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The Introduction outlines the trajectory of the literature on judicialization in Latin America, and presents the core argument of the book. The book argues that the institutional and cultural changes that empowered courts and put them at the center of policy disputes, what the editors call the “judicialization superstructure,” often fall short of the promise of greater accountability and rights protection. First, courts sometimes fail to account for persistent state weakness, pushing policies ahead of the state and societal infrastructure needed to support them. Second, judicial corruption, nepotism, and other intra-institutional pathologies occasionally diminish the transformative potential of courts and prosecutors. Third, courts’ and activists’ inability to root change in robust structures of support leads to political and societal backlash that frustrates reform efforts. As a result, and in spite of some notable successes, judicialization in certain areas produces limited impact and is met with aggressive responses from conservative forces. Finally, there are instances when the expectations of the architects of judicialization have been met all too well, especially in terms of strengthening mechanisms of horizontal accountability, but due to the broader context in which these mechanisms operate, effective judicialization can do more harm than good.
Latin America was one of the earliest and most enthusiastic adopters of what has come to be known as the judicialization of politics - the use of law and legal institutions as tools of social contestation to curb the abuse of power in government, resolve policy disputes, and enforce and expand civil, political, and socio-economic rights. Almost forty years into this experiment, The Limits of Judicialization brings together a cross-disciplinary group of scholars to assess the role that law and courts play in Latin American politics. Featuring studies of hot-button topics including abortion, state violence, judicial corruption, and corruption prosecutions, this volume argues that the institutional and cultural changes that empowered courts, what the editors call the 'judicialization superstructure,' often fall short of the promise of greater accountability and rights protection. Illustrative and expansive, this volume offers a truly interdisciplinary analysis of the limits of judicialized politics.
In this study, I adopt an argumentative perspective on evidence, focusing on three points: (1) The structure of evidentiary inference; (2) which reasons count as good ones for establishing the degree of corroboration of a hypothesis and (3) the possibility of formulating a precise, objective standard of proof.
The taxonomy of the 10 recognized Neoechinorhynchus species associated with emydid turtles is complex due to the morphological conservatism. In the present study, specimens of N. emyditoides from northern and southeastern Mexico exhibit great phenotypic plasticity on its diagnostic characteristics. We sequenced three molecular markers: the internal transcribed spacers ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S gene, the D2 + D3 domains of the large subunit from nuclear DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) from mitochondrial DNA. Sequences of the nuclear molecular markers were aligned and compared with other congeneric species associated with emydids available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses supported the polyphyly of Neoechinorhynchus. The species from emydids formed a clade, which was subdivided into five subclades that correspond with each species analysed (N. pseudemydis, N. chrysemydis, N. emydis, N. schmidti and N. emyditoides). To understand better the genetic structure of N. emyditoides a haplotype network was inferred with 29 cox1 sequences, revealing the presence of 13 haplotypes, two of which were shared and 11 were unique. The high values of fixation index, Fst (0.4227–0.8925) detected between the two populations from southeastern and the two from northern Mexico indicated low genetic flow among the populations. Our data suggest that the Neoechinorhynchus species associated with emydid turtles diversified in the eastern USA and that of N. emyditoides expanded its distribution range reached southeastern Mexico.
How much do electoral institutions matter for the rise of populist parties? Evidence on this question is mixed, with some scholars arguing that the role of electoral rules is small. We provide new evidence for the impact of electoral system change. The UK's adoption of a proportional electoral system for European elections in 1999 provides a unique opportunity to study the link between electoral rules and the ascendancy of right-wing populist parties. Employing both synthetic control and difference-in-difference methods, we estimate that the electoral reform increased the vote share of right-wing populists by about 12 to 13.5 percentage points on average. During a time when populism was rising across Europe, the reform abruptly shifted populist votes in the UK above the European trend and above more plausible comparison cases. Our results also imply that caution is needed when empirical results based on partial reforms are extrapolated to electoral system change.
This study analysed Strongyloides stercoralis genetic variability based on a 404 bp region of the cox1 gene from Latin-American samples in a clinical context including epidemiological, diagnosis and follow-up variables. A prospective, descriptive, observational study was conducted to evaluate clinical and parasitological evolution after ivermectin treatment of 41 patients infected with S. stercoralis. Reactivation of the disease was defined both by clinical symptoms appearance and/or direct larvae detection 30 days after treatment or later. We described 10 haplotypes organized in two clusters. Most frequent variants were also described in the Asian continent in human (HP24 and HP93) and canine (HP24) samples. Clinical presentation (intestinal, severe, cutaneous and asymptomatic), immunological status and eosinophil count were not associated with specific haplotypes or clusters. Nevertheless, presence of cluster 1 haplotypes during diagnosis increased the risk of reactivation with an odds ratio (OR) of 7.51 [confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.38–44.29, P = 0.026]. In contrast, reactivation probability was 83 times lower if cluster 2 (I152V mutation) was detected (OR = 0.17, CI 95% 0.02–0.80, P = 0.02). This is the first analysis of S. stercoralis cox1 diversity in the clinical context. Determination of clusters during the diagnosis could facilitate and improve the design of follow-up strategies to prevent severe reactivations of this chronic disease.
Hypotension is an adverse event that may be related to systemic exposure of milrinone; however, the true exposure–safety relationship is unknown.
Using the Pediatric Trials Network multicentre repository, we identified children ≤17 years treated with milrinone. Hypotension was defined according to age, using the Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines. Clinically significant hypotension was defined as hypotension with concomitant lactate >3 mg/dl. A prior population pharmacokinetic model was used to simulate milrinone exposures to evaluate exposure–safety relationships.
We included 399 children with a median (quarter 1, quarter 3) age of 1 year (0,5) who received 428 intravenous doses of milrinone (median infusion rate 0.31 mcg/kg/min [0.29,0.5]). Median maximum plasma milrinone concentration was 110.7 ng/ml (48.4,206.2). Median lowest systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 74 mmHg (60,85) and 35 mmHg (25,42), respectively. At least 1 episode of hypotension occurred in 178 (45%) subjects; clinically significant hypotension occurred in 10 (2%). The maximum simulated milrinone plasma concentrations were higher in subjects with clinically significant hypotension (251 ng/ml [129,329]) versus with hypotension alone (86 ng/ml [44, 173]) versus without hypotension (122 ng/ml [57, 208], p = 0.002); however, this relationship was not retained on multivariable analysis (odds ratio 1.01; 95% confidence interval 0.998, 1.01).
We successfully leveraged a population pharmacokinetic model and electronic health record data to evaluate the relationship between simulated plasma concentration of milrinone and systemic hypotension occurrence, respectively, supporting the broader applicability of our novel, efficient, and cost-effective study design for examining drug exposure–response and –safety relationships.
This article analyzes the relationship between corruption offenses and money laundering with reference to the Spanish Penal Code. These two criminal categories lack a certain definition, as there is no such univocal concept of “political corruption” and “money laundering.” The reasons for the denaturation of these criminal figures will be addressed. Then, the paper will expose how these criminal figures relate to each other. We argue that a real concurrence between both figures is possible, although it may lead, in certain cases, to double incrimination and its consequent punitive excess. Therefore, we will propose some criteria for a restrictive interpretation of “money laundering” to avoid confusion with other legal figures such as “confiscation.” The paper will end with reference to the Spanish Criminal Code’s regulation on “confiscation” and a brief review of the main critics.
Hypleurochilus fissicornis is a resident species of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Mar del Plata, Argentina. The specific reproductive biology was studied by means of both microscopic and macroscopic analyses. A total of 212 males and 223 females were analysed. Specimens were dissected and their gonads and livers were removed. The gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indexes and the condition factor were calculated on a monthly basis. Hypleurochilus fissicornis breeds in rocky intertidal areas, and exhibits low fecundity with benthic eggs and parental care. Size at first maturity (L50) was estimated at 53.66 and 55.83 mm total length for females and males, respectively. The spawning season takes place between December and April.
Data on short-term peripheral intravenous catheter–related bloodstream infections per 1,000 peripheral venous catheter days (PIVCR BSIs per 1,000 PVC days) rates from Latin America are not available, so they have not been thoroughly studied.
International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) members conducted a prospective, surveillance study on PIVCR BSIs from January 2010 to March 2018 in 100 intensive care units (ICUs) among 41 hospitals, in 26 cities of 9 countries in Latin America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican-Republic, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Venezuela). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Health Safety Network (NHSN) definitions were applied, and INICC methodology and INICC Surveillance Online System software were used.
In total, 10,120 ICU patients were followed for 40,078 bed days and 38,262 PVC days. In addition, 79 PIVCR BSIs were identified, with a rate of 2.06 per 1,000 PVC days (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.635–2.257). The average length of stay (ALOS) of patients without a PIVCR BSI was 3.95 days, and the ALOS was 5.29 days for patients with a PIVCR BSI. The crude extra ALOS was 1.34 days (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.0975–1.6351; P = .040).
The mortality rate in patients without PIVCR BSI was 3.67%, and this rate was 6.33% in patients with a PIVCR BSI. The crude extra mortality was 1.70 times higher. The microorganism profile showed 48.5% gram-positive bacteria (coagulase-negative Staphylococci 25.7%) and 48.5% gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter spp, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella spp (8.5% each one), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.7%), and Candida spp (2.8%). The resistances of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were 0% to amikacin and 50% to meropenem. The resistance of Acinetobacter baumanii to amikacin was 0%, and the resistance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus to oxacillin was 75%.
Our PIVCR BSI rates were higher than rates from more economically developed countries and were similar to those of countries with limited resources.
The growing body of research on compassion has demonstrated its benefits for healthcare and wellbeing. However, there is no clear agreement about a definition for compassion, given the novelty of the research on this construct and its religious roots. The aim of this study is to analyze the mental semantic construction of compassion in Spanish-speaking women breast cancer survivors, and the effects of the Cognitively-Based Compassion Training (CBCT®) on the modification of this definition, compared to treatment-as-usual (TAU), at baseline, post-intervention, and six-month follow-up. Participants were 56 women breast cancer survivors from a randomized clinical trial. The Osgood’s Semantic Differential categories (evaluative, potency, and activity scales) were adapted to assess the semantic construction of compassion. At baseline, participants had an undefined idea about compassion. The CBCT influenced subjects’ semantic construction of what it means to be compassionate. Findings could lead to future investigations and compassion programs that adapt to a specific culture or population.
Recently, many industrial exoskeletons for supporting workers in heavy physical tasks have been developed. However, the efficiency of exoskeletons with regard to physical strain reduction has not been fully proved, yet. Several laboratory and field studies have been conducted, but still more data, that cannot be obtained solely by behavioral experiments, are needed to investigate effects on the human body.
This paper presents an approach to extend laboratory and field research with biomechanical simulations using the AnyBody Modeling System. Based on a dataset recorded in a laboratory experiment with 12 participants using the exoskeleton Paexo Shoulder in an overhead task, the same situation was reproduced in a virtual environment and analyzed with biomechanical simulation.
Simulation results indicate that the exoskeleton substantially reduces muscle activity and joint reaction forces in relevant body areas. Deltoid muscle activity and glenohumeral joint forces in the shoulder were decreased between 54 and 87%. Simultanously, no increases of muscle activity and forces in other body areas were observed.
This study demonstrates how a simulation framework could be used to evaluate changes in internal body loads as a result of wearing exoskeletons. Biomechanical simulation results widely agree with experimental measurements in the previous laboratory experiment and supplement such by providing an insight into effects on the human musculoskeletal system. They confirm that Paexo Shoulder is an effective device to reduce physical strain in overhead tasks. The framework can be extended with further parameters, allowing investigations for product design and evaluation.