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Cadellia pentastylis (Surianaceae) is an Australian endemic threatened rainforest tree. Irregular flowering and fruiting events coupled with high rates of infertility and insect predation has meant that seed testing has not been possible for this species. Seeds were opportunistically collected from a wild population in early 2021, which allowed for the first germination tests to be conducted. In this study, the presence of physical dormancy was examined by performing an imbibition test using scarified and non-scarified seeds. We also investigated whether a 5-min heat shock treatment at temperatures ranging from 60 to 120°C improved germination success. The presence of physiological dormancy was also examined by recording germination success following a gibberellic acid or smoke-water pre-treatment. Both scarified and non-scarified seeds readily imbibed water over a 72-h period, and several seeds had germinated in both treatments after 48 h. Final germination proportion and t50 following a heat shock, gibberellic acid or smoke-water pre-treatment did not significantly differ from the controls. We conclude that C. pentastylis seeds are non-dormant. Although a palisade cell layer has been reported in the endocarp, our results suggest that this layer may not be sufficiently formed to restrict germination. We recommend that seeds are collected from populations following dispersal and propagated shortly after or stored as conservation collections in ex situ Seedbanks.
For physiologically dormant (PD) species in fire-prone environments, dormancy can be both complex due to the interaction between fire and seasonal cues, and extremely deep due to long intervals between recruitment events. Due to this complexity, there are knowledge gaps particularly surrounding the dormancy depth and cues of long-lived perennial PD species. This can be problematic for both in situ and ex situ species management. We used germination experiments that tested seasonal temperature, smoke, dark and heat for 18 PD shrub species distributed across temperate fire-prone Australia and assessed how germination was correlated with environmental factors associated with their home environments. We found extremely high levels of dormancy, with only eight species germinating above 10% and three species producing no germination at all. Seven of these eight species had quite specific seasonal temperature requirements and/or very strong responses to smoke cues. The maximum germination for each species was positively correlated with the mean temperature of the source population but negatively correlated with rainfall seasonality and driest months. The strong dependence on a smoke cue for some of the study species, along with examples from other studies, provides evidence that an obligate smoke response could be a fire-adapted germination cue. Germination response correlated with rainfall season of the source populations is a pattern which has often been assumed but little comparative data across sites with different rainfall seasonality exists. Further investigation of a broader range of species from different rainfall season environments would help to elucidate this knowledge gap.
There are high rates of obesity and low self-esteem in patients with psychosis. The occurrence of negative voice content directly about appearance is therefore plausible. Derogatory comments about appearance are likely to be distressing, increase depression and contribute to social withdrawal.
To systematically assess the occurrence of voice content regarding appearance and identify correlates.
Sixty patients experiencing verbal auditory hallucinations at least once a week in the context of non-affective psychosis completed a measure assessing positive and negative voice content about appearance. They also completed assessments about body image, self-esteem, psychiatric symptoms and well-being.
Fifty-five (91.7%) participants reported hearing voices comment on their appearance. A total of 54 (90%) patients reported negative voice content about their appearance with 30 (50%) patients experienced negative appearance comments on a daily basis. The most common negative comment was ‘the voices tell me that I am ugly’ (n = 48, 80%). There were 39 (65%) patients who reported positive voice content on appearance. The most frequent positive comment was ‘I look as nice as other people’ (n = 26, 43.3%). Negative voice content about appearance was associated with body image concerns, paranoia, voice hearing severity, depression, worry, negative self-beliefs and safety-seeking behaviours. Positive appearance voice content was associated with greater body esteem and well-being and lower levels of depression and insomnia.
Voice content about appearance is very common for patients seen in clinical services. Negative voice content may reflect – and subsequently reinforce – negative beliefs about one's appearance, low self-esteem, worry and paranoia.
The period before the formation of a persecutory delusion may provide causal insights. Patient accounts are invaluable in informing this understanding.
To inform the understanding of delusion formation, we asked patients about the occurrence of potential causal factors – identified from a cognitive model – before delusion onset.
A total of 100 patients with persecutory delusions completed a checklist about their subjective experiences in the weeks before belief onset. The checklist included items concerning worry, images, low self-esteem, poor sleep, mood dysregulation, dissociation, manic-type symptoms, aberrant salience, hallucinations, substance use and stressors. Time to reach certainty in the delusion was also assessed.
Most commonly it took patients several months to reach delusion certainty (n = 30), although other patients took a few weeks (n = 24), years (n = 21), knew instantly (n = 17) or took a few days (n = 6). The most frequent experiences occurring before delusion onset were: low self-confidence (n = 84); excessive worry (n = 80); not feeling like normal self (n = 77); difficulties concentrating (n = 77); going over problems again and again (n = 75); being very negative about the self (n = 75); images of bad things happening (n = 75); and sleep problems (n = 75). The average number of experiences occurring was high (mean 23.5, s.d. = 8.7). The experiences clustered into six main types, with patients reporting an average of 5.4 (s.d. = 1.0) different types.
Patients report numerous different experiences in the period before full persecutory delusion onset that could be contributory causal factors, consistent with a complex multifactorial view of delusion occurrence. This study, however, relied on retrospective self-report and could not determine causality.
Protichnites eremita from the Cambrian Elk Mound Group of Wisconsin is reinterpreted based on new material and trackway experiments. Two new forms of P. eremita suggest that the discrete medial imprints of these traces could be produced by the segmented postabdomen of euthycarcinoids from the same deposit. Form 1 could have been produced by a pair of euthycarcinoids traveling together, like in limulid amplexus, where both individuals made imprints with their postabdomens. In this scenario, if one individual held its postabdomen to the left side, it is possible to produce left-handed shingling in trackways and angled segmentation of each medial imprint. Form 2 could have been produced by a single animal traveling in arcing or tightly looping paths. Experimentally-produced medial imprints yield morphologies that are consistent with both trackway forms. Thus, it seems more likely that P. eremita was produced directly by the animal's body (alone or paired) rather than by employing hermit-like behavior.
Two arthropod specimens assigned to Anabarochilina australis (Hinz-Schallreuter, 1993) from the late middle Cambrian (Guzhangian Stage, Lejopyge acantha Biozone) Karsha Formation, Zanskar Valley, northern India comprise the first record of the Bradoriida from the Himalaya. These Indian specimens cannot be distinguished statistically from other A. australis material based on valve length and height ratios, and differ only slightly in other characters. These observations justify the synonymy of a number of similar forms worldwide that previously have been only questionably attributed to A. australis. The occurrence of the species in Australia, India, Laurentia, and Kazakhstan encompassed an equatorial distribution from approximately 20° north to 20° south during late middle Cambrian time and indicates that A. australis had the ability to disperse across deep ocean basins. Such a distribution is consistent with a planktonic lifestyle. In contrast, other congeneric species of Anabarochilina apparently had more localized occurrence or, in the case of A. primordialis, were distributed across several paleocontinents and climatic zones.
Despite the utility of RNAi for defining gene function in Caenorhabditis elegans and early successes reported in parasitic nematodes, RNAi has proven to be stubbornly inconsistent or ineffective in the animal parasitic nematodes examined to date. Here, we summarise some of our experiences with RNAi in parasitic nematodes affecting animals and discuss the available data in the context of our own unpublished work, taking account of mode of delivery, larval activation, site of gene transcription and the presence/absence of essential RNAi pathway genes as defined by comparisons to C. elegans. We discuss future directions briefly including the evaluation of nanoparticles as a means to enhance delivery of interfering RNA to the target worm tissue.
To report a large outbreak of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI; ribotype 027) between June 2007 and August 2008, describe infection control measures, and evaluate the impact of restricting the use of fluoroquinolones in controlling the outbreak.
Outbreak investigation in 3 acute care hospitals of the Northern Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland.
Implementation of a series of CDI control measures that targeted high-risk antibiotic agents (ie, restriction of fluoroquinolones), infection control practices, and environmental hygiene.
A total of 318 cases of CDI were identified during the outbreak, which was the result of the interaction between C. difficile ribotype 027 being introduced into the affected hospitals for the first time and other predisposing risk factors (ranging from host factors to suboptimal compliance with antibiotic guidelines and infection control policies). The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 24.5%; however, CDI was the attributable cause of death for only 2.5% of the infected patients. Time series analysis showed that restricting the use of fluoroquinolones was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of CDI (coefficient, —0.054; lag time, 4 months; P = .003).
These findings provide additional evidence to support the value of antimicrobial stewardship as an essential element of multifaceted interventions to control CDI outbreaks. The present CDI outbreak was ended following the implementation of an action plan improving communication, antibiotic stewardship, infection control practices, environmental hygiene, and surveillance.
Compact linear collider (CLIC) is a study for a future electron–positron collider that would allow physicists to explore a new energy region beyond the capabilities of today's particle accelerators. The demanding transverse and vertical beam sizes and emittance specifications are resulting in stringent alignment and a nanometre stability requirement. In the current feasibility study, the main beam quadrupole magnets have to be actively pre-aligned with a precision of 1 µm in five degrees of freedom before being mechanically stabilized to the nanometre scale above 1 Hz. This contribution describes the approach of performing this active pre-alignment based on an eccentric cam system. In order to limit the amplification of the vibration sources at resonant frequencies, a sufficiently high eigenfrequency is required. Therefore, the contact region between cam and support was optimized for adequate stiffness based on the Hertzian theory. Furthermore, practical tests performed on a single-degree-of-freedom mockup will show the limitation factors and further improvements required for successful integration in a full-scale quadrupole mockup presently under design.
This paper provides a review of active control strategies used to isolate high-precisionmachines (e.g. telescopes, particle colliders, interferometers, lithography machines or atomic force microscopes) from external disturbances. The objective of this review is to provide tools to develop the best strategy for a given application. Firstly, the main strategies are presented and compared, using single degree of freedom models. Secondly, the case of huge structures constituted of a large number of elements, like particle colliders or segmented telescopes, is considered.
Le premier janvier 1923, un nouveau Code pénal militaire et une nouvelle loi sur la discipline militaire, applicables à l'armée de terre ainsi que la marine, sont entrés en vigueur en Hollande.
Il nous semble que quelques dispositions de ces lois pourraient avoir quelque intérêt pour ceux qui s'occupent de l'étude des Conventions internationales relatives au droit de la guerre. Nous envisageons la Convention de Genève (1906), la Convention concernant les lois et coutumes de la guerre sur terre (la Haye, 1907, convention no IV, Annexe: Règlement) et la Convention concernant les droits et les devoirs des puissances et des personnes neutres en cas de guerre sur terre (Convention no V, la Haye, 1907), dont les deux premières ont été l'objet d'une étude spéciale à la Xme Conférence internationale de la Croix-Rouge (1921).
A set of six new two-photon engineered diethylamino-substituted styryl pyrazine (DEASP) dyes have been developed as chemically responsive chromophores. This work employs UV/Vis spectroscopy to draw structure-optical property relationships and to quantify the solvatochromic effect observed for these dyes. Absorbance profiles for each of these dyes have been measured in 22 solvents ranging from very nonpolar (TMS) to very polar (water). Absorbance maxima of the longest wavelength π→π transitions have been correlated to nine empirical scales of solvent polarity, and a comparative analysis is presented. Dimroth & Reichardt's and Kamlet & Taft's single parameter scales have been recalculated with spectral data obtained for the six DEASP dyes. The correlation of these established and recalculated scales are shown and discussed. DEASP chromophores are found to exhibit high sensitivity to their chemical environment and exceptional range as solvatochromic probes. Current models of solvatochromism, based on dipolar probes, cannot account for the solvatochromism observed in our quadrupolar dyes, and fail to describe the effect of the chemical environment on this family of twophoton dyes. The need to develop a more universal model of solvation incorporating higher order moment contributions is apparent.
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