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To assess central venous catheter (CVC) harm in pediatric oncology patients, we explored risks for central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and central-line–associated non-CLABSI complications (CLANCs).
Retrospective cohort study.
Midwestern US pediatric oncology program.
The study cohort comprised 592 pediatric oncology patients seen between 2006 and 2016.
CLABSIs were defined according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Health Safety Network (NHSN) definitions. CLANCs were classified using a novel definition requiring CVC removal. Patient-level and central-line–level risks were calculated using a negative binomial model to adjust for correlations between total events and line numbers.
CVCs were inserted in 62% of patients, with 175,937 total catheter days. The inpatient CLABSI and CLANC rates were 5.8 and 8.5 times higher than outpatient rates. At the patient level, shared risks included acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and age <1 year at diagnosis. At the line level, shared risks included age <1 year at diagnosis, non-mediports, and >1 lumen. AML was a CLABSI-specific risk. CLANC-specific risks included non–brain-tumor diagnosis, younger age at diagnosis or central-line placement, and age <1 year at diagnosis or line placement. Multivariable risks were for CLABSI >1 lumen and for CLANC age <1 year at placement.
Among patients with CVCs, CLABSI and CLANC rates were similar, higher among inpatients than outpatients. For both CLABSIs and CLANCs, infants and patients with AML were at higher risk. In both univariate and multivariate models, lines with >1 lumen were associated with CLABSIs and placement during infancy with CLANCs.
In view of the increasing complexity of both cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) and patients in the current era, practice guidelines, by necessity, have become increasingly specific. This document is an expert consensus statement that has been developed to update and further delineate indications and management of CIEDs in pediatric patients, defined as ≤21 years of age, and is intended to focus primarily on the indications for CIEDs in the setting of specific disease categories. The document also highlights variations between previously published adult and pediatric CIED recommendations and provides rationale for underlying important differences. The document addresses some of the deterrents to CIED access in low- and middle-income countries and strategies to circumvent them. The document sections were divided up and drafted by the writing committee members according to their expertise. The recommendations represent the consensus opinion of the entire writing committee, graded by class of recommendation and level of evidence. Several questions addressed in this document either do not lend themselves to clinical trials or are rare disease entities, and in these instances recommendations are based on consensus expert opinion. Furthermore, specific recommendations, even when supported by substantial data, do not replace the need for clinical judgment and patient-specific decision-making. The recommendations were opened for public comment to Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) members and underwent external review by the scientific and clinical document committee of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), the science advisory and coordinating committee of the American Heart Association (AHA), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology (AEPC). The document received endorsement by all the collaborators and the Asia Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), the Indian Heart Rhythm Society (IHRS), and the Latin American Heart Rhythm Society (LAHRS). This document is expected to provide support for clinicians and patients to allow for appropriate CIED use, appropriate CIED management, and appropriate CIED follow-up in pediatric patients.
Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are a leading cause of healthcare-associated infection. Catheter insertion and maintenance bundles have been developed to prevent CAUTIs, but they have not been extensively validated for use in pediatric populations. We report the CAUTI prevention efforts of a large network of children’s hospitals. Methods: Children’s hospitals joined the Solution for Patient Safety (SPS) safety engagement network from 2011 through 2017 and elected to participate in CAUTI prevention efforts, with 26 hospitals submitting data initially and 128 participating by the end. CAUTI prevention recommendations were first released in May 2012, and insertion and maintenance bundles were released in May 2014 (Table 1). Hospitals reported on CAUTIs, patient days, urinary catheter line days (CLD), and they tracked reliability to each bundle. For the network, control charts were used to plot CAUTI rates, urinary catheter utilization, and reliability to each bundle component. Results: Following the introduction of the pediatric CAUTI insertion and maintenance bundles, CAUTI rates across the network decreased 61.6%, from 2.55 to 0.98 infections per 1,000 CLD (Fig. 1). Centerline shifts occurred both before and after the 2015 CDC CAUTI definition change, which may also have contributed to a centerline shift. Urinary catheter utilization rates did not decline during the intervention period. Network reliability to the insertion and maintenance bundles increased to 95.4% and 86.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Insertion and maintenance bundles aimed at preventing CAUTIs were introduced across a large network of children’s hospitals. Across the network, the rate of urinary tract infections among hospitalized children with indwelling urinary catheters decreased 61.6%.
Reconstructions of prehistoric vegetation composition help establish natural baselines, variability, and trajectories of forest dynamics before and during the emergence of intensive anthropogenic land use. Pollen–vegetation models (PVMs) enable such reconstructions from fossil pollen assemblages using process-based representations of taxon-specific pollen production and dispersal. However, several PVMs and variants now exist, and the sensitivity of vegetation inferences to PVM selection, variant, and calibration domain is poorly understood. Here, we compare the reconstructions, parameter estimates, and structure of a Bayesian hierarchical PVM, STEPPS, both to observations and to REVEALS, a widely used PVM, for the pre–Euro-American settlement-era vegetation in the northeastern United States (NEUS). We also compare NEUS-based STEPPS parameter estimates to those for the upper midwestern United States (UMW). Both PVMs predict the observed macroscale patterns of vegetation composition in the NEUS; however, reconstructions of minor taxa are less accurate and predictions for some taxa differ between PVMs. These differences can be attributed to intermodel differences in structure and parameter estimates. Estimates of pollen productivity from STEPPS broadly agree with estimates produced for use in REVEALS, while comparison between pollen dispersal parameter estimates shows no significant relationship. STEPPS parameter estimates are similar between the UMW and NEUS, suggesting that STEPPS parameter estimates are transferable between floristically similar regions and scales.
Our attributes change. Sometimes they are changed so dramatically (for instance by organic brain disease, traumatic brain injury or psychiatric disease) that it is hard to see any significant continuity with the premorbid person. Sometimes this can have important ethical and legal consequences, but the problems are often ignored. This article highlights some of the difficulties.
To summarize risk factors for Clostridioides (formerly Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized pediatric patients as determined by previous observational studies.
Meta-analysis and systematic review.
Studies evaluating risk factors for CDI in pediatric inpatients were eligible for inclusion.
We systematically searched MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE for subject headings and text words related to CDI and pediatrics from 1975 to 2017. Two of the investigators independently screened studies, extracted and compiled data, assessed study quality, and performed the meta-analysis.
Of the 2,033 articles screened, 14 studies reporting 10,531,669 children met the inclusion criteria. Prior antibiotic exposure (odds ratio [OR], 2.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31–3.52) and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07–1.64) were associated with an increased risk of CDI in children. Subgroup analyses using studies reporting only adjusted results suggested that prior antibiotic exposure is not a significant risk factor for CDI. H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) use (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.31–5.98) and that female gender (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.74–1.03) did not play a significant role as a risk factor for developing CDI.
Prior antibiotic exposure appears to be an important risk factor for CDI based on the combined analysis but not significant using adjusted studies. PPI use was associated with an increased risk of CDI. Judicious and appropriate use of antibiotics and PPIs may help reduce the risk of CDI in this vulnerable population.
This paper describes the design and fabrication of a range of ‘gas cell’ microtargets produced by the Target Fabrication Group in the Central Laser Facility (CLF) for academic access experiments on the Orion laser facility at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The experiments were carried out by an academic consortium led by Imperial College London. The underlying target methodology was an evolution of a range of targets used for experiments on radiative shocks and involved the fabrication of a precision machined cell containing a number of apertures for interaction foils or diagnostic windows. The interior of the cell was gas-filled before laser irradiation. This paper details the assembly processes, thin film requirements and micro-machining processes needed to produce the targets. Also described is the implementation of a gas-fill system to produce targets that are filled to a pressure of 0.1–1 bar. The paper discusses the challenges that are posed by such a target.
In this article, we present a short case study based on an incident that occurred in Israel several years ago. The incident did not reach the courts but was made public by the family members of the older woman at the center of it. The family argued that the actions taken by one of the parties involved should have been defined as elder abuse, but no criminal charges were ever brought. Yet the issues concern key legal and ethical questions about law, religion, and older persons. More specifically, the incident raises the issue of the moral commitment to one's past religious beliefs in reference to one's current choices and preferences once living with dementia. We contend in this article that an Aristotelean account of human dignity would have provided the most satisfactory way to resolve the tensions created by this incident.
Factors favoring blood stream infections associated with gastrointestinal mucosa versus skin organisms were explored. An observed difference was attributable to bacteremia from oral flora in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia or mucositis. Our data do not support the conclusion that isolation of enteric Gram-negatives is unrelated to the central catheter.
Property-based models of the ownership of body parts are common. They are inadequate. They fail to deal satisfactorily with many important problems, and even when they do work, they rely on ideas that have to be derived from deeper, usually unacknowledged principles. This article proposes that the parent principle is always human dignity, and that one will get more satisfactory answers if one interrogates the older, wiser parent instead of the younger, callow offspring. But human dignity has a credibility problem. It is often seen as hopelessly amorphous or incurably theological. These accusations are often just. But a more thorough exegesis exculpates dignity and gives it its proper place at the fountainhead of bioethics. Dignity is objective human thriving. Thriving considerations can and should be applied to dead people as well as live ones. To use dignity properly, the unit of bioethical analysis needs to be the whole transaction rather than (for instance) the doctor-patient relationship. The dignity interests of all the stakeholders are assessed in a sort of utilitarianism. Its use in relation to body part ownership is demonstrated. Article 8(1) of the European Convention of Human Rights endorses and mandates this approach.
This paper examines the nature of welfare and best interests as used in medical and family law. It argues that these are commonly presented in individualistic terms, requiring the court to promote the interests of a child or incompetent adult without reference to the interests of others. However, this paper argues that, properly understood, best interests and welfare should be taken as concepts which recognise the importance of relational interests, the performance of obligations, and the virtue of altruism.