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Antidepressants have been proposed to act via their influence on emotional processing. We investigated the effect of discontinuing maintenance antidepressant treatment on positive and negative self-referential recall and the association between self-referential recall and risk of relapse.
The ANTLER trial was a large (N = 478) pragmatic double-blind trial investigating the clinical effectiveness of long-term antidepressant treatment for preventing relapse in primary care patients. Participants were randomised to continue their maintenance antidepressants or discontinue via a taper to placebo. We analysed memory for positive and negative personality descriptors, assessed at baseline, 12- and 52-week follow-up.
The recall task was completed by 437 participants. There was no evidence of an effect of discontinuation on self-referential recall at 12 [positive recall ratio 1.00, 95% CI (0.90–1.11), p = 0.93; negative recall ratio 1.00 (0.87–1.14), p = 0.87] or 52 weeks [positive recall ratio 1.03 (0.91–1.17), p = 0.62; negative recall ratio 1.00 (0.86–1.15), p = 0.96; ratios larger than one indicate higher recall in the discontinuation group], and no evidence of an association between recall at baseline or 12 weeks and later relapse [baseline, positive hazard ratio (HR) 1.02 (0.93–1.12), p = 0.74; negative HR 1.01 (0.90–1.13), p = 0.87; 12 weeks, positive HR 0.99 (0.89–1.09), p = 0.81; negative HR 0.98 (0.84–1.14), p = 0.78; ratios larger than one indicate a higher frequency of relapse in those with higher recall].
We found no evidence that discontinuing long-term antidepressants altered self-referential recall or that self-referential recall was associated with risk of relapse. These findings suggest that self-referential recall is not a neuropsychological marker of antidepressant action.
Prisons are susceptible to outbreaks. Control measures focusing on isolation and cohorting negatively affect wellbeing. We present an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a large male prison in Wales, UK, October 2020 to April 2021, and discuss control measures.
We gathered case-information, including demographics, staff-residence postcode, resident cell number, work areas/dates, test results, staff interview dates/notes and resident prison-transfer dates. Epidemiological curves were mapped by prison location. Control measures included isolation (exclusion from work or cell-isolation), cohorting (new admissions and work-area groups), asymptomatic testing (case-finding), removal of communal dining and movement restrictions. Facemask use and enhanced hygiene were already in place. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and interviews determined the genetic relationship between cases plausibility of transmission.
Of 453 cases, 53% (n = 242) were staff, most aged 25–34 years (11.5% females, 27.15% males) and symptomatic (64%). Crude attack-rate was higher in staff (29%, 95% CI 26–64%) than in residents (12%, 95% CI 9–15%).
Whole-genome sequencing can help differentiate multiple introductions from person-to-person transmission in prisons. It should be introduced alongside asymptomatic testing as soon as possible to control prison outbreaks. Timely epidemiological investigation, including data visualisation, allowed dynamic risk assessment and proportionate control measures, minimising the reduction in resident welfare.
The efficient and effective movement of research into practice is acknowledged as crucial to improving population health and assuring return on investment in healthcare research. The National Center for Advancing Translational Science which sponsors Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) recognizes that dissemination and implementation (D&I) sciences have matured over the last 15 years and are central to its goals to shift academic health institutions to better align with this reality. In 2016, the CTSA Collaboration and Engagement Domain Task Force chartered a D&I Science Workgroup to explore the role of D&I sciences across the translational research spectrum. This special communication discusses the conceptual distinctions and purposes of dissemination, implementation, and translational sciences. We propose an integrated framework and provide real-world examples for articulating the role of D&I sciences within and across all of the translational research spectrum. The framework’s major proposition is that it situates D&I sciences as targeted “sub-sciences” of translational science to be used by CTSAs, and others, to identify and investigate coherent strategies for more routinely and proactively accelerating research translation. The framework highlights the importance of D&I thought leaders in extending D&I principles to all research stages.
In 2017, Public Health England South East Health Protection Team (HPT) were involved in the management of an outbreak of Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis) in a pack of working foxhounds. This paper summarises the actions taken by the team in managing the public health aspects of the outbreak, and lessons learned to improve the management of future potential outbreaks. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant publications on M. bovis. Clinical notes from the Public Health England (PHE) health protection database were reviewed and key points extracted. Animal and public health stakeholders involved in the management of the situation provided further evidence through unstructured interviews and personal communications. The PHE South East team initially provided ‘inform and advise’ letters to human contacts whilst awaiting laboratory confirmation to identify the infectious agent. Once M. bovis had been confirmed in the hounds, an in-depth risk assessment was conducted, and contacts were stratified in to risk pools. Eleven out of 20 exposed persons with the greatest risk of exposure were recommended to attend TB screening and one tested positive, but had no evidence of active TB infection. The number of human contacts working with foxhound packs can be large and varied. HPTs should undertake a comprehensive risk assessment of all potential routes of exposure, involve all other relevant stakeholders from an early stage and undertake regular risk assessments. Current guidance should be revised to account for the unique risks to human health posed by exposure to infected working dogs.
Globally populations are ageing. By 2050, it is estimated that there will be two billion people aged 60 years or over, of which 131 million are projected to be affected by dementia, while depression is predicted to be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Preventing or delaying the onset of these disorders should therefore be a public health priority. There is some evidence linking certain dietary patterns, particularly the Mediterranean diet, with a reduced risk of dementia and depression. Specific dietary components have also been investigated in relation to brain health, with emerging evidence supporting protective roles for n-3 PUFA, polyphenols, vitamin D and B-vitamins. At this time, the totality of evidence is strongest in support of a role for folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and riboflavin) in slowing the progression of cognitive decline and possibly reducing the risk of depression in ageing. Future studies incorporating new technologies, such as MRI and magnetoencephalography, offer much promise in identifying effective nutrition interventions that could reduce the risk of cognitive and mental disorders. This review will explore the ageing brain and the emerging evidence linking diet and specific nutrients with cognitive function and depression in ageing, with the potential to develop strategies that could improve quality of life in our ageing population.
Objectives: The Quebec Trauma Care Continuum (TCC) was initiated in 1991 with the objective of providing accessible, continuous, efficient, and high quality services for all injury cases in the province.
Methods: The TCC design relied on three key components: (i) the designation of a network of acute care and rehabilitation facilities with specific mandates and responsibilities; (ii) the elaboration of transfer protocols, standing agreements, and governing structures to ensure fluid and optimal patient flow; and (iii) the close monitoring of several indicators to facilitate the continuous evaluation and improvement of the network.
Results: Between 1992 and 2002, in-hospital mortality following major trauma decreased from 51.8 percent to 8.6 percent, followed by an additional 24 percent drop between 1999 and 2012. We also observed a 16 percent decrease in average LOS but no change in the incidence of complications or unplanned readmissions. These changes translate into 186 lives saved per year and cost savings, due to shorter LOS, of 6.3 million CD$ per year. The risk-adjusted incidence of in-hospital mortality following major injury between 2006 and 2012 (7 percent) was the lowest of all Canadian provinces.
Conclusions: Strategic transformation of a network's structure and processes, supported by continuous monitoring of validated quality indicators, can lead to significant and sustainable improvements in clinical outcomes. It is hoped that the Quebec trauma story will inspire other jurisdictions and other healthcare sectors.
This paper describes the development of ADS easy, an online system for facilitating the deposit of digital research data with the Archaeology Data Service, a trusted digital repository for the UK historic environment sector. ADS easy provides an online costing tool and a mechanism for the upload of data and metadata files. The semi-automation of the deposit and ingest process will reduce costs but will also give users great control of their archiving. It is argued that this may, in turn, lead to greater engagement with selection and retention decisions.
ADS easy, Digital Repository, Digital Archive, Automated Ingest, Selection and Retention
The growing dependence on digital data in archaeology has raised awareness of the need for long-term preservation of the datasets resulting from archaeological research. The Archaeology Data Service (ADS) is the mandated repository for many organisations within both commercial and academic sectors within the UK, providing archiving services for the digital outputs of archaeological fieldwork and research (http:// archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/). The ADS has been able to harness over fifteen years of experience in preserving and disseminating archaeological digital data, to develop an online system that will both streamline and enhance elements of the archiving process. It is hoped that ADS easy, an online tool to allow depositors to estimate archiving charges and to upload files and metadata to the ADS repository, will reduce archiving costs and make digital preservation an economic reality for those working within the archaeological community. At a time when the historic environment sector is suffering from reduced funding the need to develop a sustainable funding model is an imperative (ADS 2012).
ADS easy is being developed under the SWORD-ARM project, and has been funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC). Within SWORD-ARM the ADS is refining and enhancing the archive ingest and charging processes, using a SWORD client that will both streamline and semi-automate the deposition process. SWORD- ARM will deliver real benefits to depositors in terms of their ability to deposit data, create and validate metadata, and engage in the process of selection and retention. It will also allow them to manage single and multiple deposits and, perhaps most significantly, to manage cost estimates and accounts. SWORD-ARM presents the opportunity to enhance ADS data management systems and to build upon existing business infrastructure and role as a discipline-based repository.
Many controversies remain with respect to how best to work with individuals who are challenged by cognitive impairments. Yet in the last decade, there has been substantial new research and a proliferation of literature, which has served to clarify major principles underlying cognitive interventions, and specified training procedures and teaching techniques that have demonstrated some effectiveness. Increasingly, it is possible to identify what techniques are likely to work for a particular individual, based on a number of variables including their cognitive profile, level of insight, and capacity for self-regulation. Education, the development of compensatory behaviours, the use of specialised instructional techniques and the inclusion of activities to improve self awareness and self-efficacy are but a few of the important components of most efforts at rehabilitation for cognitive impairments. Cognitive rehabilitation must be creative, eclectic, functionally oriented, and based in a partnership between clients, families/caregivers, and professionals.