To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The Subglacial Antarctic Lakes Scientific Access (SALSA) Project accessed Mercer Subglacial Lake using environmentally clean hot-water drilling to examine interactions among ice, water, sediment, rock, microbes and carbon reservoirs within the lake water column and underlying sediments. A ~0.4 m diameter borehole was melted through 1087 m of ice and maintained over ~10 days, allowing observation of ice properties and collection of water and sediment with various tools. Over this period, SALSA collected: 60 L of lake water and 10 L of deep borehole water; microbes >0.2 μm in diameter from in situ filtration of ~100 L of lake water; 10 multicores 0.32–0.49 m long; 1.0 and 1.76 m long gravity cores; three conductivity–temperature–depth profiles of borehole and lake water; five discrete depth current meter measurements in the lake and images of ice, the lake water–ice interface and lake sediments. Temperature and conductivity data showed the hydrodynamic character of water mixing between the borehole and lake after entry. Models simulating melting of the ~6 m thick basal accreted ice layer imply that debris fall-out through the ~15 m water column to the lake sediments from borehole melting had little effect on the stratigraphy of surficial sediment cores.
Our objective was to compare patterns of dental antibiotic prescribing in Australia, England, and North America (United States and British Columbia, Canada).
Population-level analysis of antibiotic prescription.
Outpatient prescribing by dentists in 2017.
Patients receiving an antibiotic dispensed by an outpatient pharmacy.
Prescription-based rates adjusted by population were compared overall and by antibiotic class. Contingency tables assessed differences in the proportion of antibiotic class by country.
In 2017, dentists in the United States had the highest antibiotic prescribing rate per 1,000 population and Australia had the lowest rate. The penicillin class, particularly amoxicillin, was the most frequently prescribed for all countries. The second most common agents prescribed were clindamycin in the United States and British Columbia (Canada) and metronidazole in Australia and England. Broad-spectrum agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and azithromycin were the highest in Australia and the United States, respectively.
Extreme differences exist in antibiotics prescribed by dentists in Australia, England, the United States, and British Columbia. The United States had twice the antibiotic prescription rate of Australia and the most frequently prescribed antibiotic in the US was clindamycin. Significant opportunities exist for the global dental community to update their prescribing behavior relating to second-line agents for penicillin allergic patients and to contribute to international efforts addressing antibiotic resistance. Patient safety improvements will result from optimizing dental antibiotic prescribing, especially for antibiotics associated with resistance (broad-spectrum agents) or C. difficile (clindamycin). Dental antibiotic stewardship programs are urgently needed worldwide.
Ecosystem modeling, a pillar of the systems ecology paradigm (SEP), addresses questions such as, how much carbon and nitrogen are cycled within ecological sites, landscapes, or indeed the earth system? Or how are human activities modifying these flows? Modeling, when coupled with field and laboratory studies, represents the essence of the SEP in that they embody accumulated knowledge and generate hypotheses to test understanding of ecosystem processes and behavior. Initially, ecosystem models were primarily used to improve our understanding about how biophysical aspects of ecosystems operate. However, current ecosystem models are widely used to make accurate predictions about how large-scale phenomena such as climate change and management practices impact ecosystem dynamics and assess potential effects of these changes on economic activity and policy making. In sum, ecosystem models embedded in the SEP remain our best mechanism to integrate diverse types of knowledge regarding how the earth system functions and to make quantitative predictions that can be confronted with observations of reality. Modeling efforts discussed are the Century ecosystem model, DayCent ecosystem model, Grassland Ecosystem Model ELM, food web models, Savanna model, agent-based and coupled systems modeling, and Bayesian modeling.
Milrinone is a phosphodiesterase type 3 inhibitor that results in a positive inotropic effect in the heart through an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate and milrinone concentrations in milrinone treated paediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery.
Single-centre prospective observational pilot study from January 2015 to December 2017 including children aged birth to 18 years. Milrinone and circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations were measured at four time points through the first post-operative day and compared between patients with and without low cardiac output syndrome, defined using clinical and laboratory criteria.
Fifty patients were included. Nine (18%) developed low cardiac output syndrome. For all patients, 22% had single ventricle heart disease. The density and distribution of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations varied between those with and without low cardiac output syndrome but were not significantly different. Milrinone concentrations increased in all patients. Paired t-tests demonstrated an increase in circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations during the post-operative period among patients without low cardiac output syndrome.
In this prospective observational study, circulating cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations increased in those without low cardiac output syndrome during the first 24 post-operative hours and milrinone concentrations increased in all patients. Further study of the utility of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations in milrinone treated patients is necessary.
Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is effective for most patients with a social anxiety disorder (SAD) but a substantial proportion fails to remit. Experimental and clinical research suggests that enhancing CBT using imagery-based techniques could improve outcomes. It was hypothesized that imagery-enhanced CBT (IE-CBT) would be superior to verbally-based CBT (VB-CBT) on pre-registered outcomes.
A randomized controlled trial of IE-CBT v. VB-CBT for social anxiety was completed in a community mental health clinic setting. Participants were randomized to IE (n = 53) or VB (n = 54) CBT, with 1-month (primary end point) and 6-month follow-up assessments. Participants completed 12, 2-hour, weekly sessions of IE-CBT or VB-CBT plus 1-month follow-up.
Intention to treat analyses showed very large within-treatment effect sizes on the social interaction anxiety at all time points (ds = 2.09–2.62), with no between-treatment differences on this outcome or clinician-rated severity [1-month OR = 1.45 (0.45, 4.62), p = 0.53; 6-month OR = 1.31 (0.42, 4.08), p = 0.65], SAD remission (1-month: IE = 61.04%, VB = 55.09%, p = 0.59); 6-month: IE = 58.73%, VB = 61.89%, p = 0.77), or secondary outcomes. Three adverse events were noted (substance abuse, n = 1 in IE-CBT; temporary increase in suicide risk, n = 1 in each condition, with one being withdrawn at 1-month follow-up).
Group IE-CBT and VB-CBT were safe and there were no significant differences in outcomes. Both treatments were associated with very large within-group effect sizes and the majority of patients remitted following treatment.
In response to advancing clinical practice guidelines regarding concussion management, service members, like athletes, complete a baseline assessment prior to participating in high-risk activities. While several studies have established test stability in athletes, no investigation to date has examined the stability of baseline assessment scores in military cadets. The objective of this study was to assess the test–retest reliability of a baseline concussion test battery in cadets at U.S. Service Academies.
All cadets participating in the Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium investigation completed a standard baseline battery that included memory, balance, symptom, and neurocognitive assessments. Annual baseline testing was completed during the first 3 years of the study. A two-way mixed-model analysis of variance (intraclass correlation coefficent (ICC)3,1) and Kappa statistics were used to assess the stability of the metrics at 1-year and 2-year time intervals.
ICC values for the 1-year test interval ranged from 0.28 to 0.67 and from 0.15 to 0.57 for the 2-year interval. Kappa values ranged from 0.16 to 0.21 for the 1-year interval and from 0.29 to 0.31 for the 2-year test interval. Across all measures, the observed effects were small, ranging from 0.01 to 0.44.
This investigation noted less than optimal reliability for the most common concussion baseline assessments. While none of the assessments met or exceeded the accepted clinical threshold, the effect sizes were relatively small suggesting an overlap in performance from year-to-year. As such, baseline assessments beyond the initial evaluation in cadets are not essential but could aid concussion diagnosis.
People aging with long-term physical disabilities (PAwLTPD), meaning individuals with onset of disability from birth through midlife, often require long-term support services (LTSS) to remain independence. The LTSS system is fragmented into aging and disability organizations with little communication between them. In addition, there are currently no evidence-based LTSS-type programs listed on the Administration for Community Living website that have been demonstrated to be effective for PAwLTPD. Because of these gaps, we have developed a community-based research network (CBRN), drawing on the practice-based research network model (PBRN), to bring together aging and disability organizations to address the lack of evidence-based programs for PAwLTPD.
Materials and Methods:
Community-based organizations serving PAwLTPD across the state of Missouri were recruited to join the CBRN. A formative process evaluation of the network was conducted after a year to evaluate the effectiveness of the network.
Nine community-based organizations across the state of Missouri joined the CBRN. CBRN members include three centers for independent living (CILs), three area agencies on aging (AAAs), one CIL/AAA hybrid, one non-CIL disability organization, and one non-AAA aging organization. To date, we have held seven meetings, provided educational opportunities for CBRN members, and launched an inaugural research study within the CBRN. Formative evaluation data indicate that CBRN members feel that participation in the CBRN is beneficial.
The PBRN model appears to be a feasible framework for use with community-based organizations to facilitate communication between agencies and to support research aimed at addressing the needs of PAwLTPD.
Background: In Canada, injuries represent 21% of Emergency Department (ED) visits. Faced with occupational injuries, physicians may feel pressured to provide urgent imaging to facilitate expedited return to work. There is not a body of literature to support this practice. Twenty percent of adult ED injuries involve workers compensation. Aim Statement: Tacit pressures were felt to impact imaging rates for patients with workplace injuries, and our aim was to determine if this hypothesis was accurate. We conducted a quality review to assess imaging rates among injuries suffered at work and outside work. A secondary aim was to reduce the harm resulting from non-value-added testing. Measures & Design: Information was collected from the Emergency Department Information System on patients with acute injuries over the age of 16-years including upper limb, lower limb, neck, back and head injuries. Data included both workplace and non-work-related presentations, Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) levels and age at presentation. Imaging included any of X-ray, CT, MRI, or Ultrasound ordered in EDs across the central zone of Nova Scotia from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2019. A total of 282,860 patient-encounters were included for analysis. Comparison was made between patients presenting under the Workers’ Compensation Board of Nova Scotia (WCB) and those covered by the Department of Health and Wellness (DOHW). Imaging rates for all injuries were also trended over this ten-year period. Evaluation/Results: In patients between 16 and 65-years, the WCB group underwent more imaging (55.3% of visits) than did the DOHW group (43.1% of visits). In the same cohort, there was an overall decrease of over 10% in mean imaging rates for both WBC and DOHW between the first five-year period (2009-2013) and the second five-year study period (2013-2018). Imaging rates for WCB and DOHW converged with each decade beyond 35 years of age. No comparison was possible beyond 85-years, due to the absence of WCB presentations. Discussion/Impact: Patients presenting to the ED with workplace injuries are imaged at a higher rate than those covered by the DOHW. Campaigns promoting value-added care may have impacted imaging rates during the ten-year study period, explaining the decline in ED imaging for all injuries. While this 10% decrease in overall imaging is encouraging, these preliminary data indicate the need for further education on resource stewardship, especially for patients presenting to the ED with workplace injuries.
Background: Trauma care represents a complex patient journey, requiring multi-disciplinary coordinated care. Team members are human, and as such, how they feel about their colleagues and their work affects performance. The challenge for health service leaders is enabling culture that supports high levels of collaboration, cooperation and coordination across diverse groups. Aim Statement: We aimed to define and set the agenda for improvement of the relational aspects of trauma care at a large tertiary care hospital. Measures & Design: We conducted a mixed-methods collaborative ethnography using the Relational Coordination survey – an established tool to analyze the relational dimensions of multidisciplinary teamwork – participant observation, interviews, and narrative surveys. Findings were presented to clinicians in working groups for further interpretation and to facilitate co-creation of targeted interventions designed to improve team relationships and performance. Evaluation/Results: We engaged a complex multidisciplinary network of ~500 care providers dispersed across seven core interdependent clinical disciplines. Initial findings highlighted the importance of relationships in trauma care and opportunities to improve. Narrative survey and ethnographic findings further highlighted the centrality of a translational simulation program in contributing positively to team culture and relational ties. A range of 16 interventions – focusing on structural, process and relational dimensions – were co-created with participants and are now being implemented and evaluated by various trauma care providers. Discussion/Impact: Through engagement of clinicians spanning organizational boundaries, relational aspects of care can be measured and directly targeted in a collaborative quality improvement process. We encourage health care leaders to consider relationship-based quality improvement strategies, including translational simulation and relational coordination processes, in their efforts to improve care for patients with complex, interdependent journeys.
Frascati international research criteria for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are controversial; some investigators have argued that Frascati criteria are too liberal, resulting in a high false positive rate. Meyer et al. recommended more conservative revisions to HAND criteria, including exploring other commonly used methodologies for neurocognitive impairment (NCI) in HIV including the global deficit score (GDS). This study compares NCI classifications by Frascati, Meyer, and GDS methods, in relation to neuroimaging markers of brain integrity in HIV.
Two hundred forty-one people living with HIV (PLWH) without current substance use disorder or severe (confounding) comorbid conditions underwent comprehensive neurocognitive testing and brain structural magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Participants were classified using Frascati criteria versus Meyer criteria: concordant unimpaired [Frascati(Un)/Meyer(Un)], concordant impaired [Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Imp)], or discordant [Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Un)] which were impaired via Frascati criteria but unimpaired via Meyer criteria. To investigate the GDS versus Meyer criteria, the same groupings were utilized using GDS criteria instead of Frascati criteria.
When examining Frascati versus Meyer criteria, discordant Frascati(Imp)/Meyer(Un) individuals had less cortical gray matter, greater sulcal cerebrospinal fluid volume, and greater evidence of neuroinflammation (i.e., choline) than concordant Frascati(Un)/Meyer(Un) individuals. GDS versus Meyer comparisons indicated that discordant GDS(Imp)/Meyer(Un) individuals had less cortical gray matter and lower levels of energy metabolism (i.e., creatine) than concordant GDS(Un)/Meyer(Un) individuals. In both sets of analyses, the discordant group did not differ from the concordant impaired group on any neuroimaging measure.
The Meyer criteria failed to capture a substantial portion of PLWH with brain abnormalities. These findings support continued use of Frascati or GDS criteria to detect HIV-associated CNS dysfunction.
Background: SMA is characterized by reduced levels of survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein from deletions and/or mutations of the SMN1 gene. While SMN1 produces full-length SMN protein, a second gene, SMN2, produces low levels of functional SMN protein. Risdiplam (RG7916/RO7034067) is an investigational, orally administered, centrally and peripherally distributed small molecule that modulates pre-mRNA splicing of SMN2 to increase SMN protein levels. Methods: SUNFISH (NCT02908685) is an ongoing multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, operationally seamless study (randomized 2:1, risdiplam:placebo) in patients aged 2–25 years, with Type 2/3 SMA. Part 1 (n=51) assesses safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of different risdiplam dose levels. Pivotal Part 2 (n=180) assesses safety and efficacy of the risdiplam dose level selected based on Part 1 results. Results: Part 1 results showed a sustained, >2-fold increase in median SMN protein versus baseline following 1 year of treatment. Adverse events were mostly mild, resolved despite ongoing treatment and reflected underlying disease. No drug-related safety findings have led to withdrawal (data-cut 06/17/18). SUNFISH Part 1 exploratory endpoint results and Part 2 study design will also be presented. Conclusions: To date, no drug-related safety findings have led to withdrawal. Risdiplam led to sustained increases in SMN protein levels.
Oats can be processed in a variety of ways ranging from minimally processed such as steel-cut oats (SCO), to mildly processed such as large-flake oats (old fashioned oats, OFO), moderately processed such as instant oats (IO) or highly processed in ready-to-eat oat cereals such as Honey Nut Cheerios (HNC). Although processing is believed to increase glycaemic and insulinaemic responses, the effect of oat processing in these respects is unclear. Thus, we compared the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses elicited by 628 kJ portions of SCO, OFO, IO and HNC and a portion of Cream of Rice cereal (CR) containing the same amount of available-carbohydrate (23 g) as the oatmeals. Healthy males (n 18) and females (n 12) completed this randomised, cross-over trial. Blood was taken fasting and at intervals for 3 h following test-meal consumption. Glucose and insulin peak-rises and incremental AUC (iAUC) were subjected to repeated-measures ANOVA using Tukey’s test (two-sided P<0·05) to compare individual means. Glucose peak-rise (primary endpoint, mean (sem) mmol/l) after OFO, 2·19 (sem 0·11), was significantly less than after CR, 2·61 (sem 0·13); and glucose peak-rise after SCO, 1·93 (sem 0·13), was significantly less than after CR, HNC, 2·49 (sem 0·13) and IO 2·47 (sem 0·13). Glucose iAUC was significantly lower after SCO than CR and HNC. Insulin peak rise was similar among the test meals, but insulin iAUC was significantly less after SCO than IO. Thus, the results show that oat processing affects glycaemic and insulinaemic responses with lower responses associated with less processing.
Introduction: Patients with advanced or end-stage illness frequently present to emergency departments (EDs), many of whom are in need of palliative care (PC). Emergency physicians have struggled in providing high quality care to these patients and there is a need to identify cost-effective PC interventions delivered in the ED to improve patient outcomes. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of ED-based PC interventions. Methods: A comprehensive search of nine electronic databases and grey literature sources was conducted to identify any comparative studies assessing the effectiveness of ED-based PC interventions to improve health outcomes of patients with advanced or end-stage illness. Two independent reviewers completed study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. Differences were mediated via third-party adjudication. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model and heterogeneity (I2) was reported. Results: From 5882 potentially eligible citations, 12 studies were included. Two studies are currently on-going clinical trials, and as such, 10 studies were included in this analysis. The studies consisted of before-after studies (n = 5), RCTs (n = 4), and an observational cohort (n = 1). Interventions assessed among the included studies consisted primarily of ED-directed PC consultations (n = 6), while other studies assessed screening of patients with advanced or end-stage illness and PC needs (n = 2), education on PC for ED-staff (n = 1), and an ED-based critical care unit (n = 1). Infrequent reporting of important outcomes (e.g., Mortality, ED relapse) limited the ability of this review to conduct meaningful meta-analysis. There was no difference in patient mortality between two studies assessing ED-directed PC consultations (RR = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.71, 1.13; I2 = 0%). One before-after study (RR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.13) and two RCTs (RR = 2.19; 95% CI: 0.40, 11.92; I2 = 96%) did not identify significant differences in PC consultations intervention (implementation of ED-directed PC consultations) and control (usual care) patients. Conclusion: This review found limited evidence to support the recommendation of any particular ED-based intervention for patients presenting to the ED with advanced or end-stage illness. High quality studies and standardized outcome reporting are needed to better understand the impact of PC interventions in the ED setting.
Introduction: With an increasing proportion of patients in need of end-of-life (EOL) care presenting to the emergency department (ED), many of these patients may benefit from early palliative care (PC) referral. In fact, early PC referral is one of the Choosing Wisely ED recommendations in the USA. As such, there is a potential benefit to identifying patients with advanced or end-stage illness with PC needs. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and synthesize the available evidence regarding the existence and psychometric properties of screening tools to identify patients with advanced or end-stage illness and PC needs presenting to EDs. Methods: A comprehensive search of eight electronic databases and the grey literature was conducted. Studies assessing the ability of a screening instrument to identify ED patients with advanced or end-stage illness in need of PC were eligible for inclusion. Two independent reviewers completed study selection, quality assessment, and data extraction. Disagreements were resolved through third-party adjudication. Due to the significant heterogeneity, as well as inconsistent outcome reporting, a descriptive summary of the results was completed. Results: Once duplicates were removed, the title and abstracts of 3516 studies were screened, of which, 15 studies were included. Overall, 10 unique screening instruments were assessed across the studies. The most commonly assessed screening tool was the use of the modified surprise question (SQ), in which physicians were asked if they would be surprised if the patient died within a specified period of time. Only four of the included studies assessed the diagnostic or psychometric properties of the screening tools. One study reported that the modified SQ predicted PC consultation with 35% sensitivity, 89% specificity, and a negative predictive value of 97%. The proportion of patients identified with PC needs ranged from 12% to 73%, with studies utilizing the SQ reporting a range of 12% to 33%. Conclusion: A variety of screening tools are available to identify ED patients with advanced or end-stage illness who would benefit from a referral for PC. While the modified SQ was the most common instrument assessed and appears to be simple to implement, it is unclear if the diagnostic and psychometric properties of this tool are sufficiently robust to warrant widespread implementation.
Every four years leading researchers gather to survey the latest developments in all aspects of group theory. Initially held in St Andrews, these meetings have become the premier forum for group theory across the whole of the UK. Since 1981, the proceedings of 'Groups St Andrews' have provided a regular snapshot of the state-of-the-art in group theory and helped to shape the direction of research in the field. This volume contains papers from the 2017 meeting held in Birmingham. It includes expository articles from the invited speakers, and further surveys contributed by the participants. Topics include: generation of finite simple groups, block theory, fusion systems, algebraic groups, one-relator groups, geometric group theory, and Beauville groups.