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At the intersection of behavioral and institutional studies of policy making lie a series of questions about how elite choices affect mass public opinion. Scholars have considered how judicial decisions—especially US Supreme Court decisions—affect individuals’ support for specific policy positions. These studies yield a series of competing findings. Whereas past research uses opinion surveys to assess how individuals’ opinions are shaped, we believe that modern techniques for analyzing social media provide analytic leverage that traditional approaches do not offer. We present a framework for employing Twitter data to study mass opinion discourse. We find that the Supreme Court’s decisions relating to same-sex marriage in 2013 had significant effects on how the public discussed same-sex marriage and had a polarizing effect on mass opinion. We conclude by connecting these findings and our analyses to larger problems and debates in the area of democratic deliberation and big-data analysis.
The Erasmus Plus programme ‘Innovative Education and Training in high power laser plasmas’, otherwise known as PowerLaPs, is described. The PowerLaPs programme employs an innovative paradigm in that it is a multi-centre programme where teaching takes place in five separate institutes with a range of different aims and styles of delivery. The ‘in class’ time is limited to four weeks a year, and the programme spans two years. PowerLaPs aims to train students from across Europe in theoretical, applied and laboratory skills relevant to the pursuit of research in laser–plasma interaction physics and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Lectures are intermingled with laboratory sessions and continuous assessment activities. The programme, which is led by workers from the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Crete, and supported by co-workers from the Queen’s University Belfast, the University of Bordeaux, the Czech Technical University in Prague, Ecole Polytechnique, the University of Ioannina, the University of Salamanca and the University of York, has just completed its first year. Thus far three Learning Teaching Training (LTT) activities have been held, at the Queen’s University Belfast, the University of Bordeaux and the Centre for Plasma Physics and Lasers (CPPL) of TEI Crete. The last of these was a two-week long Intensive Programme (IP), while the activities at the other two universities were each five days in length. Thus far work has concentrated upon training in both theoretical and experimental work in plasma physics, high power laser–matter interactions and high energy density physics. The nature of the programme will be described in detail and some metrics relating to the activities carried out to date will be presented.
In his new edition of the Morte Darthur, P. J. C. Field calls the Winchester Manuscript ‘the most important single piece of evidence for what Malory intended to write’ about King Arthur and his knights. The manuscript has served as the base text for all major editions of the Morte except that of James Spisak since Eugène Vinaver's 1947 edition, and one of the most important ways in which the Winchester Manuscript diverges from the Caxton incunable is by subdividing the narrative differently. Where Caxton's edition subdivides into 507 chapters and twenty-one books, the Winchester Manuscript includes five closing passages that refer to Malory as author. Together with a sixth closing passage that appears at the end of Caxton's edition of the Morte Darthur (the final gathering of the Winchester Manuscript is missing), these authorial closing passages indicate the Morte Darthur contains six books. However, the Winchester Manuscript also includes a number of other strongly worded transition passages and a variety of visual features that mark the openings and closings of both books (the largest narrative segments in the Morte Darthur) and stories (smaller subdivisions within books). These features have led scholars to propose that the Morte contains three, four, five, seven or eight books, each of which contain many stories.
While the presence of the references to Malory shows that the Winchester scribes remained more faithful to their exemplar's subdivisions than did Caxton, the scribes also modified the Morte Darthur's divisions in the Winchester Manuscript. At the very least, the scribes decided how to employ the decorative features – initials, blank space, rubrication and elevated script – which have influenced readers’ opinions about the number and nature of divisions appearing throughout the manuscript. The scribes appear to have added at least three initials that did not appear in their exemplar. At one point, they also ignore the apparently authorial claim that a new section should begin on a new page, and instead skip only one line before beginning the next book. Scribes edited more than the decorative features of the manuscript, however. They also edited the text of the manuscript to improve both the sense of the narrative and the aesthetics of the page.
The essays collected here put considerable emphasis on Arthurian narratives in material culture and historical context, as well as on purely literary analysis, a reminder of the enormous range of interests in Arthurian narratives in the Middle Ages, in a number of different contexts. The volume opens with a study of torture in texts from Chrétien to Malory, and on English law and attitudes inparticular. Several contributors discuss the undeservedly neglected Stanzaic Morte Arthur, a key source for Malory. His Morte Darthur is the focus of several essays, respectively on thesources of the "Tale of Sir Gareth"; battle scenes and the importance of chivalric kingship; Cicero's De amicitia and the mixed blessings and dangers of fellowship; and comparison of concluding formulae in the Winchester Manuscript and Caxton's edition. Seven tantalizing fragments of needlework, all depicting Tristan, are discussed in terms of the heraldic devices they include. The volume ends with an update on newly discovered manuscripts of Geoffrey of Monmouth's seminal Historia regum Britanniae, the twelfth-century best-seller which launched Arthur's literary career.
Elizabeth Archibald is Professor of English Studies at Durham University, and Principal of St Cuthbert's Society; David F. Johnson is Professor of English at Florida State University, Tallahassee.
Contibutors: David Eugene Clark, Marco Nievergelt, Ralph Norris, Sarah Randles, Lisa Robeson, Richard Sévère, Jaakko Tahkokallio, Larissa Tracy
This volume of Arthurian Literature puts considerable emphasis on Arthurian narratives in material culture and historical context, as well as on purely literary analysis. It begins with Larissa Tracy's wide-ranging study of torture in relation to texts from Chrétien to Malory, by way of the Stanzaic Morte Arthur and Arthur and Gorlagon. She argues, with a wealth of fascinating evidence, that the inclusion or omission of torture in English texts reflects particular attitudes to the use of torture in English law and society, which related to a sense of national identity. The Stanzaic Morte has been undeservedly neglected: Marco Nievergelt's study of emotion in relation to space in the poem indicates a very subtle attitude on the part of the writer to subjectivity and interiority, and will encourage much re-reading of one of Malory's key sources. Ralph Norris, who has produced a valuable study of Malory's library, addresses the question of the originality of ‘The Tale of Sir Gareth’: he accepts the theory that it is by Malory, but points out striking parallels with the Knight of the Cart story as found in Chrétien and in some versions of the French prose Lancelot. This essay throws new light not only on the source(s) of the Gareth tale but also on the popular Fair Unknown theme. The next two essays also focus on Malory, addressing two central themes in his work: battle and fellowship. Lisa Robeson discusses battle scenes, arguing that they ‘offer not only a lesson in chivalry but in chivalric kingship’, and that chivalry must be embodied in the person of the king as well as in great knights such as Lancelot. Richard Sévère considers Arthurian fellowship in Malory through the lens of Cicero's comments on friendship in the very influential De amicitia; he emphasises both the comfort of fellowship and its dangers for the Arthurian world.
The last three essays scrutinise selected Arthurian narratives very closely in their original material forms, rather than modern versions. David Eugene Clark analyses concluding formulae in the Winchester manuscript of Malory's Morte Darthur, comparing them with Caxton's printed version; he uses his findings to argue that scribes made numerous and significant changes to the structure and division of Malory's text, sometimes blurring the distinctions between larger and smaller narrative sections.
The formal commissioning of the IRWG occurred at the 1991 Buenos Aires General Assembly, following a Joint Commission meeting at the IAU GA in Baltimore in 1988 that identified the problems with ground-based infrared photometry. The meeting justification, papers, and conclusions, can be found in Milone (1989). In summary, the challenges involved how to explain the failure to achieve the milli-magnitude precision expected of infrared photometry and an apparent 3% limit on system transformability. The proposed solution was to redefine the broadband Johnson system, the passbands of which had proven so unsatisfactory that over time effectively different systems proliferated, although bearing the same “JHKLMNQ” designations; the new system needed to be better positioned and centered in the spectral windows of the Earth's atmosphere, and the variable water vapour content of the atmosphere needed to be measured in real time to better correct for atmospheric extinction.
We report on a direct epitaxial growth approach for the heterogeneous integration of high speed III-V devices with Si CMOS logic on a common Si substrate. InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBTs) structures were successfully grown on patterned Si-on-Lattice-Engineered-Substrate (SOLES) substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. DC and RF performance similar to those grown on lattice-matched InP were achieved in growth windows as small as 15×15μm2. This truly planar approach allows tight device placement with InP-HBTs to Si CMOS transistors separation as small as 2.5 μm, and the use of standard wafer level multilayer interconnects. A high speed, low power dissipation differential amplifier was designed and fabricated, demonstrating the feasibility of using this approach for high performance mixed signal circuits such as ADCs and DACs.
Our direct growth approach of integrating compound semiconductors (CS) and silicon CMOS is based on a unique silicon template wafer with an embedded CS template layer of Germanium (Ge). It enables selective placement of CS devices in arbitrary locations on a Silicon CMOS wafer for simple, high yield, monolithic integration and optimal circuit performance. HBTs demonstrate a peak current gain cutoff frequency ft of 170GHz at a nominal collector current density of 2mA/μm2. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first demonstration of an InP-based HBT fabricated on a silicon wafer.
Several writers have asked whether there exist among states varying predispositions to support the United Nations. Hayward Alker has answered this question with reference to the voting patterns of member nations in support of increased UN activities particularly in the peacekeeping field. More recently Robert Keohane has ranked states by using a support measure based on delegation size and has suggested that size of national delegations to the United Nations is indicative of support for the organization.