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Extensive evidence indicates that rates of psychotic disorder are elevated in more urban compared with less urban areas, but this evidence largely originates from Northern Europe. It is unclear whether the same association holds globally. This study examined the association between urban residence and rates of psychotic disorder in catchment areas in India (Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu), Nigeria (Ibadan, Oyo), and Northern Trinidad.
Comprehensive case detection systems were developed based on extensive pilot work to identify individuals aged 18–64 with previously untreated psychotic disorders residing in each catchment area (May 2018–April/May/July 2020). Area of residence and basic demographic details were collected for eligible cases. We compared rates of psychotic disorder in the more v. less urban administrative areas within each catchment area, based on all cases detected, and repeated these analyses while restricting to recent onset cases (<2 years/<5 years).
We found evidence of higher overall rates of psychosis in more urban areas within the Trinidadian catchment area (IRR: 3.24, 95% CI 2.68–3.91), an inverse association in the Nigerian catchment area (IRR: 0.68, 95% CI 0.51–0.91) and no association in the Indian catchment area (IRR: 1.18, 95% CI 0.93–1.52). When restricting to recent onset cases, we found a modest positive association in the Indian catchment area.
This study suggests that urbanicity is associated with higher rates of psychotic disorder in some but not all contexts outside of Northern Europe. Future studies should test candidate mechanisms that may underlie the associations observed, such as exposure to violence.
Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis. The potential drug resistance necessitates the search for adjunct or alternative therapies to PZQ. Previous functional genomics has shown that RNAi inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) gene in Schistosoma adult worms significantly improved the effectiveness of PZQ. Here we tested the in vitro efficacy of 15 selective and non-selective CaMK inhibitors against Schistosoma mansoni and showed that PZQ efficacy was improved against refractory juvenile parasites when combined with these CaMK inhibitors. By measuring CaMK activity and the mobility of adult S. mansoni, we identified two non-selective CaMK inhibitors, Staurosporine (STSP) and 1Naphthyl PP1 (1NAPP1), as promising candidates for further study. The impact of STSP and 1NAPP1 was investigated in mice infected with S. mansoni in the presence or absence of a sub-lethal dose of PZQ against 2- and 7-day-old schistosomula and adults. Treatment with STSP/PZQ induced a significant (47–68%) liver egg burden reduction compared with mice treated with PZQ alone. The findings indicate that the combination of STSP and PZQ dosages significantly improved anti-schistosomal activity compared to PZQ alone, demonstrating the potential of selective and non-selective CaMK/kinase inhibitors as a combination therapy with PZQ in treating schistosomiasis.
Field studies were conducted from 1984 to 1986 to assess cabbage injury and yield response to several acetanilide herbicides. When incorporated, metolachlor significantly injured cabbage and reduced yields while post-transplant applications caused foliar flecking but did not reduce yields. Crop injury from pretransplant applications of 4.4 kg ai/ha was significant for all herbicides in both 1985 and 1986. Although total yields in 1985 and 1986 were comparable, maturity was delayed in 1986. With few exceptions, the acetanilides did not differ in either injury or yield-reducing potential. However, compared to trifluralin, metolachlor reduced yields in both years and at both rates.
The triple themes of textile, text, and intertext, three powerful and evocative subjects within both Anglo-Saxon studies and Old English literature itself, run through the essays collected here. Chapters evoke the semantic complexities of textile references and images drawn from the Bayeux Tapestry, examine parallels in word-woven poetics, riddling texts, and interwoven homiletic and historical prose, and identify iconographical textures in medieval art. The volume thus considers the images and creative strategies of textiles, texts, and intertexts, generating a complex and fascinating view ofthe material culture and metaphorical landscape of the Anglo-Saxon peoples. It is therefore a particularly fitting tribute to Professor Gale R. Owen-Crocker, whose career and lengthy list of scholarly works have centred on her interests in the meaning and cultural importance of textiles, manuscripts and text, and intertextual relationships between text and textile.
Dr Maren Clegg Hyer is Associate Professor and Graduate Coordinator in the Department of English at Valdosta State University.; Jill Frederick is Professor of English at Minnesota State University Moorhead.
Contributors: Marilina Cesario, Elizabeth Coatsworth, Martin Foys, Jill Frederick, Joyce Hill, Maren Clegg Hyer, Catherine E. Karkov, Christina Lee, Michael Lewis, Robin Netherton, Carol Neuman de Vegvar, Donald Scragg, Louise Sylvester, Paul Szarmach, Elaine Treharne.
Fifty-six patients with spasmodic torticollis were treated with local injections of botulinum toxin. The drop out rate was 21%. The remaining 44 patients were followed for a period of 3 to 21 months. Thirty-two patients (76%) had pain relief out of 42 presenting with pain; 37 (66%) improved in the amount of sustained movements of torticollis. The efficacy was reproducible after repeated injections.