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In the US Southwest and Northwest Mexico, people and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) have had a reciprocal relationship for millennia; turkeys supplied feathers, meat, and other resources, whereas people provided food, shelter, and care. To investigate how turkeys fit within subsistence, economic production, sociopolitical organization, and religious and ritual practice in the Mimbres Valley of southwestern New Mexico, we report on genetic (mtDNA) and stable isotope (δ13C, δ15N) data from turkeys recovered from Mimbres Classic period (AD 1000–1130) sites. Results indicate that Mimbres aviculturists had haplogroup H1 and H2 turkeys, and most ate maize-based diets similar to humans, but some ate nonmaize and mixed diets. We contextualize these data to other turkey studies from the northern Southwest and discuss how the human-turkey relationship began, the evidence for pens and restricting turkey movement, and the socioecological factors related to turkey management during the Classic period, particularly the challenges associated with providing maize to turkeys during times of environmental stress. This study has broad relevance to places where people managed wild, tame, and domestic animals, and we offer new insights into how prehispanic, small-scale, middle-range agricultural societies managed turkeys for ritual and utilitarian purposes.
Any role for spirituality in addressing the serious clinical and public health problems related to substance misuse and addiction might seem antiquated at best, and clinical malpractice at worst. Yet, from a phenomenological perspective, addiction often penetrates and pervades the core of conscious thought and behaviour, undermining personal values and meaning and purpose in life – factors that many people associate with a diminished sense of personal spirituality. Research on spiritual/religious identity and practices has shown that these both protect against the onset of substance misuse and help millions each year to recover from it. This chapter reviews the interplay of morality, spirituality/religion and substance misuse, suggests why addiction in particular is so prone to spiritual pathology, and describes why spirituality/religion have played such prominent roles in successful remission and stable recovery. Spiritually oriented treatment approaches to addiction are reviewed along with their implications for practice and research.
To determine whether a clinician-directed acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) intervention was associated with improved antibiotic prescribing and patient outcomes across a large US healthcare system.
Multicenter retrospective quasi-experimental analysis of outpatient visits with a diagnosis of uncomplicated ARI over a 7-year period.
Outpatients with ARI diagnoses: sinusitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and unspecified upper respiratory tract infection (URI-NOS). Outpatients with concurrent infection or select comorbid conditions were excluded.
Audit and feedback with peer comparison of antibiotic prescribing rates and academic detailing of clinicians with frequent ARI visits. Antimicrobial stewards and academic detailing personnel delivered the intervention; facility and clinician participation were voluntary.
We calculated the probability to receive antibiotics for an ARI before and after implementation. Secondary outcomes included probability for a return clinic visits or infection-related hospitalization, before and after implementation. Intervention effects were assessed with logistic generalized estimating equation models. Facility participation was tracked, and results were stratified by quartile of facility intervention intensity.
We reviewed 1,003,509 and 323,023 uncomplicated ARI visits before and after the implementation of the intervention, respectively. The probability to receive antibiotics for ARI decreased after implementation (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78–0.86). Facilities with the highest quartile of intervention intensity demonstrated larger reductions in antibiotic prescribing (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.59–0.80) compared to nonparticipating facilities (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73–1.09). Return visits (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.94–1.07) and infection-related hospitalizations (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.92–1.59) were not different before and after implementation within facilities that performed intensive implementation.
Implementation of a nationwide ARI management intervention (ie, audit and feedback with academic detailing) was associated with improved ARI management in an intervention intensity–dependent manner. No impact on ARI-related clinical outcomes was observed.
To examine differences in surgical practices between salaried and fee-for-service (FFS) surgeons for two common degenerative spine conditions. Surgeons may offer different treatments for similar conditions on the basis of their compensation mechanism.
The study assessed the practices of 63 spine surgeons across eight Canadian provinces (39 FFS surgeons and 24 salaried) who performed surgery for two lumbar conditions: stable spinal stenosis and degenerative spondylolisthesis. The study included a multicenter, ambispective review of consecutive spine surgery patients enrolled in the Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network registry between October 2012 and July 2018. The primary outcome was the difference in type of procedures performed between the two groups. Secondary study variables included surgical characteristics, baseline patient factors, and patient-reported outcome.
For stable spinal stenosis (n = 2234), salaried surgeons performed statistically fewer uninstrumented fusion (p < 0.05) than FFS surgeons. For degenerative spondylolisthesis (n = 1292), salaried surgeons performed significantly more instrumentation plus interbody fusions (p < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in patient-reported outcomes between the two groups.
Surgeon compensation was associated with different approaches to stable lumbar spinal stenosis and degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Salaried surgeons chose a more conservative approach to spinal stenosis and a more aggressive approach to degenerative spondylolisthesis, which highlights that remuneration is likely a minor determinant in the differences in practice of spinal surgery in Canada. Further research is needed to further elucidate which variables, other than patient demographics and financial incentives, influence surgical decision-making.
Recent findings have shown that the continued expansion of the scope and scale of data collected in electronic health records are making the protection of personally identifiable information (PII) more challenging and may inadvertently put our institutions and patients at risk if not addressed. As clinical terminologies expand to include new terms that may capture PII (e.g., Patient First Name, Patient Phone Number), institutions may start using them in clinical data capture (and in some cases, they already have). Once in use, PII-containing values associated with these terms may find their way into laboratory or observation data tables via extract-transform-load jobs intended to process structured data, putting institutions at risk of unintended disclosure. Here we aim to inform the informatics community of these findings, as well as put out a call to action for remediation by the community.
Background: Antibiotics targeted against Clostridioides difficile bacteria are necessary, but insufficient, to achieve a durable clinical response because they have no effect on C. difficile spores that germinate within a disrupted microbiome. ECOSPOR-III evaluated SER-109, an investigational, biologically derived microbiome therapeutic of purified Firmicute spores for treatment of rCDI. Herein, we present the interim analysis in the ITT population at 8 and 12 weeks. Methods: Adults ≥18 years with rCDI (≥3 episodes in 12 months) were screened at 75 US and CAN sites. CDI was defined as ≥3 unformed stools per day for <48 hours with a positive C. difficile assay. After completion of 10–21 days of vancomycin or fidaxomicin, adults with symptom resolution were randomized 1:1 to SER-109 (4 capsules × 3 days) or matching placebo and stratified by age (≥ or <65 years) and antibiotic received. Primary objectives were safety and efficacy at 8 weeks. Primary efficacy endpoint was rCDI (recurrent toxin+ diarrhea requiring treatment); secondary endpoints included efficacy at 12 weeks after dosing. Results: Overall, 287 participants were screened and 182 were randomized (59.9% female; mean age, 65.5 years). The most common reason for screen failure was a negative C. difficile toxin assay. A significantly lower proportion of SER-109 participants had rCDI after dosing compared to placebo at week 8 (11.1% vs 41.3%, respectively; relative risk [RR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15–0.51; p-value <0.001). Efficacy rates were significantly higher with SER-109 vs placebo in both stratified age groups (Figure 1). SER-109 was well-tolerated with a safety profile similar to placebo. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were gastrointestinal and were mainly mild to moderate. No serious TEAEs, infections, deaths, or drug discontinuations were deemed related to study drug. Conclusions: SER-109, an oral live microbiome therapeutic, achieved high rates of sustained clinical response with a favorable safety profile. By enriching for Firmicute spores, SER-109 achieves high efficacy while mitigating risk of transmitting infectious agents, beyond donor screening alone. SER-109 represents a major paradigm shift in the clinical management of patients with recurrent CDI. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT03183128. These data were previously presented as a late breaker at American College of Gastroenterology 2020.
The spiritual well-being scale (SWBS) is a widely used clinical scale which should be evaluated for Iranian patients with cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the SWBS in Iranian patients with cancer.
This cross-sectional, methodological study was conducted among Iranian patients with cancer (n = 400). The participants were recruited using convenience sampling. The content, construct, convergent and discriminant validity, and reliability of the Persian version of the SWBS were evaluated.
A two-factor structure for the scale was indicated with the factors being: connecting with God and meaningless life that explained 54.18% of the total variance of the concept of spiritual well-being. The results demonstrated the model had a good fit. Cronbach's alpha, McDonald's omega, and the inter-item correlation values of the factors indicated good internal consistency of the scale.
Significance of results
These results suggest that the Persian version of the SWBS is a reliable and valid measure to assess the spiritual well-being of patients with cancer through 16 items related to connecting with God and meaningless life.
The Introduction sites the volume in the current scholarly circumstances, tracing the history of the question and its several disciplines, before summarising the chapters and suggesting new paths forward.