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Epilepsy is amongst the most frequently encountered of neurological disorders, yet its diagnosis and management is fraught with pitfalls. Issues surrounding differential diagnosis, seizure type, underlying causes, EEG interpretations, treatment options and prognoses can often trip-up clinicians. Common Epilepsy Pitfalls: Case-Based Learning, is a comprehensive guide to anticipating and managing the pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of epilepsy. Real-life cases are presented along with pragmatic recommendations for courses of action that guide the reader through accurate and effective epilepsy diagnosis and treatment. Cases have been chosen to answer key questions such as: the first seizure – is it epilepsy? Which drug? When should stopping treatment be considered? What to do in an epileptic emergency? Containing detailed coverage of psychiatric, social and family issues – and authored by world experts in epilepsy management – this text is invaluable for neurologists, internists, family practitioners and advanced medical students.
Convincing evidence exists for a beneficial effect of physical activity (PA) on health and well-being for elderly women. Nevertheless, many women in Germany are insufficiently physically active. Activity promotion programmes should target women in particular need. Thus, we examined subject-related determinants of PA for postmenopausal women in Germany.
Associations of sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health-related factors with activity since the age of 50 years were assessed with multiple linear and logistic regression models, regarding overall leisure-time PA (LPA) in metabolic equivalent hours per week, engagement in sports (ever v. never), cycling (yes v. no) and walking (≥3·5 v. <3·5 h/week).
All controls from a population-based case–control study carried out in 2002–2005 in Germany (MARIE study).
A total of 6569 postmenopausal women.
We found significant associations of overall LPA, sports, cycling and walking in postmenopausal years with several characteristics, among others: obese v. normal BMI (adjusted OR: ORsports = 0·73; ORcycling = 0·60; ORwalking = 0·63), tall v. short (ORsports = 1·49), worker v. medium employee (ORsports = 0·47), working full time v. unemployed/retired (ORsports = 0·80; ORwalking = 0·56), current v. non-smoker (ORsports = 0·62; ORcycling = 0·62; ORwalking = 0·82), non-German nationality (ORsports = 0·58; ORcycling = 0·41). Parity seemed more relevant than marital status for sports or cycling activity. Further, CVD, hypertension and diabetes were significantly associated with lower activity (ORsports = 0·77, 0·79 and 0·80; ORcycling = 0·80, 0·75 and 0·85, respectively).
Our results suggest potential target groups for promoting sports, cycling or walking activity. Postmenopausal women with chronic diseases may need to be stronger encouraged by their physicians to engage in adequate PA for the management of their diseases.
Two types of conditions are discussed ensuring the equality between long-run time fractions and long-run event fractions of stochastic processes with embedded point processes. Modifications of this equality statement are considered.