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Compared with commercial polyolefin membranes, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane prepared by electrostatic spinning has higher porosity, electrolyte uptake, thermal stability, and lithium-ion conductivity, etc. However, poor mechanical performance has largely limited the application of electrospun PAN separators. In this study, PAN/polyimide (PI) composite membrane is prepared by electrostatic spinning to improve the mechanical and electrochemical performances. Scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis method, and electrochemical methods were used for evaluation of the electrospun composite membrane. The results show that the composite membrane possesses good thermal stability and exhibits better mechanical performance than pristine PAN membrane (increasing by 1.1 times in tension strength). The addition of PI can increase porosity and fluid absorption rate obviously. In addition, the composite membrane has high ionic conductivity (18.77 × 10−4 S/cm), wide electrochemical window (about 4.0 V), and excellent cycling performance. It can retain a discharge specific capacity of 153 mA h/g even after 50 cycles at 0.5 C. The electrospun PAN/PI membrane may be a promising candidate for lithium-ion battery separators.
Background: It is well documented that fall risk among elderly people is associated with poor health and depression. In this study, we set out to examine the combined effects of medical condition and depression status on fall incidents among community-dwelling elderly people.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the fall history of community-dwelling elders involving 360 participants. Those who had experienced at least two falls over the previous year, or one injurious fall, were defined as “fallers.” The Geriatric Depression Scale-15 was used as a screening instrument for depression status.
Results: Based on a multivariate logistic regression and stratification analysis, depression was found to interact with various medical conditions on fall risk. In comparison with the non-depressive reference group, a six-fold fall risk was discernible among depressed elders with polypharmacy, while a five-fold risk was found among depressive elders using ancillary devices, along with a four-fold risk among depressive elders with diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Finally, arthritis was found to produce a nine-fold risk of falls among such populations.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that greater emphasis should be placed on the integration of depression screening as an element of fall risk assessment in elderly people.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
The effect of medium temperature upon characteristic of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and SBS optical limiting is investigated. The physical mechanism behind is analyzed theoretically and experimentally verified in Continuum's Nd: YAG Q-switched laser system using FC-72 as the SBS medium. The temperature affects the electrostrictive coefficient, refractive index, density and acoustic velocity of the medium weakly. In contrast, the kinematic viscosity, which is inversely proportional to the temperature, is related to gain coefficient and phonon lifetime and thus greatly affects the SBS characteristics. Therefore, in the low temperature, the kinematic viscosity is usually high, which can lead to a small gain coefficient and a short phonon lifetime. Therefore, the SBS characteristic can be changed by controlling the temperature to a great extent.
In order to improve the optical limiting performance based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), a combination of SBS and carbon nanotube/HT-270 suspension for optical limiting is proposed in this paper. The dependence of output energy of optical limiting based on this hybrid approach on the pump energy is numerically simulated, and validated in Continuum's Nd: YAG seed-injected laser. The results indicate that the output energy based on this hybrid approach shows much better performance compared with that based on single SBS. In this approach, the SBS threshold can be controlled by adjusting the gain coefficient of medium and focal length of the lens, and the threshold of suspension can be controlled by altering the concentration and focal length of the lens, therefore, this hybrid approach to realize optical limiting has great potential in practical application.
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