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Magnesium alloys usually lack “operative deformation slip mechanisms” because of their hexagonal close-packed structure. Therefore, the mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys at different temperatures is dictated by other deformation mechanisms such as twinning, detwinning, secondary twinning, or dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Twinning and DRX can affect the development of grain size and orientation distribution, as well as the deformation behavior of magnesium alloys. The current understanding of the mechanisms and mechanics of these different deformation modes and their implementation in crystal plasticity-based modeling are highlighted in this article. Future directions in the development of constitutive models are also discussed.
Blueberry, rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals, has been demonstrated to lower inflammatory status in adipose induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and obesity. The effect of blueberry on systemic immune functions has not been examined. C57BL/6 mice were randomised to one of three diets – low-fat diet (LFD), HFD and HFD plus 4 % (w/w) blueberry (HFD+B) – for 8 or 12 weeks. Ex vivo T-cell mitogens (concanavalin A (Con A); phytohaemagglutinin), T-cell antibody (anti-CD3; anti-CD3/CD28)-stimulated T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were assessed. After 8 weeks, both HFD groups weighed more (>4 g) than the LFD group; after 12 weeks, HFD+B-fed mice weighed more (>6 g) and had 41 % more adipose tissue than HFD-fed mice (P<0·05). After 12 weeks, T-cell proliferation was less in both HFD groups, compared with the LFD group. HFD-associated decrements in T-cell proliferation were partially (10–50 %) prevented by blueberry supplementation. At 12 weeks, splenocytes from HFD mice, but not from HFD+B mice, produced 51 % less IL-4 (CD3/CD28) and 57 % less interferon-γ (Con A) compared with splenocytes from LFD mice (P<0·05). In response to lipopolysaccharide challenge, splenocytes from both HFD groups produced 24–30 % less IL-6 and 27–33 % less TNF-α compared with splenocytes from LFD mice (P<0·05), indicating impaired acute innate immune response. By demonstrating deleterious impacts of HFD feeding on T-cell proliferation and splenocyte immune responses, our results provide insights into how HFD/obesity can disrupt systemic immune function. The protective effects of blueberry suggest that dietary blueberry can buttress T-cell and systemic immune function against HFD-obesity-associated insults.
Previously, we showed that mice fed white button mushrooms (WBM) had enhanced immune functions known to help the body's antiviral defence. In the present study, we tested whether WBM conferred protection against viral infection. Young (4-month-old) and old (22-month-old) C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0, 2 or 10 % WBM powder for 8 weeks. Mice were then infected with influenza Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1), and killed at day 0 (uninfected), 2, 5 or 7 post-infection. The primary outcomes of the study were viral titre and body weight. Secondary outcomes were natural killer (NK) cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. The results showed that WBM did not affect viral titre, nor did it prevent infection-induced weight loss. WBM supplementation was found to enhance NK cell activity in old mice and to increase interferon (IFN)-γ production in young and old mice under naive (uninfected) conditions, but it had no such effect after infection. The lack of a mushroom supplementation effect on NK activity and concanavalin A-stimulated IFN-γ production after infection may explain the immune system's failure to reduce viral load and weight loss in mice after influenza infection. WBM supplementation, however, did induce changes in other aspects of the immune response: it significantly increased the production of T-helper type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in uninfected mice and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in infected mice. These mushroom-induced systemic changes, however, were not adequate to confer a protective effect against influenza infection.
Dietary long-chain PUFA, both n-3 and n-6, have unique benefits with respect to CVD risk. The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA (EPA, DHA) and n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA)) relative to SFA (myristic acid (MA), palmitic acid (PA)) alter markers of inflammation and cholesterol accumulation in macrophages (MΦ). Cells treated with AA and EPA elicited significantly less inflammatory response than control cells or those treated with MA, PA and LA, with intermediate effects for DHA, as indicated by lower levels of mRNA and secretion of TNFα, IL-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Differences in cholesterol accumulation after exposure to minimally modified LDL were modest. AA and EPA resulted in significantly lower MΦ scavenger receptor 1 mRNA levels relative to control or MA-, PA-, LA- and DHA-treated cells, and ATP-binding cassette A1 mRNA levels relative to control or MA-, PA- and LA-treated cells. These data suggest changes in the rate of bidirectional cellular cholesterol flux. In summary, individual long-chain PUFA have differential effects on inflammatory response and markers of cholesterol flux in MΦ which are not related to the n position of the first double bond, chain length or degree of saturation.