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Psychotic disorders are highly heritable, yet the evidence is less clear for subclinical psychosis expression, such as psychotic experiences (PEs). We examined if PEs in parents were associated with PEs in offspring.
As part of the Danish general population Lolland-Falster Health Study, families with youths aged 11–17 years were included. Both children and parents reported PEs according to the Psychotic Like Experiences Questionnaire, counting only ‘definite’ PEs. Parents additionally reported depressive symptoms, anxiety, and mental wellbeing. The associations between parental and child PEs were estimated using generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation structure to account for the clustering of observations within families, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics.
Altogether, 984 youths (mean age 14.3 years [s.d. 2.0]), 700 mothers, and 496 fathers from 766 households completed PEs-questionnaires. Offspring of parents with PEs were at an increased risk of reporting PEs themselves (mothers: adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 2.42, 95% CI 1.73–3.38; fathers: aRR 2.25, 95% CI 1.42–3.59). Other maternal problems (depression, anxiety, and poor mental well-being), but not paternal problems, were also associated with offspring PEs. In multivariate models adjusting for parental problems, PEs, but not other parental problems, were robustly associated with offspring PEs (mothers: aRR 2.25, 95% CI 1.60–3.19; fathers: aRR 2.44, 95% CI 1.50–3.96).
The current findings add novel evidence suggesting that specific psychosis vulnerability in families is expressed at the lower end of the psychosis continuum, underlining the importance of assessing youths’ needs based on psychosis vulnerability broadly within the family systems.
Understanding the neural mechanism underlying the transition from suicidal ideation to action is crucial but remains unclear. To explore this mechanism, we combined resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and computational modeling to investigate differences between those who attempted suicide(SA) and those who hold only high levels of suicidal ideation(HSI).
A total of 120 MDD patients were categorized into SA group (n=47) and HSI group (n=73). All participants completed a resting-state functional MRI scan, with three subregions of the insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) being chosen as the region of interest (ROI) in seed-to-voxel analyses. Additionally, 86 participants completed the balloon analogue risk task (BART), and a five-parameter Bayesian modeling of BART was estimated.
In the SA group, the FC between the ventral anterior insula (vAI) and the superior/middle frontal gyrus (vAI-SFG, vAI-MFG), as well as the FC between posterior insula (pI) and MFG (pI-MFG), were lower than those in HSI group. The correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between the FC of vAI-SFG and psychological pain avoidance in SA group, whereas a positive correlation in HSI group. Furthermore, the FC of vAI-MFG displayed a negative correlation with loss aversion in SA group, while a positive correlation was found with psychological pain avoidance in HSI group.
In current study, two distinct neural mechanisms were identified in the insula which involving in the progression from suicidal ideation to action. Dysfunction in vAI FCs may gradually stabilize as individuals experience heightened psychological pain, and a shift from positive to negative correlation patterns of vAI-MFC may indicate a transition from state to trait impairment. Additionally, the dysfunction in PI FC may lead to a lowered threshold for suicide by blunting the perception of physical harm.
As a result of the wildfire that engulfed Fort McMurray (FMM), Alberta, Canada in May 2016, over 90,000 residents were evacuated from the city. Approximately 2400 homes, or 10% of the housing stock, were destroyed in Fort McMurray. About 200,000 hectors of forest were destroyed by the fire, which reached into Saskatchewan. In the aftermath of a major disaster, a community’s infrastructure is disrupted, and psychological, economic, and environmental effects can last for many years.
Intensive research was conducted in Fort McMurray five years after the wildfire disaster to determine the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among residents of the community and to determine the demographic, clinical, and other risk factors of probable MDD and PTSD.
An online questionnaire administered via REDCap was used to collect data in a quantitative cross-sectional study between 24 April and 2 June 2021. Patients were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) in order to assess the presence of symptoms associated with MDD. An assessment of likely PTSD in respondents was conducted using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-C). In this study, descriptive, univariate, and multivariate regression analyses were conducted.
Out of 249 people who accessed the survey link, 186 completed it (74.7% response rate). There was a median age of 42 among the subscribers. A majority of the sample consisted of 159 (85.5%) females; 98 (52.7%) over the age of 40; 136 (71%) in a relationship; and 175 (94.1%) employed. Our study sample had an overall prevalence of 45.0% (76) of MDD symptoms. The multivariate logistic regression model revealed four variables that were independently associated with MDD symptoms, including being unemployed, diagnosed with MDD, taking sedative-hypnotics, and willingness to receive mental health counseling. A total of 39.6% of our respondents (65) reported having likely PTSD. Three independent variables: received a mental health depression diagnosis from a health professional, would like to receive mental health counseling, and have only limited or no support from familycontributed significantly to the model for predicting likely PTSD among respondents while controlling the other factors in the regression model.
The findings of this study indicate that unemployment, the use of sleeping pills, the presence of a previous depression diagnosis, and the willingness to seek mental health counseling are significant factors associated with the increase in the prevalence of MDD and PTSD following wildfires. Support from family members may prevent these conditions from developing.
Substance use during adolescence is linked to adverse biopsychosocial events, including poor mental health, cognitive deficits, low academic performance, and delinquency (Deas & Brown J Clin Psych 2006; 67 18; Armstrong & Costello JCCP 2002; 70 1224; Cox et al. JSH 2007; 77 109-115; Chassin JJSU 2008; 165-183). Identifying risks for these events is critical, given they are associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood.
Post-pandemic, rates of adolescent depression and anxiety have more than doubled (Racine et al. JAMA Ped 2021; 175 1142-1150). Adolescents often use substances, most commonly alcohol and cannabis, to manage mental health (Colder et al. JCCP 2019; 87 629).
Cannabis is increasingly viewed by adolescents as safe, while alcohol is viewed negatively (SAMHSA 2021). Non-disordered alcohol use (ND-AU), alcohol use below diagnostic criteria level, has adverse developmental impacts for adolescents, including increased risk-taking behavior and heavy substance use in adulthood (Marshall Alcohol Alcohol. 2014; 49 160-164).
With growing normalization of cannabis use, important questions still remain whether non-disordered cannabis use (ND-CU) among adolescents is linked to adverse life events.
Using data from the 2018-2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), an annual US representative survey on substance use and mental health, we compared associations among common adolescent substance use and adverse life events.
Responses from adolescents aged 12-17 (N=32,407) from the 2018-2020 NSDUH were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses and adverse adolescent life events. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were obtained while controlling for age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Analyses included sampling weights to account for the US population. Adolescents in ND-CU and ND-AU groups were defined by either past-month or past-year use without their respective SUD diagnosis.
Approximately 5% of adolescents had any SUD, and 1.3% had more than one SUD (Table 1). All SUD variables, including cannabis use disorder (CUD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD), were significant for all adverse adolescent life events (Table 2). Adolescents with a SUD were nearly 3 times more likely to have major depression in the past year, 2.5 times more likely to have a C+ or below grade average, and 10 times more likely to be arrested, than controls. These risks increased with more than one SUD (Table 2). Adverse events were similar between ND-CU and ND-AU. (Figure 1).
Given the biopsychosocial risks to ND-CU and ND-AU in adolescents, there may be reason to reevaluate whether the DSM adequately captures the population of youth affected by their cannabis and alcohol use. Clinicians can use these nationally representative data to stratify risks and direct to appropriate treatment.
As a result of the floods in Fort McMurray (FMM) and the surrounding area in 2020, more than $228 million in insured damage was sustained, over 1200 structures were damaged, and more than 13,000 people were evacuated from their homes.
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms among the population of FMM one year after the flood in 2020 and the risk predictors associated with such symptoms.
In order to collect sociodemographic, clinical, and flood-related information from residents of FMM via REDCap, an online quantitative cross-sectional survey was administered between April 24 and June 02, 2021. Respondents were assessed for probable PTSD using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-C).
An overall response rate of 74.7% was achieved among 186 of 249 respondents. The prevalence of likely post-traumatic stress disorder was 39.6% (65). There was a significantly increased likelihood of developing PTSD symptoms in respondents with a history of depression (OR= 5.71; 95% CI: 1.68 - 19.36). As well, disaster responders experiencing limited and no family support after the disaster were more likely to report PTSD symptoms (OR= 2.87; 95% CI: 1.02 - 8.05) and (OR= 2.87; 95% CI: 1.06 - 7.74), respectively.
As a result of our study, we found that those who had a history of depression and had sought health counseling were significantly more likely to develop PTSD symptoms following flooding, while those with family support were less likely to suffer from PTSD symptoms. There is a need for further studies to investigate the relationship between the need for counseling and the presentation of potential symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.
We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes ‘Murriyang’ radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 yr with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with $\sim$3 yr of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations and compare this data release with our previous release.
Orbital driven climate control on sedimentation produces regional, stratigraphically repetitive characters and so cyclostratigraphic correlation can improve correlation and identify stratigraphic trends in borehole sections. This concept is commonly used to correlate marine and lacustrine strata. However, in the alluvial domain, its use is more challenging because internal, local dynamics controlling sedimentation may interfere with the expression of cyclic climate forcing. Intervals of low net-to-gross may be important for successful application in this domain as they tend to better document regional changes. This study applies climate-based stratigraphic correlation concepts to improve well correlations, characterise vertical sand distribution, and identify potential reservoir targets in a generally low net-to-gross interval. Coarsening upward sedimentary repetitions (cyclothems) are identified and correlated with high certainty in nineteen well sections in the upper Carboniferous Westoe and Cleaver formations of the Silverpit Basin. Local sedimentary dynamics provide variability in the character of the cyclothems and several types of cyclothem are classified. Correlation of sections using cyclothems recognised on wireline logs is done twice: once manually and once semi-automatically. The semi-automated correlation is based on calculation of deviation curves which depict stratigraphic changes that are less dependent on absolute wireline values and follow vertical trends more clearly. The correlations provide composite stratigraphies that are analysed using vertical proportions curves. Both approaches yield similar results in terms of stratigraphic trends. However, for detailed correlation of wells, the manual correlation is better at accounting for any local variability within the system. The same two zones of higher net-to-gross ratios are found using both correlation methods. These are linked to palaeoclimatic changes driven by long eccentricity and the proposed climate stratigraphic model has predictive value for identifying sandstone occurrence. The climate-based stratigraphic correlation improves the assessment reservoir distribution and properties on small (10–20 m thickness) and large (100–200 m thickness) stratigraphical scales.
The target backsheath field acceleration mechanism is one of the main mechanisms of laser-driven proton acceleration (LDPA) and strongly depends on the comprehensive performance of the ultrashort ultra-intense lasers used as the driving sources. The successful use of the SG-II Peta-watt (SG-II PW) laser facility for LDPA and its applications in radiographic diagnoses have been manifested by the good performance of the SG-II PW facility. Recently, the SG-II PW laser facility has undergone extensive maintenance and a comprehensive technical upgrade in terms of the seed source, laser contrast and terminal focus. LDPA experiments were performed using the maintained SG-II PW laser beam, and the highest cutoff energy of the proton beam was obviously increased. Accordingly, a double-film target structure was used, and the maximum cutoff energy of the proton beam was up to 70 MeV. These results demonstrate that the comprehensive performance of the SG-II PW laser facility was improved significantly.
To examine the perspectives of caregivers that are not part of the antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) leadership team (eg, physicians, nurses, and clinical pharmacists), but who interact with ASPs in their role as frontline healthcare workers.
Qualitative semistructured interviews.
The study was conducted in 2 large national healthcare systems including 7 hospitals in the Veterans’ Health Administration and 4 hospitals in Intermountain Healthcare.
We interviewed 157 participants. The current analysis includes 123 nonsteward clinicians: 47 physicians, 26 pharmacists, 29 nurses, and 21 hospital leaders.
Interviewers utilized a semistructured interview guide based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), which was tailored to the participant’s role in the hospital as it related to ASPs. Qualitative analysis was conducted using a codebook based on the CFIR.
We identified 4 primary perspectives regarding ASPs. (1) Non-ASP pharmacists considered antibiotic stewardship activities to be a high priority despite the added burden to work duties: (2) Nurses acknowledged limited understanding of ASP activities or involvement with these programs; (3) Physicians criticized ASPs for their restrictions on clinical autonomy and questioned the ability of antibiotic stewards to make recommendations without the full clinical picture; And (4) hospital leaders expressed support for ASPs and recognized the unique challenges faced by non-ASP clinical staff.
Further understanding these differing perspectives of ASP implementation will inform possible ways to improve ASP implementation across clinical roles.
As a typical plasma-based optical element that can sustain ultra-high light intensity, plasma density gratings driven by intense laser pulses have been extensively studied for wide applications. Here, we show that the plasma density grating driven by two intersecting driver laser pulses is not only nonuniform in space but also varies over time. Consequently, the probe laser pulse that passes through such a dynamic plasma density grating will be depolarized, that is, its polarization becomes spatially and temporally variable. More importantly, the laser depolarization may spontaneously take place for crossed laser beams if their polarization angles are arranged properly. The laser depolarization by a dynamic plasma density grating may find application in mitigating parametric instabilities in laser-driven inertial confinement fusion.
Community corrections are non-custodial criminal sanctions that have been adopted by courts and other criminal justice agencies, with a basic philosophy that, rather than relying on incarceration, the preferred approach is community-based alternatives to supervise, manage, rehabilitate and educate offenders. Alternatives to imprisonment include diversionary schemes for defendants, probation or suspended sentences for convicted offenders and parole or early release for prisoners. They are relatively low-cost sanctions and measures that do not consume prison space (see Groves, 2017).
Community corrections consist of two basic types of programmes: (i) sanctions that serve as alternatives to incarceration and (ii) programmes that assist prisoners in community re-entry after prison (see Cromwell et al, 2002). Community sanctions combine the purposes of controlling and reforming the offender. These diversionary schemes attempt to redirect certain offenders from the formal criminal justice system to various services that improve their chances for rehabilitation and improve re-entry back into the community, thereby reducing recidivism.
As Klingele (2021) points out, offenders may face many challenges in the communities where they live, including adequate housing, access to healthy and affordable food, addressing chronic physical and mental health issues, the need for vocational training and employment, transportation to various human services, childcare and so on. By meeting these needs, there is a greater chance that the supervision, management and rehabilitation of offenders who are on probation or have suspended sentences will be improved and thereby reduce re-entry back into a criminal lifestyle, potentially leading to additional arrests and jail time.
Rural community corrections
From a global perspective, and compared with urban areas, rural community correction work faces more challenges. First, there is an overall shortage of corrections workers in rural communities. In urban areas, there may be three or more staff per judicial institute, whilst in rural areas there are relatively few full-time staff. Coupled with the fact that in many instances rural residents live scattered across the jurisdiction and in relatively distant locations with inconvenient transportation options, correctional work in the community is more difficult.
Second, in some jurisdictions, the quality of corrections staff can be relatively low.
Numerical simulations have been conducted to identify the dominant mechanism responsible for driving secondary flow motions in horizontal particle-laden pipe flows, based on an analysis of the forces acting on each phase. A four-way coupling Euler–Lagrangian approach was employed, using direct numerical simulations for the gas phase and Lagrangian particle tracking to account for the drag, gravitational and lift forces, together with the interactions that occur for both particle–wall and inter-particle collisions. The four different flow regimes, which had been identified previously as depending on various combinations of flow parameters and are characterised by the secondary flow structures of both the fluid and particle phases, were identified via varying the mass loading alone from $\varPhi _m=0.4$ to $\varPhi _m=1.8$. The distribution of the divergence of Reynolds stresses was used to help characterise the classes of the secondary fluid flow. This shows that secondary fluid flows of both the first and second kinds can either exist separately or co-exist in such flows. The forces exerted on the fluid phase by the pressure gradient and fluid–particle interactions were examined qualitatively and quantitatively to identify their contribution to the secondary fluid flow motions. A similar study was also applied to the drag, lift and gravitational forces exerted on the particle phase for the secondary particle flow motions. These were found to explain the secondary flows of both the fluid and particle phases with regard to both the flow direction and magnitude, together with the interaction between the two phases.
Basal crevasses are macroscopic structural discontinuities at the base of ice sheets and glaciers that arise by fracture. Motivated by observations and by the mechanics of elastic fracture, we hypothesise that spatial variations in basal stress (in the presence of basal water pressure) can promote and localise basal crevassing. We quantify this process in the theoretical context of linear elastic fracture mechanics. We develop a model evaluating the effect of shear-stress variation on the growth of basal crevasses. Our results indicate that sticky patches promote the propagation of basal crevasses, increase their length of propagation into the ice and, under some conditions, give them curved trajectories that incline upstream. A detailed exploration of the parameter space is conducted to gain a better understanding of the conditions under which sticky-patch-induced basal crevassing is expected beneath ice sheets and glaciers.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
We report the experimental results of the commissioning phase in the 10 PW laser beamline of the Shanghai Superintense Ultrafast Laser Facility (SULF). The peak power reaches 2.4 PW on target without the last amplifying during the experiment. The laser energy of 72 ± 9 J is directed to a focal spot of approximately 6 μm diameter (full width at half maximum) in 30 fs pulse duration, yielding a focused peak intensity around 2.0 × 1021 W/cm2. The first laser-proton acceleration experiment is performed using plain copper and plastic targets. High-energy proton beams with maximum cut-off energy up to 62.5 MeV are achieved using copper foils at the optimum target thickness of 4 μm via target normal sheath acceleration. For plastic targets of tens of nanometers thick, the proton cut-off energy is approximately 20 MeV, showing ring-like or filamented density distributions. These experimental results reflect the capabilities of the SULF-10 PW beamline, for example, both ultrahigh intensity and relatively good beam contrast. Further optimization for these key parameters is underway, where peak laser intensities of 1022–1023 W/cm2 are anticipated to support various experiments on extreme field physics.
Steinernema populi n. sp. was recovered by baiting from beneath poplar trees in China. Morphological and molecular features provided evidence for placing the new species into the Kushidai clade. The new species is characterized by the following morphological features: third-stage infective juveniles (IJ) with a body length of 1095 (973–1172) μm, a distance from the anterior end to excretory pore of 77 (70–86) μm and a tail length of 64 (55–72) μm. The Body length/Tail length (c) ratio and Anterior end to Excretory pore/ Tail length × 100 (E%) of S. populi n. sp. are substantially greater than those of all other ‘Feltiae–Kushidai–Monticolum’ group members. The first-generation males can be recognized by a spicule length of 66 (57–77) μm and a gubernaculum length of 46 (38–60) μm. The new species is further characterized by sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and partial 28S regions of the ribosomal DNA. Phylogenetic analyses show that Steinernema akhursti and Steinernema kushidai are the closest relatives to S. populi n. sp.
To summarise and describe the clinical presentations, diagnostic approaches and airway management techniques in children with laryngotracheal trauma.
The clinical data related to laryngotracheal trauma diagnosed and treated at the Beijing Children's Hospital, between January 2013 and July 2018, were retrospectively reviewed. Disease diagnosis, treatment, management and outcomes were analysed.
A total of 13 cases were enrolled, including 7 cases of penetrating laryngotracheal trauma. The six cases of blunt laryngotracheal trauma were caused by collisions with hard objects. In all cases, voice, airway and swallowing outcomes were graded as ‘good’, except for one patient who had residual paralysis of the vocal folds.
Flexible fibre-optic laryngoscopy and computed tomography can play an important role in diagnosing laryngotracheal trauma. The airway should be secured and, if necessary, opened by tracheal intubation or tracheostomy.
As part of a project to implement antimicrobial dashboards at select facilities, we assessed physician attitudes and knowledge regarding antibiotic prescribing.
An online survey explored attitudes toward antimicrobial use and assessed respondents’ management of four clinical scenarios: cellulitis, community-acquired pneumonia, non–catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria, and catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria.
This study was conducted across 16 Veterans’ Affairs (VA) medical centers in 2017.
Physicians working in inpatient settings specializing in infectious diseases (ID), hospital medicine, and non-ID/hospitalist internal medicine.
Scenario responses were scored by assigning +1 for answers most consistent with guidelines, 0 for less guideline-concordant but acceptable answers and −1 for guideline-discordant answers. Scores were normalized to 100% guideline concordant to 100% guideline discordant across all questions within a scenario, and mean scores were calculated across respondents by specialty. Differences in mean score per scenario were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA).
Overall, 139 physicians completed the survey (19 ID physicians, 62 hospitalists, and 58 other internists). Attitudes were similar across the 3 groups. We detected a significant difference in cellulitis scenario scores (concordance: ID physicians, 76%; hospitalists, 58%; other internists, 52%; P = .0087). Scores were numerically but not significantly different across groups for community-acquired pneumonia (concordance: ID physicians, 75%; hospitalists, 60%; other internists, 56%; P = .0914), for non–catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria (concordance: ID physicians, 65%; hospitalists, 55%; other internists, 40%; P = .322), and for catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria (concordance: ID physicians, 27% concordant; hospitalists, 8% discordant; other internists 13% discordant; P = .12).
Significant differences in performance regarding management of cellulitis and low overall performance regarding asymptomatic bacteriuria point to these conditions as being potentially high-yield targets for stewardship interventions.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) allows for detailed evaluation of white matter microstructural changes present in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). Our goal is to utilize multidimensional clinical and quantitative imaging data to characterize disease severity and predict long-term outcomes in CSM patients undergoing surgery. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A single-center prospective cohort study enrolled fifty CSM patients who underwent surgical decompression and twenty healthy controls from 2018-2021. All patients underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), DBSI, and complete clinical evaluations at baseline and 2-years follow-up. Primary outcome measures were the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score (mild [mJOA 15-17], moderate [mJOA 12-14], severe [mJOA 0-11]) and SF-36 Physical and Mental Component Summaries (PCS and MCS). At 2-years follow-up, improvement was assessed via established MCID thresholds. A supervised machine learning classification model was used to predict treatment outcomes. The highest-performing algorithm was a linear support vector machine. Leave-one-out cross-validation was utilized to test model performance. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 70 patients – 20 controls, 25 mild, and 25 moderate/severe CSM patients – were enrolled. Baseline clinical and DTI/DBSI measures were significantly different between groups. DBSI Axial and Radial Diffusivity were significantly correlated with baseline mJOA and mJOA recovery, respectively (r=-0.33, p<0.01; r=-0.36, p=0.02). When predicting baseline disease severity (mJOA classification), DTI metrics alone performed with 38.7% accuracy (AUC: 72.2), compared to 95.2% accuracy (AUC: 98.9) with DBSI metrics alone. When predicting improvement after surgery (change in mJOA), clinical variables alone performed with 33.3% accuracy (AUC: 0.40). When combining DTI or DBSI parameters with key clinical covariates, model accuracy improved to 66.7% (AUC: 0.65) and 88.1% (AUC: 0.95) accuracy, respectively. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: DBSI metrics correlate with baseline disease severity and outcome measures at 2-years follow-up. Our results suggest that DBSI may serve as a valid non-invasive imaging biomarker for CSM disease severity and potential for postoperative improvement.
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar corona have become more popular with the increased availability of computational power. Modern computational plasma codes, relying upon computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods, allow the coronal features to be resolved using solar surface magnetograms as inputs. These computations are carried out in a full three-dimensional domain and, thus, selection of the correct mesh configuration is essential to save computational resources and enable/speed up convergence. In addition, it has been observed that for MHD simulations close to the hydrostatic equilibrium, spurious numerical artefacts might appear in the solution following the mesh structure, which makes the selection of the grid also a concern for accuracy. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and trade off two main mesh topologies when applied to global solar corona simulations using the unstructured ideal MHD solver from the COOLFluiD platform. The first topology is based on the geodesic polyhedron and the second on $UV$ mapping. Focus is placed on aspects such as mesh adaptability, resolution distribution, resulting spurious numerical fluxes and convergence performance. For this purpose, first a rotating dipole case is investigated, followed by two simulations using real magnetograms from the solar minima (1995) and solar maxima (1999). It is concluded that the most appropriate mesh topology for the simulation depends on several factors, such as the accuracy requirements, the presence of features near the polar regions and/or strong features in the flow field in general. If convergence is of concern and the simulation contains strong dynamics, then grids which are based on the geodesic polyhedron are recommended compared with more conventionally used $UV$-mapped meshes.