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As a neuroprogressive illness, depression is accompanied by brain structural abnormality that extends to many brain regions. However, the progressive structural alteration pattern remains unknown.
To elaborate the progressive structural alteration of depression according to illness duration, we recruited 195 never-treated first-episode patients with depression and 130 healthy controls (HCs) undergoing T1-weighted MRI scans. Voxel-based morphometry method was adopted to measure gray matter volume (GMV) for each participant. Patients were first divided into three stages according to the length of illness duration, then we explored stage-specific GMV alterations and the causal effect relationship between them using causal structural covariance network (CaSCN) analysis.
Overall, patients with depression presented stage-specific GMV alterations compared with HCs. Regions including the hippocampus, the thalamus and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) presented GMV alteration at onset of illness. Then as the illness advanced, others regions began to present GMV alterations. These results suggested that GMV alteration originated from the hippocampus, the thalamus and vmPFC then expanded to other brain regions. The results of CaSCN analysis revealed that the hippocampus and the vmPFC corporately exerted causal effect on regions such as nucleus accumbens, the precuneus and the cerebellum. In addition, GMV alteration in the hippocampus was also potentially causally related to that in the dorsolateral frontal gyrus.
Consistent with the neuroprogressive hypothesis, our results reveal progressive morphological alteration originating from the vmPFC and the hippocampus and further elucidate possible details about disease progression of depression.
The aim of the research reported in this Research Communication was to identify differentially expressed proteins in dairy cows with normal and lutein diet and to elucidate the mechanisms of lutein-induced effects on bovine mammary gland metabolism using a comparative proteomic approach. Thirty-three differentially expressed proteins were identified from mammary gland of control diet-fed and lutein diet-fed dairy cows. Among these proteins, 15 were upregulated and 18 were downregulated in the lutein group. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed proteins showed that increased blood flow, depressed glycolysis, enhanced lactose anabolism, decreased fatty acid oxidation and up-regulated beta lactoglobulin expression were connected with lutein addition. These results suggested that the increased blood flow, reduced glucose catabolism, enhanced capacity for milk lactose synthesis, depressed fatty acid catabolism and increased expression of antioxidantion related protein may be the prime factors contributing to the increased milk production and enhanced immune status in lutein-fed dairy cows. This study provides molecular mechanism of dietary lutein in regulating lactation of dairy cows.
The present study aimed to (i) evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a designed FFQ, (ii) apply the FFQ for estimating the dietary intakes of four flavonols and two flavones in female adolescents and (iii) explain their major dietary sources.
The reproducibility between the first and second FFQ administrations (1 year interval) was estimated using the intra-class correlation coefficient. The validity of the first FFQ relative to the average of four three-day 24 h dietary recalls (24-HR) from four seasons was assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Using a flavonoid content database, the individual flavonol and flavone intakes were calculated and the major food sources were estimated.
Middle school in Suihua area of Heilongjiang Province, northern China.
Female adolescents (n 887) aged 12–18 years.
Better reproducibility and validity were obtained in the present study. The flavonol and flavone intakes were 16·29 and 4·31 mg/d, respectively. Quercetin and kaempferol were the major contributors (26·8 % and 23·7 %, respectively) to the total intake of flavonols and flavones. The main food sources of flavonols and flavones were apples (14·1 %), followed by potatoes (7·5 %), lettuce (7·3 %) and oranges (7·3 %).
The dietary flavonol and flavone intakes among female adolescents in northern China were similar to those reported in several countries, but significant differences were observed in the food sources ascribed to the geographical location and dietary characteristics.
In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of anaemia and Fe deficiency anaemia (IDA) and explored the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and IDA in adolescent girls. A total of 1037 adolescent girls from Suihua, China were enrolled. Hb, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) and serum IgG antibodies to H. pylori were measured. Participants with IDA and co-existing H. pylori infection (n 80) who had an intake of >25 mg/d of Fe were assigned randomly to the intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group were administered a 12-week course of oral EDTA–Na–Fe (60 mg Fe/dose, three times a week) and a 2-week course of colloidal bismuth subcitrate, amoxicillin and metronidazole. Subjects in the control group were administered EDTA–Na–Fe alone. Hb, SF and sTfR were reassessed 3 months after the 12-week regimen ended. Prevalence of anaemia, Fe deficiency (defined as SF < 12·0 μg/l), IDA and H. pylori infection in the population of 1037 was 19·5, 40·4, 17·1 and 31·2 %, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in the IDA group was 46·9 %, while the non-anaemic group had 28·1 % prevalence. A significant increase in Hb and SF and a decrease in sTfR value were found in the intervention group and the H. pylori-negative group. Findings suggest that IDA is still one of the prominent problems in adolescent girls. There is an association between H. pylori infection and IDA. Treatment of H. pylori infection is associated with a more rapid response to oral Fe therapy.
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