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This study presents a comprehensive analysis on the extreme positive and negative events of wall shear stress and heat flux fluctuations in compressible turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) solved by direct numerical simulations. To examine the compressibility effects, we focus on the extreme events in two representative cases, i.e. a supersonic TBL of Mach number $M=2$ and a hypersonic TBL of $M=8$, by scrutinizing the coherent structures and their correlated dynamics based on conditional analysis. As characterized by the spatial distribution of wall shear stress and heat flux, the extreme events are indicated to be closely related to the structural organization of wall streaks, in addition to the occurrence of the alternating positive and negative structures (APNSs) in the hypersonic TBL. These two types of coherent structures are strikingly different, namely the nature of wall streaks and APNSs are shown to be related to the solenoidal and dilatational fluid motions, respectively. Quantitative analysis using a volumetric conditional average is performed to identify and extract the coherent structures that directly account for the extreme events. It is found that in the supersonic TBL, the essential ingredients of the conditional field are hairpin-like vortices, whose combinations can induce wall streaks, whereas in the hypersonic TBL, the essential ingredients become hairpin-like vortices as well as near-wall APNSs. To quantify the momentum and energy transport mechanisms underlying the extreme events, we proposed a novel decomposition method for extreme skin friction and heat flux, based on the integral identities of conditionally averaged governing equations. Taking advantage of this decomposition method, the dominant transport mechanisms of the hairpin-like vortices and APNSs are revealed. Specifically, the momentum and energy transports undertaken by the hairpin-like vortices are attributed to multiple comparable mechanisms, whereas those by the APNSs are convection dominated. In that, the dominant transport mechanisms in extreme events between the supersonic and hypersonic TBLs are indicated to be totally different.
In this chapter, we review largely targeted tasks in the computed tomography (CT) literature, including low-dose CT, sparse-view CT, limited angle CT, interior CT, etc. We present deep-learning-based methods which operate as image post-processing techniques or raw-to-image mapping techniques.
The ground delay program (GDP) is a commonly used tool in air traffic management. Developing a departure flight delay prediction model based on GDP can aid airlines and control authorities in better flight planning and adjusting air traffic control strategies. A model that combines the improved sparrow search algorithm (ISSA) and Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) has been proposed to minimise prediction errors. The ISSA uses tent chaotic mapping, dynamic adaptive weights, and Levy flight strategy to enhance the algorithm’s accuracy for the sparrow search algorithm (SSA). The MLP model’s hyperparameters are optimised using the ISSA to improve the model’s prediction accuracy and generalisation performance. Experiments were performed using actual GDP-generated departure flight delay data and compared with other machine learning techniques and optimisation algorithms. The results of the experiments show that the mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of the ISSA-MLP model are 16.8 and 24.2, respectively. These values are 5.61%, 6.3% and 1.8% higher in MAE and 4.4%, 5.1% and 2.5% higher in RMSE compared to SSA, particle swarm optimisation (PSO) and grey wolf optimisation (GWO). The ISSA-MLP model has been verified to have good predictive and practical value.
The penultimate deglaciation was characterized by a sub-millennial-scale warm event in the Heinrich Stadial 11(HS11), termed the 134-ka event. However, its precise timing and structure remain poorly constrained due to the lack of high-resolution and precisely dated records. We present an oxygen isotope record of a speleothem with well-developed annual lamina from Zhangjia Cave, located on the north margin of the Sichuan Basin, characterizing Asian summer monsoon (ASM) changes in the 134-ka event, which included an increase excursion of ca. 149 years and decrease excursion of ca. 200 years, inferred from 3.3‰ δ18O variations. This event also divided the weak ASM interval-II (WMI-II), corresponding to HS11, into two stages, the WMI-IIa 132.8–134.1 ka and WMI-IIb 134.4–136.4 ka. With a comparable climatic pattern globally, the 134-ka event is essentially similar to the millennial-scale events in last glacial–deglacial period. Particularly, the observed weak-strong-weak ASM sequence (138.8–132.8 ka) is largely controlled by changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) forced by the meltwater of northern high-latitude ice sheets. Moreover, our results underpin that AMOC, rather than the global ice volume, is more critical to ASM variations during the last two deglaciations.
In order to complete many complex operations and attain more general-purpose utility, robotic grasp is a necessary skill to master. As the most common essential action of robots in factory and daily life environments, robotic autonomous grasping has a wide range of application prospects and has received much attention from researchers in the past decade. However, the accurate grasp of arbitrary objects in unstructured environments is still a research challenge that has not yet been completely overcome. A complete robotic grasp system usually involves three aspects: grasp detection, grasp planning, and control subsystem. As the first step, identifying the location of the object and generating the grasp pose is the premise of successful grasp, which is conducive to planning the subsequent grasp path and the realization of the entire grasp action. Therefore, this paper conducts a literature review focusing on grasp detection technology and concludes two significant aspects: the analytic and data-driven methods. According to the previous grasp experience of the target object, this paper divides the data-driven methods into the grasp of known and unknown objects. Then it describes in detail the typical grasp detection methods and related characteristics of each classification in the grasp of unknown objects. Finally, current research status and potential research directions in this field are discussed to provide some reference for related research.
Kazal-type serine protease inhibitors (KaSPI) play important roles in insect growth, development, digestion, metabolism and immune defence. In this study, based on the transcriptome of Mythimna separata, the cDNA sequence of MsKaSPI with Kazal domain was uploaded to GenBank (MN931651). Spatial and temporal expression analysis showed that MsKaSPI was expressed at different developmental stages and different tissues, and it was induced by 20-hydroxyecdysone in third-instar larvae of M. separata. After 24 h infection by Beauveria bassiana, the expression level of MsKaSPI and the corresponding MsKaSPI content were significantly up-regulated, being 6.42-fold and 1.91-fold to the control group, respectively, while the activities of serine protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin were inhibited. After RNA interference interfered with MsKaSPI for 6 h, the expression decreased by 73.44%, the corresponding content of MsKaSPI protein decreased by 55.66% after 12 h, and the activities of serine protease and trypsin were significantly enhanced. Meanwhile, both the larval and pupal stages of M. separata were prolonged, the weights were reduced and the number of eggs per female decreased by 181. Beauveria bassiana infection also increased the mortality of MsKaSPI-silenced M. separata by 18.96%. These prove MsKaSPI can not only result in slow growth and low fecundity of M. separata by regulating the activity of related protease, but also participate in the resistance to pathogenic fungi by regulating the serine protease inhibitor content and the activities of related serine protease.
To identify the optimal weight gain at the end of the second trimester.
This was a population-based cohort study from the antenatal care system in Tianjin, China. We calculated gestational weight gain (GWG) based on the weight measured in the first trimester and the end of the second trimester. Restricted cubic spline analysis was performed to model the possible non-linear relationships between GWG and adverse outcomes. The optimal GWG was defined as the value of the lowest risk. Non-inferiority margins and the shape of the spline curves identified the recommended ranges in Chinese-specific BMI categories.
Tianjin Maternal and Child Health Cohort.
Singleton pregnant women aged 18–45 years.
In total, 69 859 pregnant women were included. Adverse outcome (including stillbirth, preterm birth, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, small and large for gestational age) was significantly associated with GWG at the end of the second trimester. The risk score was non-linearly correlated with GWG in the underweight, normal weight and overweight groups. GWG at the end of the second trimester should not be < 7 kg in underweight group. For most normal-weight women, a GWG of about 8 kg is optimal. Pregnant women who are overweight should not have a GWG of more than 9 kg. We advised women with overweight and obesity to keep positive growth of GWG (> 0 kg) in the first and second trimesters.
According to the comprehensive adverse maternal and infant outcomes, we recommend the optimal GWG at the end of the second trimester. This study may provide a considerable reference for weight management.
An 8-week experiment was performed to investigate the influence on growth performance, plasma biochemistry, glucose metabolism and the insulin pathway of supplementation of dietary taurine to a high-carbohydrate diet for grass carp. In this study, fish were fed diets at one of two carbohydrate levels, 31·49 % (positive control) or 38·61 % (T00). The high-carbohydrate basal diet (T00), without taurine, was supplemented with 0·05 % (T05), 0·10 % (T10), 0·15 % (T15) or 0·20 % (T20) taurine, resulting in six isonitrogenous (30·37 %) and isolipidic (2·37 %) experimental diets. The experimental results showed that optimal taurine level improved significantly weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), feed utilisation, reduced plasma total cholesterol levels, TAG and promoted insulin-like growth factor level. Glucokinase, pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activities showed a quadratic function model with increasing dietary taurine level, while hexokinase, fatty acid synthetase activities exhibited a positive linear trend. Optimal taurine supplementation in high-carbohydrate diet upregulated insulin receptor (Ir), insulin receptor substrate (Irs1), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (pi3k), protein kinase B (akt1), glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (gs3kβ) mRNA level and downregulated insulin-like growth factor (igf-1), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (igf-1R) and Fork head transcription factor 1 (foxo1) mRNA level. The above results suggested that optimal taurine level could improve growth performance, hepatic capacity for glycolipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, thus enhancing the utilisation of carbohydrates in grass carp. Based on SGR, dietary optimal tributyrin taurine supplementation in grass carp was estimated to be 0·08 %.
HIV-1 molecular surveillance provides a new approach to explore transmission risks and targeted interventions. From January to June 2021, 663 newly reported HIV-1 cases were recruited in Zhaotong City, Yunnan Province, China. The distribution characteristics of HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-1 molecular network were analysed. Of 542 successfully subtyped samples, 12 HIV-1 strains were identified. The main strains were CRF08_BC (47.0%, 255/542), CRF01_AE (17.0%, 92/542), CRF07_BC (17.0%, 92/542), URFs (8.7%, 47/542), and CRF85_BC (6.5%, 35/542). CRF08_BC was commonly detected among Zhaotong natives, illiterates, and non-farmers and was mostly detected in Zhaoyang County. CRF01_AE was frequently detected among married and homosexual individuals and mostly detected in Weixin and Zhenxiong counties. Among the 516 pol sequences, 187 (36.2%) were clustered. Zhaotong natives, individuals aged ≥60 years, and illiterate individuals were more likely to be found in the network. Assortativity analysis showed that individuals were more likely to be genetically associated when stratified by age, education level, occupation, and reporting area. The genetic diversity of HIV-1 reflects the complexity of local HIV epidemics. Molecular network analyses revealed the subpopulations to focus on and the characteristics of the risk networks. The results will help optimise local prevention and control strategies.
The audit was undertaken to explore if inpatients with treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS), or whose condition has not adequately responded to two antipsychotics of an optimal duration and dose, were offered clozapine as per NICE guidelines (CG178 18.104.22.168).
Data were collected retrospectively and anonymously from all electronic notes via the UK-CRIS analysis platform.
The inclusion criteria required patients, aged 18–64 years, to have a schizophrenia (ICD10 F20) diagnosis and to have been admitted to one of ten Trust inpatient wards between 01/01/2020 and 01/01/2021.
Patients were required to fulfil the criteria of treatment resistance, as having an inadequate response to two or more antipsychotic drugs, one of which was an atypical agent.
Patients who had previously tried or were currently on clozapine were excluded. Those with non-schizophrenia psychotic disorders were also excluded. 347,645 records were electronically screened according to the criteria, and 209 records were reviewed.
43 patients from the 209 patients reviewed were found to be eligible for clozapine. 28 (65%) were offered clozapine during their admission and 9 of these patients had started the titration process (21% of those eligible).
Of the 19 patients who declined clozapine when offered, 14 had refused the drug with the most common reason of not accepting the required blood monitoring (n=10).
Of the 15 eligible patients who were not offered clozapine, the clinical team had documented a consideration to offer clozapine in 6 patients (14%) but had rejected its, predominantly due to concerns of non-compliance.
For 3 patients (7%) the clinical team considered for but did not offer clozapine. There was no documentation regarding clozapine for 6 patients (14%).
This audit identified that most patients with TRS were offered clozapine during their admission. However, a proportion of patients were not offered the gold standard treatment for TRS and this may lead to poorer outcomes.
It demonstrated that a minority of eligible patients ultimately start the drug. There are barriers for eligible patients to accept clozapine, for instance around the regular blood monitoring required.
The development of high-brightness X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs), such as hard X-ray self-seeding free electron lasers and XFEL oscillators (XFELOs), brings a severe challenge to the crystal monochromator due to a strong non-uniform thermal load. The distortion caused by spatial temperature gradients can severely affect the optical performance of crystals. Therefore, this paper presents a model to estimate the performance of non-uniform thermally distorted crystals. The model not only takes into account thermal strain, slope error and incident angle deviation, but also considers temperature-dependent factors such as the Debye–Waller factor and electric susceptibility. Our investigation indicates that the Debye–Waller factor reduces the height and bandwidth of rocking curves, and the impact of the electric susceptibility is tiny. The proposed model can describe the distortion of the reflectivity and transmissivity curves of non-uniform thermally loaded crystals and can be applied in the design of crystal monochromators, crystal splitters, crystal compressors and XFELOs.
Arising of disasters by climate change had affected crop growth and yield, and then threaten local to global food security, particularly heat stress. Therefore, hazard assessment is essential to develop effective disaster risk management and adaptation interventions to ensure food security. In this study, the accumulated heat stress days (DAY), heat stress intensity (HSI) and heat degree-days (HDD) during the post-silking period of summer maize in The Huang-Huai-Hai Plain were investigated. Based on the optimal probability distribution function of HDD and information diffusion theory, we compute heat stress classification index and the possibility of heat stress, respectively. During 1981–2019, DAY, HSI and HDD were 11.8 d, 31.9°C and 23.6°Cd and increased by 0.67 d/decade, 0.10°C/decade and 3.14°Cd/decade, respectively. The threshold and hazard probability of mild, moderate and severe heat stress were 9.4, 19.4 and 34.2°Cd and 16.6, 9.3 and 4.5%, respectively. The heat stress hazard index (M) was 0.48, ranged from 0 to 0.77 during 1981 to 2019. M will increase in the future at all regions, particularly after 2060. Under SSP5-8.5 climate scenario, M ranged from 0.95 to 1.20 in 2080s, about two times than historical period. This could be used in optimizing agricultural management in summer maize production in order to combat heat stress under projected climate change.
Flow around a tethered model of a swimming batoid fish is studied by using the wall-modelled large-eddy simulation in conjunction with the immersed boundary method. A Reynolds number ($Re$) up to 148 000 is chosen, and it is comparable to that of a medium-sized aquatic animal in cruising swimming state. At such a high $Re$, we provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence of hairpin vortical (HV) structures near the body surface using three-dimensional high-fidelity flow field data. It is observed that such small-scale vortical structures are mainly formed through two mechanisms: the leading-edge vortex (LEV)–secondary filament–HV and LEV–HV transformations in different regions. The HVs create strong fluctuations in the pressure distribution and frequency spectrum. Simulations are also conducted at $Re=1480$ and 14 800 to reveal the effect of Reynolds number. Variations of the flow separation behaviour and local pressure with $Re$ are presented. Our results indicate that low-$Re$ simulations are meaningful when the focus is on the force variation tendency, whereas high-$Re$ simulations are needed when concerning flow fluctuations and turbulence mechanisms.
The development and application of Fe-rich palygorskite clay has been restricted significantly by its red colour and low grade. Moreover, the nano-structured properties of palygorskite and the relatively large Fe content of Fe-rich palygorskite clay have received insufficient attention. The present study involved the synthesis of Ni-based catalysts via a coprecipitation method using Fe-rich palygorskite clay as the support. The catalysts were then evaluated for their performance for catalytic steam reforming of toluene (CSRT). The experimental findings revealed that the Fe in Fe-rich palygorskite clay interacted strongly with Ni and formed Fe-Ni alloys. The catalyst with a Ni/Fe mass ratio of 14 (Ni14/FePal) calcined in air at 600°C exhibited superior performance for CSRT under the reaction temperature 700°C and S/C molar ratio of 1.0. According to the kinetics study, Ni14/FePal exhibited the lowest apparent activation energy (33.99 kJ mol−1) among the catalysts, which further confirmed the superior catalytic activity in CSRT. The characterizations of the catalysts used demonstrated that the excellent stability and resistance to coke formation of Ni14/FePal were attributable to the presence of a sufficient amount of highly dispersed Fe-Ni alloys on its surface.
Pulsatilla chinensis (Bunge) Regel has been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry. With the deepening of clinical application, the research on its plant resources has attracted much attention. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of distinct germination during Pulsatilla seed development are still mostly unknown. Therefore, in this study, four germination stages of P. chinensis seeds, with obvious differences in seed appearance traits, were used as materials. Transcriptome sequencing technology was used to analyse the molecular mechanisms of seed germination. A total of 27,601 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (six different groups) were determined. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that the up-regulated DEGs were enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, photosynthesis–antenna proteins, plant hormone signal transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis and other pathways. A total of 87 DEGs was enriched in phytohormone signal transduction pathways, including auxin (25), abscisic acid (13), gibberellin (6), ethylene (9) and cytokinin (7). Furthermore, a protein–protein interaction network was constructed using these DEGs. Some DEGs were validated by qRT-PCR analysis. This comprehensive analysis provided basic information on the key genes of plant hormone signal transduction pathways involved in the seed germination process of P. chinensis (Bunge) Regel.
The relationships between childhood weight self-misperception and obesity-related factors particularly health markers have not been extensively discussed. This study aims to examine the associations between weight self-misperception and obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, lifestyles and cardio-metabolic markers among Chinese paediatric population.
Data sourced from a national survey in Chinese seven provinces in 2013.
Children and adolescents aged 5–19 years.
Of the total 14 079 participants, there were 14·5 % and 2·2 % participants over-estimated and under-perceived their weight, respectively. Multi-variable logistic regression was applied to calculate OR and 95 % CI (95 % Cl) of obesity-related behaviours and cardio-metabolic markers by actual and perceived weight status. Individuals who perceived themselves as overweight/obese were more likely to have prolonged screen time, insufficient dairy intake and over sugar-sweetened beverages consumption (all P < 0·05), regardless of their weight. Furthermore, actual overweight/obese individuals had higher odds of abnormal cardio-metabolic markers, but a smaller magnitude of association was found among weight under-estimators. Among non-overweight/obese individuals, weight over-estimation was positively associated with abdominal obesity (OR: 10·49, 95 % CI: 7·45, 14·76), elevated blood pressure (OR: 1·30, 95 % CI: 1·12, 1·51) and dyslipidemia (OR: 1·43, 95 % CI: 1·29, 1·58).
Weight over-perception was more prevalent than under-estimation, particularly in girls. Weight over-estimators tended to master better knowledge but behave more unhealthily; both weight over-perception and actual overweight/obesity status were associated with poorer cardio-metabolic markers. Future obesity intervention programmes should additionally pay attention to the population with inaccurate estimation of weight who were easily overlooked.
This study unpacks how responsible leadership driven by a social mission can accomplish both social objectives and financial goals to support an organization's survival. We focus on a social enterprise in the healthcare industry in China and examine how it balances its social mission and economic goals by enlarging the capacity of medical institutions and providing high-quality services to a high number of patients. Through our analysis of the case firm, we reveal the motivation and actions of an entrepreneur in establishing a socially responsible firm and the social implications of responsible leadership in operating such an enterprise. We provide an important supplement and extension to the work of Smith and Besharov (2019) by demonstrating how a responsible leader in China manages the process of balancing social and economic goals. We further contribute to the understanding of how a socially responsible firm can improve the healthcare industry and the reform of China's healthcare.
Circulating n-3 PUFA, which integrate endogenous and exogenous n-3 PUFA, can be better used to investigate the relationship between n-3 PUFA and disease. However, studies examining the associations between circulating n-3 PUFA and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk were limited, and the results remained inconclusive. This case–control study aimed to examine the association between serum n-3 PUFA and CRC risk in Chinese population. A total of 680 CRC cases and 680 sex- and age-matched (5-year interval) controls were included. Fatty acids were assayed by GC. OR and 95 % CI were calculated using multivariable logistic regression after adjustment for potential confounders. Higher level of serum α-linolenic acid (ALA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), DHA, long-chain n-3 PUFA and total n-3 PUFA were associated with lower odds of CRC. The adjusted OR and 95 % CI were 0·34 (0·24, 0·49, Pfor trend < 0·001) for ALA, 0·57 (0·40, 0·80, Pfor trend < 0·001) for DPA, 0·48 (0·34, 0·68, Pfor trend < 0·001) for DHA, 0·39 (0·27, 0·56, Pfor trend < 0·001) for long-chain n-3 PUFA and 0·31 (0·22, 0·45, Pfor trend < 0·001) for total n-3 PUFA comparing the highest with the lowest quartile. However, there was no statistically significant association between EPA and odds of CRC. Analysis stratified by sex showed that ALA, DHA, long-chain n-3 PUFA and total n-3 PUFA were inversely associated with odds of CRC in both sexes. This study indicated that serum ALA, DPA, DHA, long-chain n-3 PUFA and total n-3 PUFA were inversely associated with odds of having CRC in Chinese population.
We present experimental results of irregular long-crested waves propagating over a submerged trapezoidal bar with the presence of a background current in a wave flume. We investigate the non-equilibrium phenomenon (NEP) induced by significant changes of water depth and mean horizontal flow velocity as wave trains pass over the bar. Using skewness and kurtosis as proxies, we show evidence that an accelerating following current could increase the sea-state non-Gaussianity and enhance both the magnitude and spatial extent of the NEP. We also find that below a ‘saturation relative water depth’ $k_p h_2 \approx 0.5$ ($k_p$ being the peak wavenumber in the shallow area of depth $h_2$), although the NEP manifests, the decrease of the relative water depth does not further enhance the maximum skewness and kurtosis over the bar crest. This work highlights the nonlinear physics according to which a following current could provoke higher freak wave risk in coastal areas where modulation instability plays an insignificant role.