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Geographical indications (GIs) are valuable attributes that enhance the competitiveness of agri-food products, generate added value and revitalize rural environments. The aim of this work was to analyze the attributes spring fruit consumers associate with GIs when they decide to purchase these products. Moreover, the changes in these associations with the increasing distance between the region of production and the place of consumption were also evaluated. We specifically analyzed two GIs used for spring fruits: the protected geographical indication for Mountain Cherries from Alicante (Spain) and the protected designation of origin for Loquats from Callosa d'En Sarriá (Spain). Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show the significant association in consumers' minds between the preference for GI fruit and the importance attributed to the place of production (origin). The association of different attributes with the GI fruit label is product dependent as the number of attributes associated in the case of cherries (origin, organic, color and variety) is higher than for loquats (origin and variety). Regarding the distance between the production area and the place of consumption, our findings suggest that the closer the consumer is to the GI area of influence, the more attributes they associate with these labels. In this regard, increasing the knowledge of the GI labels beyond their area of influence could boost the demand for these products as consumers would be aware of the different quality attributes concentrated in that label.
To describe a pilot project infection prevention and control (IPC) assessment conducted in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) in New York State (NYS) during a pivotal 2-week period when the region became the nation’s epicenter for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
A telephone and video assessment of IPC measures in SNFs at high risk or experiencing COVID-19 activity.
SNFs in 14 New York counties, including New York City.
A 3-component remote IPC assessment: (1) screening tool; (2) telephone IPC checklist; and (3) COVID-19 video IPC assessment (ie, “COVIDeo”).
In total, 92 SNFs completed the IPC screening tool and checklist: 52 (57%) were conducted as part COVID-19 investigations, and 40 (43%) were proactive prevention-based assessments. Among the 40 proactive assessments, 14 (35%) identified suspected or confirmed COVID-19 cases. COVIDeo was performed in 26 (28%) of 92 assessments and provided observations that other tools would have missed: personal protective equipment (PPE) that was not easily accessible, redundant, or improperly donned, doffed, or stored and specific challenges implementing IPC in specialty populations. The IPC assessments took ∼1 hour each and reached an estimated 4 times as many SNFs as on-site visits in a similar time frame.
Remote IPC assessments by telephone and video were timely and feasible methods of assessing the extent to which IPC interventions had been implemented in a vulnerable setting and to disseminate real-time recommendations. Remote assessments are now being implemented across New York State and in various healthcare facility types. Similar methods have been adapted nationally by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii exposure in dogs and cats from Bangkok, Thailand. Blood samples from 318 dogs and 321 cats were tested for T. gondii antibodies by modified agglutination test (cut-off 1:25). Additionally, 18 dogs and 20 cats were longitudinally sampled for T. gondii antibodies during the same study period, between June and July 2019. The overall seroprevalence in dogs and cats was 7.9% (25/318; 95% CI 4.9–10.8%) and 18.7% (95% CI 14.4–23.0%), respectively. For dogs, risk factors identified were being a mixed-breed animal and living totally outdoors, while increasing age was shown to be a risk factor for cats. Seroconversion was not detected and titres from positive animals remained constant over longitudinal study. The present study indicates that there is a prominent presence of T. gondii in urban and peri-urban areas of Bangkok, suggesting that outdoor dogs and cats should be considered as a possible risk factor for humans.
Lungworms can exert a negative impact on wild ruminant fitness; for this reason, the diagnosis of the associated diseases is an important prevention measure. The Baerman–Wetzel technique is the most usual method for the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary nematodes and is based on the active migration and movement of their first-stage larvae. Pulmonary tissue samples are frequently used for the post-mortem diagnosis of these parasites, but this kind of sample is not always available and easy to obtain. Faecal samples represent a more accessible choice for parasite monitoring. This work aimed to evaluate the agreement between the results obtained by the Baermann–Wetzel technique when samples of lung parenchyma or faeces from wild ruminants are used. A good level of agreement as well as a similar sensitivity between the two types of sample were observed, validating the use of faecal samples as a less invasive and cost-effective alternative for the monitoring of lungworm in wild ruminant populations.
The meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae), is the main vector in Europe of the recently detected plant pathogen bacterium Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al. (Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae). While the ecology of continental populations is well documented, nothing is known about the insular populations of P. spumarius, such as in Corsica, where the bacterium was detected in 2015. Hence, in an epidemiological context, the ecology of P. spumarius has been studied in a maquis landscape in the Ajaccio region between 2017 and 2019. Adults and nymphs were almost exclusively collected on Cistus monspeliensis L. (Cistaceae). However, very few specimens were collected in summer, suggesting a movement of the adults to sheltered habitats. Unfortunately, despite several trapping methods used, the location of adult summer habitat remains unknown for the studied population. It might be tempting to destroy the central plant host of P. spumarius populations. However, as spittlebug nymphs are highly polyphagous on low-growing plant species and as the females can lay eggs in any dead plant tissues, such practice could have limited the impact. Instead, the strong relationship between P. spumarius and C. monspeliensis could be used to monitor spittlebug populations, to limit/concentrate the means of insect control, or in an agronomic context to lure insects away from crops. Maintaining natural arboreal vegetation around agronomic systems could help decrease insect abundance – and potentially, pathogen load – on cultivated species. Such hypotheses need to be further studied by landscape experiments.
Consider a three-dimensional partially hyperbolic diffeomorphism. It is proved that under some rigid hypothesis on the tangent bundle dynamics, the map is (modulo finite covers and iterates) an Anosov diffeomorphism, a (generalized) skew-product or the time-one map of an Anosov flow, thus recovering a well-known classification conjecture of the second author to this restricted setting.
Globally, rock art is one of the most widely distributed manifestations of past human activity. Previous research, however, has tended to focus on the art rather than artists. Understanding which members of society participated in creating such art is crucial to interpreting its social implications and that of the sites at which it is found. This article presents the first application of a method—palaeodermatoglyphics—for the estimation of the sex and age of two later prehistoric individuals who left their fingerprints at the Los Machos rockshelter in southern Iberia. The method has the potential to illuminate the complex socio-cultural dimensions of rock art sites worldwide.
Sardinella aurita has become an important source of fish protein-intake in NW African countries, where one stock is considered from Morocco to south Senegal, performing seasonal reproductive migrations along the coast. Although data are limited for the fisheries involved and for life-history knowledge of the species in the area, a precautionary approach is recommended to avoid overexploitation. Commercial landings of round sardinella produced by the European freezer-pelagic trawlers operating in Mauritanian waters were analysed between May 2004 and February 2012. The length-weight relationships (LWRs) (N = 40,725) did not show significant differences between sexes. Ripening round sardinellas were present throughout the year, but spawning effort rose between June and December. The length at first maturity for males and females was estimated at 27.7 cm TL (2.1 years) and 28.1 cm TL (2.2 years), respectively. Ages were interpreted from otoliths, varying from 0 to 8 years. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters resulted in non-statistically significant differences between sexes (P = 0.28). Natural mortality was estimated at ~0.63 year–1. The results provide important biological information for fisheries assessment of a species that plays an important key role in the current climate change scenario and for the economies of the riparian countries.
Darwin's frogs Rhinoderma darwinii and Rhinoderma rufum are the only known species of amphibians in which males brood their offspring in their vocal sacs. We propose these frogs as flagship species for the conservation of the Austral temperate forests of Chile and Argentina. This recommendation forms part of the vision of the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs, which was launched in 2018. The strategy is a conservation initiative led by the IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, which in 2017 convened 30 governmental, non-profit and private organizations from Chile, Argentina and elsewhere. Darwin's frogs are iconic examples of the global amphibian conservation crisis: R. rufum is categorized as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) on the IUCN Red List, and R. darwinii as Endangered. Here we articulate the conservation planning process that led to the development of the conservation strategy for these species and present its main findings and recommendations. Using an evidence-based approach, the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs contains a comprehensive status review of Rhinoderma spp., including critical threat analyses, and proposes 39 prioritized conservation actions. Its goal is that by 2028, key information gaps on Rhinoderma spp. will be filled, the main threats to these species will be reduced, and financial, legal and societal support will have been achieved. The strategy is a multi-disciplinary, transnational endeavour aimed at ensuring the long-term viability of these unique frogs and their particular habitat.
In animal models, exposure to excess testosterone during gestation induces polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like reproductive and metabolic traits in female offspring, suggesting that the hyperandrogenemic intrauterine environment may have a role in the etiology of PCOS. Additionally, few studies have also addressed metabolic and reproductive outcomes in male offspring. In the present study, the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IGTT) was used to assess the insulin–glucose homeostasis at various ages during sexual development in male sheep born to testosterone-treated ewes. To further analyze the programming effect of testosterone on insulin–glucose homeostasis, indexes of insulin sensitivity were assessed in orchidectomized post-pubertal males born to testosterone-treated ewes (Torq-males) and orchidectomized post-puberal controls (Corq-males) before and 48 h after a testosterone injection. There was no difference in insulin sensitivity indexes between males born to testosterone-treated ewes (T-males) and control males born to control ewes (C-males) at 5, 10, 20 and 30 weeks of age, representing the infantile, early and late pre-pubertal, and early post-pubertal stage of sexual development, respectively. In orchidectomized males, basal levels of insulin and glucose were not different between both groups before and after the testosterone injection; however, Torq-males released more insulin before and after T challenge during the first 20 min of the test. Despite this, plasma glucose concentrations were not different in both groups during IVGTT, resulting in an insulin sensitivity index composite similar between groups. We concluded that the effect of prenatal exposure to excess testosterone may reprogram the pancreatic β-cells insulin release in ovine males, with effects more evident in castrated males versus intact males.
Insects in the subfamily Ischnorhininae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopidae), known as spittlebugs or froghoppers, are mainly distributed in the Neotropical region. A few genera include pest species of economic relevance, including Prosapia Fennah, 1949. Two new species from Mexico and Costa Rica are now described for this genus, and a key to species is proposed for the P. inferens (Walker, 1858) species group.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a neuroimaging technique increasingly used for both patient care and clinical research. This techniche provides a space-time high-resolution able to detect small changes in regional brain activation.Ojbectives: the aim of this study was to compare patterns of regional brain activation in patients with eating disorders (ED) and healthy volunteers during emotional stimulation.
Materials and methods
A group of 13 young female ED outpatients was selected using DSM-IV criteria and 13 young healthy female volunteers with no significant differences in sociodemographic or environmental data. fMRI was used to examine the neural responses after visual stimulation with neutral and fearful images, taken from the IAPS (International Affective Picture System) and selected a region of interest (ROI) aproach to examine the function of the amygdala in emotional processing.Data processing and higher level analysis were carried out using FSL (fMRI's Software Library).
ED patients showed significantly greater rigth amygdala activation to the fearful images versus neutral images than healthy control subjects (p < 0.02)
A higher right amygdala response to processing of fearful stimuli was observed in ED patients compared to healthy volunteers. This emotional dysregulation in the affective response to unpleasant stimuli would correlate with a maladaptative response and therefore justify disruptive behaviours in this patients.
To analyse the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) on the utilization of health care resources and corresponding costs.
Multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics selected at random and weighted by geographical density of population. Patients with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and subjects with anxiety symptoms fulfilling broader criteria were compared. Broadening criteria was considered 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry and only 2 associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD. Socio-demographic data, medical history and health care resources and corresponding costs were recorded during a 6-month period.
A total of 3,549 patients were systematically recruited; 12.8% excluded because not fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,815 patients in DSM-IV criteria group (DG) and 1,264 in broad criteria group (BG). Both groups were similar on their sociodemographic characteristics at baseline. Type of treatments prescribed at psychiatric clinics during the study were similar in frequency; anti-depressives (77.0% in DG vs. 75.3% in BG, ns), benzodiazepines (71.5% vs. 67.2% respectively, ns), and anti-convulsants (72.1% vs. 67.0% respectively, ns). Health care resources utilization were statistically reduced to a similar extent in both groups as a consequences of treatments yielding to a cost-of-illness in the 6-month period of 1,196 (1,158) and 1,112 (874), respectively; p=0.304.
In a large sample of subjects, broadening of GAD criteria could lead to earlier diagnosis that would not be associated necessarily to an increase in health care resources utilization or costs to the National Health System.
Dementia disorders are associated with poor quality of life of patients. Generic tools have been shown to hardly capture main aspects of these conditions. The aim was to validate the Spanish version of the two dementia-specific health-related quality of life scales that make up the DEMQOL system: DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy.
One-hundred-nineteen subjects with dementia according to DSM-III-R/DSM-IV, and their caregivers from six centers participated in the study. The following patient-reported information was obtained by interview: demographics, subjective perception of health, comorbidity, depressive symptoms (GDS-15), functional ability (Barthel Index), and generic (WHOQOL-BREF) and dementia-specific (DEMQOL) health-related quality of life. Proxy-reported information about the patient's quality of life was obtained by interview of a family caregiver using the DEMQOL-Proxy.
The Spanish version of DEMQOL showed good psychometric properties. Acceptability was good, with 5% missing information. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha=0.85) and test-retest reliability (ICC=0.71) were also good. A priori associations between DEMQOL and the psychological and physical domains of the WHOQOL-BREF, the GDS-15 and the Barthel Index were supported, indicating good construct validity. Associations between DEMQOL-Proxy and the measures mentioned were weaker. The factor solution for the Spanish version of DEMQOL showed a three factor solution that accounted for 44.4% of the total variance; and a four-factor solution for DEMQOL- Proxy that accounted for 53.3% of the total variance.
As per the results found, the Spanish version of DEMQOL and DEMQOL-Proxy are reliable and valid in patients with mild/moderate dementia who are living at home.
To elucidate the consequences of broadening DSM-IV criteria for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), we examined the evolution of GAD symptoms in two groups of newly diagnosed patients; one group according to DSM-IV criteria and the other, according to broader criteria.
Multicentre, prospective and observational study conducted in outpatient psychiatric clinics. Patients with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and subjects with anxiety symptoms fulfilling broader criteria were compared. Broadening criteria was considered 1-month of excessive or non-excessive worry and only 2 associated symptoms listed on DSM-IV for GAD. Socio-demographic data, medical history and functional outcome measures were collected three times during a 6-month period.
3,549 patients were systematically recruited; 12.8% excluded because not fulfilling inclusion criteria, 1,815 patients in DSM-IV group (DG) and 1,264 in broad group (BG). Both groups were similar on their sociodemographic characteristics at baseline and most patients (about 80%), even newly diagnosed were exposed previously to pharmacological therapies (mainly benzodiazepines) of their anxiety symptoms. As a result of treatment at psychiatric clinics, the percentage of patients without symptoms of anxiety as per HAM-A scale were 49.0% and 58.0%, respectively at the 6 month visit (p=0.261). Similarly, responder rate (≥ 50% reduction of baseline scoring) were, respectively, 59.7% and 67.7% (p=0.103). Improvement in MADRS scores were observed in both group to a similar extent; 12.1 and 12.5 points average reduction respectively (p=0.264).
Broadening of GAD criteria could lead to earlier diagnosis that will benefit patients by starting appropriate treatment sooner.
Doing there is no consensus for a multidimensional definition of Quality of Life (QoL) in dementia, and that informant- and self-perceptions of QoL differed substantially, lately it has been proposed to analyze Overall QoL using a simple item. Our objective was to investigate Overall QoL and how this perception among people with Cognitive Impairment and Dementia is associated with other variables. Thus, obtained predictor variables of QoL will act as confirmatory indexes to corroborate the self-reported QoL in clinical setting.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey where 106 participants with Cognitive Impairment (CI) and Dementia completed a face to face interview including diagnosis of dementia (DSM-III-R / DSM-IV), sociodemographic information, health perception and a list of chronic medical conditions, depressive symptoms (GDS-15) and functional ability (Barthel Index). Quality of life was measured with the self-assessment of overall QoL item from WHOQOL-BREF.
Mean age was 78.7 y.o. (SD: 7.1, range 55-91); 64.8% were female and 50% had primary school or more. Ordinal Logistic Regression analysis showed four factors correlated with a better QoL: (1) patients rating their health as good or more than good, (2) patients considering themselves healthy, (3) patients reporting not having depression, and (4) patients having less depressive symptoms (lower GDS scores).
A single-item global rating of patient QoL could prove useful in assessing QoL of most mild-to-moderate-stage CI and dementia patients. Affective states should be considered when assessing QoL in patients with CI and dementia; consistently, negative mood have a detrimental impact on QoL.
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a relatively new imaging technique that is being increasingly used in different types of psychiatric patologies to characterize white matter microstructural organization in this kind of disorders. In the present study we use DTI to explore the structure of the white matter of borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients, using a novel voxel-based approach, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), to analyze the data.
Methods and materials
DTI was performed in a 1.5T MRI unit in 9 young male patients with a DSM-IV defined BPD and 14 healthy male control subjects (no significant age difference between groups).Voxel wise analysis was performed using TBSS (diffusion toolbox of FSL- functional MRI Software Library) to localize regions of white matter showing significant changes of fractional anisotropy (FA). Additional high resolution three dimensional datasets were also acquired and normalised white matter volume was estimated with SIENAX (part of FSL).
The TBSS analysis revealed a statistically significant decrease in FA at the anterior part of the body and the genu of the corpus callosum and frontal white matter. This finding is consistent with previously reported findings of subtle prefrontal white matter abnormalities in BPD.
Significant white matter tract alterations in patients with BPD where observed in frontal regions involved in emotional, behavioural and cognitive regulation, and these abnormalities may be linked to key aspects of psychopatology in these patients.