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A radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600, 700, 800, and 900 °C were implemented to grow high-quality Ga-doped MgxZn1-xO (GMZO) epi-layers. The GMZO films were deposited using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system and a 4 inch ZnO/MgO/Ga2O3 (75/20/5 wt %) target. The Hall results, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmittance were determined and are reported in this paper. The Hall results indicated that the increase in mobility was likely caused by the improved crystallization in the GMZO films after thermal annealing. The XRD results revealed that MgxZn1-xO (111) and MgO2 (200) peaks were obtained in the GMZO films. The absorption edges of the as-grown and annealed GMZO films shifted toward the short wavelength of 373 nm at a transmittance of 90%. According to these results, GMZO films are feasible for forming transparent contact layers for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.
Thermal effects on the crystal structure, electrical and optical characteristics of the Al and F co-doped ZnO films (ZnO:AlF3) are discussed in the paper. The ZnO:AlF3 thin films are prepared by RF sputtering with a constant power (ZnO/AlF3=100W/75W) toward the ZnO and AlF3 targets. The substrate temperature varied from room temperature to 250 °C with a step of 50 °C during thin film deposition. The crystalline quality of the ZnO:AlF3 film improved as the substrate temperature increased, with a corresponding increase in grain size. The improvement of the film quality leads to a higher electron mobility, with electron mobility of 0.85 cm2/V-s for the film deposited at the substrate temperature of 250 °C. The doping effect of fluorine in ZnO, and hence carrier concentration, was reduced at high temperature due to the vaporization of fluorine. This led to a reduction of carrier concentration with increase of temperature from 25 to 200°C. The corresponding resistivity increased from 3.60×10−2 to 6.0×10−2 Ω-cm. While for a further increase in substrate temperature, the doping of Al to the ZnO film was increased and resulted in an increase in carrier concentration.
This study aimed to evaluate the hypocholesterolaemic property of milk-kefir and soyamilk-kefir. Male hamsters were fed on a cholesterol-free or cholesterol-enriched diet containing 10% skimmed milk, milk-kefir, soyamilk or soyamilk-kefir for a period of 8 weeks. The soyamilk, milk-kefir and soyamilk-kefir diets all tended towards a lowering of serum triacylglycerol and total cholesterol concentrations, and a reduction of cholesterol accumulation in the liver, the decrease in serum cholesterol concentration being mainly in the non-HDL fraction. The soyamilk-kefir diet led to a significant increase in the faecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids compared with the other two diets. The soyamilk-kefir diet also elicited a significant decrease in the serum ratio of non-HDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol, compared with the control, than was the case for the other diets. These findings demonstrate that soyamilk-kefir may be considered to be among the more promising food components in terms of preventing CVD through its hypocholesterolaemic action.
Indwelling urinary catheters are the most common source of infections in intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nurse-generated daily reminders to physicians to remove unnecessary urinary catheters 5 days after insertion.
A time-sequence nonrandomized intervention study.
Adult ICUs (medical, surgical, cardiovascular surgical, neurosurgical, and coronary care) of a tertiary-care university medical center.
All patients admitted to the adult ICUs during a 2-year period. The study consisted of a 12-month observational phase (15,960 patient-days) followed by a 12-month intervention phase (15,525 patient-days).
Daily reminders to physicians from the nursing staff to remove unnecessary urinary catheters 5 days after insertion.
The duration of urinary catheterization was significantly reduced during the intervention phase (from 7.0 ± 1.1 days to 4.6 ± 0.7 days; P < .001). The rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) was also significantly reduced (from 11.5 ± 3.1 to 8.3 ± 2.5 patients with CAUTI per 1,000 catheter-days; P = .009). There was a linear relationship between the monthly average duration of catheterization and the rate of CAUTI (r = 0.50; P = .01). The excess monthly cost of antibiotics for CAUTI was reduced by 69% (from $4,021 ± $1,800 to $1,220 ± $941; P = .004).
This study demonstrated that a simple measure instituted as part of a continuous quality improvement program significantly reduced the duration of urinary catheterization, rate of CAUTI, and additional costs of antibiotics to manage CAUTI.
The LaNiO3 (LNO) thin films were deposited on Si substrate by rf magnetron sputtering. The interface and electrical properties of LNO/Si contacts were investigated. For the deposition at room temperature, an amorphous LNO film with a clean interface was formed on the Si. However, a thin silicon oxide layer of approximately 2.5 nm was formed at the interface between LNO and Si after rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at temperatures ≥450 °C. On the other hand, a highly (100)-textured LNO film along with an interfacial oxide layer of approximately 6.0 nm was obtained for the deposition at 400–450 °C. Nevertheless, if an ion beam etching was applied prior to the high temperature deposition at 400–450 °C, a clean interface at the interface could be obtained for the LNO/Si contacts. Moreover, crystallites with (111) planes grown epitaxially along the (111) planes of Si were found in the LNO films. All the contacts had shown good current–voltage characteristics of a Schottky diode with a barrier height of 0.69–0.78 eV for the LNO/n-Si contacts and 0.60–0.67 eV for the LNO/p-Si contacts, and the barrier height increased with the thickening of interfacial oxide layer. From the measurement of capacitance (C) under reverse bias (Vr) of the contacts made with LNO deposited on the ion-etched Si substrates, a linear relation was observed in the plot of C−2 against Vr except a deviation of linearity in the low-bias part of the curve. This deviation is most likely due to the segregation and inward diffusion of La and Ni near the interface of LNO/Si contacts. Nevertheless, the barrier heights evaluated from an extrapolation of linear part of the plots are reasonably consistent with those obtained from the I–V measurement.
Carcinoma of the stomach is one of the most prevalent cancer types in the world today. Only a limited number of biomarkers are available for detection and prognostic evaluation of gastric cancer. New advances in identifying molecular biomarkers are essential. Two major forms of gastric cancer are distinguished according to their morphological and clinicopathological classifications (well-differentiated/intestinal type and poorly differentiated/diffuse type) – characteristics that can also be attributed to different oncogene activations. Many genes related to cell cycle regulation and signal transduction have been implicated in gastric cancer progression. In particular, there is convincing evidence that protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are involved in oncogenesis and disease progression. To learn more about the biological significance of all expressed PTKs in human cancers, an improved and more-comprehensive PTK profiling approach has been developed to discover additional PTKs activated in cancer cells. With the completion of the human genome project and the availability of cDNA microarrays or DNA chips, the entire human transcriptome can be used for elucidating genes responsible for human gastric cancer oncogenesis and progression.
The aim of this work was to develop new oriental style dairy products coagulated with culture filtrates from lao-chao, a traditional fermented rice product. The fermenting fungal cultures screened were Rhizopus javanicus, Rhiz. oryzae, Rhiz. chinensis, Rhiz. oligosporus, Aspergillus oryzae, Mucor racemosus and chiu-yao, a commercial starter. All the inocula liquefied a steamed glutinous rice base and produced culture filtrates with both milk-clotting and proteolytic activities. Of the fungal products tested, Rhiz. javanicus was the most successful, producing a good yield of culture filtrate with the desired milk-clotting activity, and the resultant yogurt-like product was more acceptable to consumers than any except that from chiu-yao. The firmness was less acceptable, but this could be improved by using mixed pure cultures of Rhiz. javanicus and M. racemosus.
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