due to cognitive dedifferentiation. Overall, the NIH TB-CB could be useful for testing cognition in the oldest-old and the impact of aging on cognition in older populations.
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
To determine whether age, gender and marital status are associated with prognosis for adults with depression who sought treatment in primary care.
Medline, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane Central were searched from inception to 1st December 2020 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of adults seeking treatment for depression from their general practitioners, that used the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule so that there was uniformity in the measurement of clinical prognostic factors, and that reported on age, gender and marital status. Individual participant data were gathered from all nine eligible RCTs (N = 4864). Two-stage random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to ascertain the independent association between: (i) age, (ii) gender and (iii) marital status, and depressive symptoms at 3–4, 6–8,<Vinod: Please carry out the deletion of serial commas throughout the article> and 9–12 months post-baseline and remission at 3–4 months. Risk of bias was evaluated using QUIPS and quality was assessed using GRADE. PROSPERO registration: CRD42019129512. Pre-registered protocol https://osf.io/e5zup/.
There was no evidence of an association between age and prognosis before or after adjusting for depressive ‘disorder characteristics’ that are associated with prognosis (symptom severity, durations of depression and anxiety, comorbid panic disorderand a history of antidepressant treatment). Difference in mean depressive symptom score at 3–4 months post-baseline per-5-year increase in age = 0(95% CI: −0.02 to 0.02). There was no evidence for a difference in prognoses for men and women at 3–4 months or 9–12 months post-baseline, but men had worse prognoses at 6–8 months (percentage difference in depressive symptoms for men compared to women: 15.08% (95% CI: 4.82 to 26.35)). However, this was largely driven by a single study that contributed data at 6–8 months and not the other time points. Further, there was little evidence for an association after adjusting for depressive ‘disorder characteristics’ and employment status (12.23% (−1.69 to 28.12)). Participants that were either single (percentage difference in depressive symptoms for single participants: 9.25% (95% CI: 2.78 to 16.13) or no longer married (8.02% (95% CI: 1.31 to 15.18)) had worse prognoses than those that were married, even after adjusting for depressive ‘disorder characteristics’ and all available confounders.
Clinicians and researchers will continue to routinely record age and gender, but despite their importance for incidence and prevalence of depression, they appear to offer little information regarding prognosis. Patients that are single or no longer married may be expected to have slightly worse prognoses than those that are married. Ensuring this is recorded routinely alongside depressive ‘disorder characteristics’ in clinic may be important.
COVID-19 altered research in Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) hubs in an unprecedented manner, leading to adjustments for COVID-19 research.
CTSA members volunteered to conduct a review on the impact of CTSA network on COVID-19 pandemic with the assistance from NIH survey team in October 2020. The survey questions included the involvement of CTSAs in decision-making concerning the prioritization of COVID-19 studies. Descriptive and statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data.
60 of the 64 CTSAs completed the survey. Most CTSAs lacked preparedness but promptly responded to the pandemic. Early disruption of research triggered, enhanced CTSA engagement, creation of dedicated research areas and triage for prioritization of COVID-19 studies. CTSAs involvement in decision-making were 16.75 times more likely to create dedicated diagnostic laboratories (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17–129.39; P < 0.01). Likewise, institutions with internal funding were 3.88 times more likely to establish COVID-19 dedicated research (95% CI = 1.12–13.40; P < 0.05). CTSAs were instrumental in securing funds and facilitating establishment of laboratory/clinical spaces for COVID-19 research. Workflow was modified to support contracting and IRB review at most institutions with CTSAs. To mitigate chaos generated by competing clinical trials, central feasibility committees were often formed for orderly review/prioritization.
The lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic emphasize the pivotal role of CTSAs in prioritizing studies and establishing the necessary research infrastructure, and the importance of prompt and flexible research leadership with decision-making capacity to manage future pandemics.
Previous genetic association studies have failed to identify loci robustly associated with sepsis, and there have been no published genetic association studies or polygenic risk score analyses of patients with septic shock, despite evidence suggesting genetic factors may be involved. We systematically collected genotype and clinical outcome data in the context of a randomized controlled trial from patients with septic shock to enrich the presence of disease-associated genetic variants. We performed genomewide association studies of susceptibility and mortality in septic shock using 493 patients with septic shock and 2442 population controls, and polygenic risk score analysis to assess genetic overlap between septic shock risk/mortality with clinically relevant traits. One variant, rs9489328, located in AL589740.1 noncoding RNA, was significantly associated with septic shock (p = 1.05 × 10–10); however, it is likely a false-positive. We were unable to replicate variants previously reported to be associated (p < 1.00 × 10–6 in previous scans) with susceptibility to and mortality from sepsis. Polygenic risk scores for hematocrit and granulocyte count were negatively associated with 28-day mortality (p = 3.04 × 10–3; p = 2.29 × 10–3), and scores for C-reactive protein levels were positively associated with susceptibility to septic shock (p = 1.44 × 10–3). Results suggest that common variants of large effect do not influence septic shock susceptibility, mortality and resolution; however, genetic predispositions to clinically relevant traits are significantly associated with increased susceptibility and mortality in septic individuals.
According to Oedegaard et al. (2010) the co-morbidity of migraine and bipolar disorder (BPD) is well documented in numerous epidemiological and clinical studies, and there are clear pathophysiological similarities. Interestingly, in a genome-wide scan, Lea et al. (2005) identified a susceptibility locus for a severe heritable form of common migraine on chromosome 3q29. With respect to BPD, a susceptibility region on chromosome 3q29 was identified in a genome-wide linkage scan (Bailer et al. 2002) and follow-up linkage analysis (Schosser et al. 2004). These findings were also supported by further fine-mapping of this region (Schosser et al. 2007). Since 3q29 is among the chromosomal regions implicated in migraine and bipolar linkage studies, the aim of the current study is to test for 3q29 association of migraine in sample of patients with BPD. The sample consists of 463 patients with a diagnosis of BPD (34.63% men, 65.37% women; mean age ± SD: 48.01 ± 11.26), as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 4th edition operational criteria (DSM-IV) and the International Classification of Diseases 10th edition operational criteria (ICD-10), derived from the Bipolar Affective Disorder Case Control Study (BACCS). A total of 51 SNPs in the region of the 3q29 were genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY® iPLEX Gold and tested for association with migraine. The results of this association study investigating the 3q29 region in a sample of patients with BPD will be presented.
The heterogeneity in the manifestation of PSTD symptomatology has never been described in a developmental period spanning from middle childhood through adolescence. The examination of developmental influences on PTSD symptomatic expression is a high priority for DSM-V and could inform research on the etiology and treatment of PTSD.
To examine the symptom structure of PTSD across different age, gender, and exposure groups, and in association with impairment and other disorders.
To identify homogeneous latent classes of PTSD symptoms in children and adolescents.
Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 6,733 New York City students (4th–12th grades) exposed to 9/11-related potentially traumatic events. LCA was first applied to PTSD symptoms only, stratified by age, gender and empirically defined exposure groups, and then in combination with impairment indicators. The resultant classes were studied in association with other disorders.
LCA identified 4 classes that vary in severity and symptom configuration. Only the most severe profile, qualitatively characterized by the presence of traumatic memories in combination with avoidance and sleep-related problems, showed high levels of impairment and high rates of other disorders. Girls after puberty and subjects indirectly exposed to 9/11 are at increased risk of severe disturbance.
The 4-class model describes quantitative and qualitative differences in the structure of PTSD across age, gender and exposure. These findings support the inclusion of developmental considerations into DSM-V PTSD diagnostic criteria and suggest that also gender and the nature of traumatic exposure inflence PTSD phenomenology in children and adolescents.
The capacity to accumulate information over time is crucial to our functioning in an ever-changing world. Recently, in healthy subjects, we showed that brain uses a distributed and hierarchical network of brain areas to process information over time. Specifically, we revealed hierarchy of information processing over time from early sensory areas toward high order perceptual and cognitive areas. Here, we investigate this issue in first-episode schizophrenia patients.
Previous studies posited that schizophrenia is the result of impairment of hierarchical temporal processing by the brain, claiming for impairment in use of context while being processing information. The hierarchical temporal deficit is a fundamental trait that may be a better target for the study of etiology and pathophysiology of the disease.
We intended to map, in schizophrenia patients, the topographical organization of temporal scales using an ecologically relevant auditory stimulus - a real-life story. In addition, we assumed that studying healthy siblings, who are at high-risk for cognitive dysfunctions, will enable to determine functional neuromarkers of predisposition to disorder.
The fMRI data were analyzed using inter-subject correlation approach. The time-courses within each brain area in schizophrenia patients were estimated against healthy controls and unaffected siblings of the patients.
Among patients, we observed impaired hierarchy with processing intact in low level but disturbed in high level. The sibling group showed an intermediate effect.
Better understanding of the underlying neural circuit involved in information processing in schizophrenia patients may assist in early identification of functional neuromarkers for the disease.
Some techniques of psychotherapy are now widely evidence-based and very cost effective, especially cognitive and behavioral therapies. Most of the studies are indirectly based on patient reported outcomes or problematic behaviors evaluated before and after the psychotherapy. Unfortunately, studies struggle to control for what is actually happening during psychotherapy, especially the non-specific aspects, like the interaction between the patient and the therapist, that is a known predictor of psychotherapeutic efficacy. Consequently, it is difficult to make precise links between theory and practice, control its application and understand which of its ingredients are the most important.
Here, we suggest a research framework to extract automatically social signals from psychotherapy videos. We focused on the extraction of synchrony of the motor signal since it was considered to be a predictor of psychotherapeutic outcome in an earlier study and a relevant signal for the study of mother-child interactions.
We developed open source python and R scripts to compute this synchrony of motion history on a database of interaction between a parent and a child http://bit.ly/syncpsy
We confirmed that synchrony, was a relevant signal for studying social interactions since the scores are completely different from synchrony scores computed on shuffle motion history data. However, these scores alone are unable to distinguish the two periods of the videos (with and without disagreement).
Synchrony of motion history is a promising marker of social interactions.
Recent studies in healthy populations have shown a hierarchical network of brain areas to process information over time. Specifically, we revealed that the capacity to accumulate information changes gradually from the early sensory areas toward high-order perceptual and cognitive areas. Previous research in schizophrenia pointed to impairment in comprehension of information. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying the breakdown of information processing are poorly known. Better understanding of the neural circuits involved in information processing may assist in early identification of predisposition to the disease. Using fMRI, we examined different levels of information comprehension elicited by naturally presented stimuli. Healthy participants, patients with first episode schizophrenia and their undiagnosed siblings listened to a real-life narrated story and scrambled versions of it. To estimate the level of synchronization in response time courses, we calculated inter-subject correlation (inter-SC) across the entire stimuli within each group. The time-scale gradients found in healthy and siblings groups were consistent with our previous findings. Within the schizophrenia group, the reliability patterns obtained for the shortest and intermediate temporal scales were similar to patterns observed in healthy groups. However, the analysis of responses to story condition (long temporal scale) revealed robust and widespread disruption of the inter-SC. In comparison to healthy groups, the response time courses to the story were highly variable within the schizophrenia group, although some significant inter-SCs in the TPJ and precuneus were found. The hierarchical temporal deficit is a fundamental trait that may be a better target for the study of the etiology and pathophysiology of the disease.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
There is absence knowledge about the effects of lactation trimester and parity on eating behavior, production and efficiency of dairy cows. Objective of this study was to identify and characterize in 340 dairy cows, the 20% high efficient (HE), 20% low efficient (LE) and 60% mid efficient (ME) cows according to their individual residual feed intake (RFI) values, within and between lactation trimesters and between 1st and 2nd parities. Efficiency effect within each lactation trimester, was exhibited in daily dry matter intake (DMI), eating rate and meal size, that were the highest in LE cows, moderate in the ME cows and lowest in the HE group. Daily eating time, meal frequency, yields of milk and energy-corrected milk (ECM) and BW were similar in the three efficiency groups within each trimester. The lower efficiency of the LE cows in each trimester attributes to their larger metabolic energy intake, heat production and energy losses. In subgroup of 52 multiparous cows examined along their 1st and 2nd trimesters, milk and ECM production, DMI, eating behavior and efficiency traits were similar with high Pearson’s correlation (r=0.78 to 0.89) between trimesters. In another subgroup of 42 multiparous cows measured at their 2nd and 3rd trimesters, milk and ECM yield, DMI and eating time were reduced (P<0.01) at the 3rd trimester, but eating rate, meal frequency and meal size remained similar with high Pearson’s correlation (r=0.74 to 0.88) between trimesters. In subgroup of 26 cows measured in 1st and 2nd parities, DMI, BW, milk and ECM yield, and ECM/DMI increased in the 2nd lactation, but eating behavior and RFI traits were similar in both parities. These findings encourage accurate prediction of DMI based on a model that includes eating behavior parameters, together with individual measurement of ECM production. This can be further used to identify HE cows in commercial herd, a step necessary for potential genetic selection program aimed to improve herd efficiency.
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a highly heterogeneous condition in terms of symptom presentation and, likely, underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, it is possible that only certain individuals with MDD are well-suited to antidepressants. A potentially fruitful approach to parsing this heterogeneity is to focus on promising endophenotypes of depression, such as neuroticism, anhedonia, and cognitive control deficits.
Within an 8-week multisite trial of sertraline v. placebo for depressed adults (n = 216), we examined whether the combination of machine learning with a Personalized Advantage Index (PAI) can generate individualized treatment recommendations on the basis of endophenotype profiles coupled with clinical and demographic characteristics.
Five pre-treatment variables moderated treatment response. Higher depression severity and neuroticism, older age, less impairment in cognitive control, and being employed were each associated with better outcomes to sertraline than placebo. Across 1000 iterations of a 10-fold cross-validation, the PAI model predicted that 31% of the sample would exhibit a clinically meaningful advantage [post-treatment Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) difference ⩾3] with sertraline relative to placebo. Although there were no overall outcome differences between treatment groups (d = 0.15), those identified as optimally suited to sertraline at pre-treatment had better week 8 HRSD scores if randomized to sertraline (10.7) than placebo (14.7) (d = 0.58).
A subset of MDD patients optimally suited to sertraline can be identified on the basis of pre-treatment characteristics. This model must be tested prospectively before it can be used to inform treatment selection. However, findings demonstrate the potential to improve individual outcomes through algorithm-guided treatment recommendations.
Pathogen burden is a construct developed to assess the cumulative effects of multiple, persistent pathogens on morbidity and mortality. Despite the likely biological wear and tear on multiple body systems caused by persistent infections, few studies have examined the impact of total pathogen burden on such outcomes and specifically on preclinical markers of dysfunction. Using data from two waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we compared three alternative methods for measuring pathogen burden, composed of mainly persistent viral infections, using a cumulative deficits index (CDI) as an outcome: single pathogen associations, a pathogen burden summary score and latent class analyses. We found significant heterogeneity in the distribution of the CDI by age, sex, race/ethnicity and education. There was an association between pathogen burden and the CDI by all three metrics. The latent class classification of pathogen burden showed particularly strong associations with the CDI; these associations remained after controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, race/ethnicity and education. Our results suggest that pathogen burden may influence early clinical indicators of poor health as measured by the CDI. Our results are salient since we were able to detect these associations in a relatively young population. These findings suggest that reducing pathogen burden and the specific pathogens that drive the CDI may provide a target for preventing the early development of age-related physiological changes.
Acinetobacter spp. are important healthcare pathogens, being closely linked to antibiotic resistance and outbreaks worldwide. Although such species are rarely observed in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), we describe the characteristics of 53 strains of Acinetobacter spp. isolated from the sputum of 39 Brazilian patients with CF. The species distribution was A. baumannii (n = 29), A. pittii (n = 13), A. nosocomialis (n = 8), A. seifertii (n = 1), A. soli (n = 1) and A. variabilis (n = 1) determined by partial rpoB gene sequencing. Sixteen strains (10 A. baumannii, 3 A. pittii and 3 A. nosocomialis) were multidrug-resistant (MDR) by disk diffusion test (30%) and eight MDR carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains harboured the blaOXA-23-like oxacillinase gene. Thirty-three sequence types (STs) were identified by multilocus sequence typing of which eight were novel (A. baumannii: 843, 844, 845, 847, 848; A. pitti: 643; A. nosocomialis: 862 and A. seifertii: 846); six STs (2 A. baumannii, 3 A. pittii and 1 A. nosocomialis) were found in more than one patient. Four strains of A. baumannii were assigned to two common clonal complexes (CCs), namely, CC1 (ST1, ST20 and ST160), and CC79 (ST79). This study underlines the extensive species diversity of Acinetobacter spp. strains in CF lung infections which may present difficulties for therapy due to significant antimicrobial resistance.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
This paper examines whether a relationship exists between paternal psychological stability and daughters' symptomatology following the death of a wife/mother from breast cancer. Specifically, is there a relationship between paternal parenting style and the daughters' subsequent capacity to form committed relationships later in life?
We assessed 68 adult daughters (average age = 23.5 years) since the mother's breast cancer diagnosis by means of a semistructured clinical interview and psychological testing.
The daughters were subdivided into three psychiatric risk groups. Those in the highest risk group were most likely to be single and to have high CES–Depression and STAI–Anxiety scores. Daughters in the highest risk group were also most likely to have fathers who abused substances, fathers who had experienced a serious psychiatric event, and families with the most closed communication about the mother's cancer.
Significance of Results:
Psychopathology in fathers correlated with increasing anxiety and depression in adult daughters. Daughters at the highest level of risk had the most severe affective states, the most disturbed father–daughter bonding, and the least ability to create successful interpersonal relationships as adults. We suggest specific interventions for these daughters of the lowest-functioning fathers.
We present an indentation-scope that interfaces with confocal microscopy, enabling direct observation of the three-dimensional (3D) microstructural response of coatings on substrates. Using this method, we compared microns-thick polymer coatings on glass with and without silica nanoparticle filler. Bulk force data confirmed the >30% modulus difference, while microstructural data further revealed slip at the glass-coating interface. Filled coatings slipped more and about two times faster, as reflected in 3D displacement and von Mises strain fields. Overall, these data indicate that silica-doping of coatings can dramatically alter adhesion. Moreover, this method compliments existing theoretical and modeling approaches for studying indentation in layered systems.
Moringa oleifera is a rich source of antioxidants and a promising feed for livestock, due to significant amounts of protein, vitamins, carotenoids and polyphenols, and negligible amounts of anti-nutritional factors. The current study tested whether ensiling would preserve the antioxidant capacity of M. oleifera plants, and assessed whether Moringa silage, fed as a substitute for maize silage, would confer health-promoting traits and affect milk production in dairy cows. To this end, hand-harvested M. oleifera plants were ensiled, with or without molasses and inoculants, in anaerobic jars at room temperature (25 °C) for 37 days. At the end of the storage period the silages were analysed for pH, lactic acid and acetic acid concentrations, aerobic stability, antioxidant capacity, polyphenols and protein content, and tocopherols and carotenoids concentrations. Moringa silages exhibited higher antioxidant capacity compared with fresh and dried Moringa plants, not related to polyphenol content but presumably attributed to accumulation of amino acids and low molecular weight peptides. Based on these findings, a large-scale ensiling protocol was implemented, followed by a feeding trial for dairy cows, in which Moringa silage replaced 263 g maize silage/kg in the diet. Cows fed Moringa silage had higher milk yield and antioxidant capacity and lower milk somatic cell counts compared with controls, during some stages of lactation. These findings imply that ensiling M. oleifera is an appropriate practice by which health and production of dairy cows can be improved.
One view of major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is that these (proton-dominated) fluxes are accelerated in heliospheric shock sources created by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), and then travel mainly along interplanetary magnetic field lines connecting the shock(s) to the observer(s). This places a particular emphasis on the role of the heliospheric conditions during the event, requiring a realistic description of the latter to interpret and/or model SEP events. The well-known ENLIL heliospheric simulation with cone model generated ICME shocks is used together with the SEPMOD particle event modeling scheme to demonstrate the value of applying these concepts at multiple inner heliosphere sites.