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China's mistreatment of its Uyghur minority has drawn international condemnation and sanctions. The repression gripping Xinjiang is also hugely costly to China in Renminbi, personnel, and stifled economic productivity. Despite this, the Chinese Communist Party persists in its policies. Why? Drawing on extensive original data, Potter and Wang demonstrate insecurities about the stability of the regime and its claim to legitimacy motivate Chinese policies. These perceived threats to core interests drive the ferocity of the official response to Uyghur nationalism. The result is harsh repression, sophisticated media control, and selective international military cooperation. China's growing economic and military power means that the country's policies in Xinjiang and Central Asia have global implications. Zero Tolerance sheds light on this problem, informing policymakers, scholars, and students about an emerging global hotspot destined to play a central role in international politics in years to come.
Cognitive impairments are well-established features of psychotic disorders and are present when individuals are at ultra-high risk for psychosis. However, few interventions target cognitive functioning in this population.
To investigate whether omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n−3 PUFA) supplementation improves cognitive functioning among individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.
Data (N = 225) from an international, multi-site, randomised controlled trial (NEURAPRO) were analysed. Participants were given omega-3 supplementation (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo over 6 months. Cognitive functioning was assessed with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Mixed two-way analyses of variance were computed to compare the change in cognitive performance between omega-3 supplementation and placebo over 6 months. An additional biomarker analysis explored whether change in erythrocyte n−3 PUFA levels predicted change in cognitive performance.
The placebo group showed a modest greater improvement over time than the omega-3 supplementation group for motor speed (ηp2 = 0.09) and BACS composite score (ηp2 = 0.21). After repeating the analyses without individuals who transitioned, motor speed was no longer significant (ηp2 = 0.02), but the composite score remained significant (ηp2 = 0.02). Change in erythrocyte n-3 PUFA levels did not predict change in cognitive performance over 6 months.
We found no evidence to support the use of omega-3 supplementation to improve cognitive functioning in ultra-high risk individuals. The biomarker analysis suggests that this finding is unlikely to be attributed to poor adherence or consumption of non-trial n−3 PUFAs.
COVID-19 infection may lead to encephalopathy and various neurotrophic effects which can result in neuropsychiatric complications. Here, an asymptomatic adolescent female developed acute onset catatonia and psychosis manifesting during the resolution of Covid-19 infection.
Discuss differential diagnosis, medical workup, and initial treatment optimization for acute stabilization.
This 15-year-old female with no previous psychiatric history nor prodromal symptomatology was hospitalized secondary to Covid -19. During the immediate three-month recovery phase following resolution of Covid-19, the patient exhibited gradually increasing anxiety, paranoia, delusions, disorganized behavior, and weight loss leading to re-hospitalization secondary to catatonia. Negative workup included rapid strep test, urinalysis, chest and abdominal x-ray, EEG, and brain MRI. Lumbar puncture revealed elevated WBC of 18 but was unremarkable for NDMA receptor antibodies, CSF HSV, and encephalitis panel. IV steroids, IVIG, and Anakinra were all given without benefit. Inadequate response to olanzapine, clonidine, and lorazepam led to an Index Series of bilateral electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
The provisional diagnosis of psychotic disorder secondary to COVID-19 infection responded robustly regarding sleep, behavior, and affect by session #6, yet positive symptoms of psychosis persist. Ongoing ECT, psychopharmacology, and narrowing of the differential diagnosis continue.
As more COVID-19 cases evolve during the pandemic, potential post-infectious neuropsychiatric complications should be considered as potentially contributory and kept in a thoughtful differential diagnosis. Regardless of ultimate causation, the acute symptom profile responded robustly to an initial Index Series of ECT.
The great demographic pressure brings tremendous volume of beef demand. The key to solve this problem is the growth and development of Chinese cattle. In order to find molecular markers conducive to the growth and development of Chinese cattle, sequencing was used to determine the position of copy number variations (CNVs), bioinformatics analysis was used to predict the function of ZNF146 gene, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used for CNV genotyping and one-way analysis of variance was used for association analysis. The results showed that there exists CNV in Chr 18: 47225201-47229600 (5.0.1 version) of ZNF146 gene through the early sequencing results in the laboratory and predicted ZNF146 gene was expressed in liver, skeletal muscle and breast cells, and was amplified or overexpressed in pancreatic cancer, which promoted the development of tumour through bioinformatics. Therefore, it is predicted that ZNF146 gene affects the proliferation of muscle cells, and then affects the growth and development of cattle. Furthermore, CNV genotyping of ZNF146 gene was three types (deletion type, normal type and duplication type) by Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). The association analysis results showed that ZNF146-CNV was significantly correlated with rump length of Qinchuan cattle, hucklebone width of Jiaxian red cattle and heart girth of Yunling cattle. From the above results, ZNF146-CNV had a significant effect on growth traits, which provided an important candidate molecular marker for growth and development of Chinese cattle.
Bragg scattering of nonlinear surface waves over a wavy bottom is studied using two-dimensional fully nonlinear numerical wave tanks (NWTs). In particular, we consider cases of high nonlinearity which lead to complex wave generation and transformations, hence possible multiple Bragg resonances. The performance of the NWTs is well verified by benchmarking experiments. Classic Bragg resonances associated with second-order triad interactions among two surface (linear incident and reflected waves) and one bottom wave components (class I), and third-order quartet interactions among three surface (linear incident and reflected waves, and second-order reflected/transmitted waves) and one bottom wave components (class III) are observed. In addition, class I Bragg resonance occurring for the second-order (rather than linear) transmitted waves, and Bragg resonance arising from quintet interactions among three surface and two bottom wave components, are newly captured. The latter is denoted class IV Bragg resonance which magnifies bottom nonlinearity. It is also found that wave reflection and transmission at class III Bragg resonance have a quadratic rather than a linear relation with the bottom slope if the bottom size increases to a certain level. The surface wave and bottom nonlinearities are found to play opposite roles in shifting the Bragg resonance conditions. Finally, the results indicate that Bragg resonances are responsible for the phenomena of beating and parasitic beating, leading to a significantly large local free surface motion in front of the depth transition.
Response to lithium in patients with bipolar disorder is associated with clinical and transdiagnostic genetic factors. The predictive combination of these variables might help clinicians better predict which patients will respond to lithium treatment.
To use a combination of transdiagnostic genetic and clinical factors to predict lithium response in patients with bipolar disorder.
This study utilised genetic and clinical data (n = 1034) collected as part of the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLi+Gen) project. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were computed for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, and then combined with clinical variables using a cross-validated machine-learning regression approach. Unimodal, multimodal and genetically stratified models were trained and validated using ridge, elastic net and random forest regression on 692 patients with bipolar disorder from ten study sites using leave-site-out cross-validation. All models were then tested on an independent test set of 342 patients. The best performing models were then tested in a classification framework.
The best performing linear model explained 5.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response and was composed of clinical variables, PRS variables and interaction terms between them. The best performing non-linear model used only clinical variables and explained 8.1% (P = 0.0001) of variance in lithium response. A priori genomic stratification improved non-linear model performance to 13.7% (P = 0.0001) and improved the binary classification of lithium response. This model stratified patients based on their meta-polygenic loadings for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia and was then trained using clinical data.
Using PRS to first stratify patients genetically and then train machine-learning models with clinical predictors led to large improvements in lithium response prediction. When used with other PRS and biological markers in the future this approach may help inform which patients are most likely to respond to lithium treatment.
Early adversity confers risk for depression in part through its association with recent (i.e., proximal) acute stress. However, it remains unresolved whether: a) early adversity predicts increases in recent acute stress over time; b) all – or only certain types – of recent events mediate the relationship between early adversity and depression; and c) early adversity places individuals at greater risk for depression via greater exposure to independent (i.e., fateful) interpersonal events or via greater generation of dependent (i.e., partially self-initiated) interpersonal events (i.e., stress generation) or both. These questions were examined in a 3-wave longitudinal study of early adolescent girls (N = 125; M = 12.35 years [SD = .77]) with no history of diagnosable depression using contextual life stress and diagnostic interviews. Path analyses indicated that increases in past-year acute interpersonal, but not non-interpersonal, stress mediated the link between early adversity and depressive symptoms. The mediating role of interpersonal events was limited to independent ones, suggesting increases in interpersonal event exposure, not interpersonal stress generation, acted as a mediator. Finally, findings support prior evidence that early adversity may not directly predict future depressive symptoms. Implications for understanding the role of recent stress in the association between early adversity and adolescent depression are discussed.
Persisting symptoms and dysfunction after SARS-CoV-2 infection have frequently been observed. However, information on the aftermath of COVID-19 is inadequate. We followed up people with severe mental illness (SMI) infected with SARS-CoV-2, and evaluated their longer-term mortality, using data from Cambridgeshire and Peterborough NHS Foundation Trust, UK. We examined the time course and duration of mortality risk from the point of diagnosis. After SARS-CoV-2 infection, people with SMI had a substantially higher risk of death (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56–17.03; P = 0.007) during the first 28 days and during the following 28–60 days (HR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.21–7.26; P = 0.018) than those without infection, but after 60 days the additional risk of death was no longer significant (HR = 2.33, 95% CI 0.83–6.53; P = 0.107).
Background: Thrombus embolization during endovascular treatment (EVT) occurs in up to 9% of cases, making secondary medium-vessel occlusions (MeVOs) of particular interest to neurointerventionalists. We sought to gain insight into the current EVT approaches for secondary MeVO stroke in an international case-based survey as there are currently no clear recommendations for EVT in these patients. Methods: Participants were presented with three secondary MeVO cases, each consisting of three case-vignettes with changes in patient neurological status (improvement, no change, unable to assess). Clustered multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors influencing the decision to treat. Results: 366 physicians from 44 countries took part. The majority (54.1%) were in favor of EVT. Participants were more likely to treat occlusions in the anterior M2/3 (74.3%; risk ratio [RR]2.62, 95%CI:2.27-3.03) or A3 (59.7%; RR2.11, 95%CI:1.83-2.42) segment, compared to the M3/4 segment (28.3%;reference). Physicians were less likely to pursue EVT in patients with neurological improvement (49.9% versus 57.0%; RR0.88, 95%CI:0.83-0.92). Interventionalists and more experienced physicians were more likely to treat secondary MeVOs. Conclusions: Physician’s willingness to treat secondary MeVOs endovascularly is limited and varies per occlusion location and change in neurological status. More evidence on the safety and efficacy of EVT for secondary MeVO stroke is needed.
Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe progressive neuromuscular disease. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence, healthcare resource utilization (HRU), and medical costs of DMD in Alberta. Methods: This retrospective study linked provincial healthcare administrative data to identify patients with DMD utilizing a modified diagnostic code algorithm, including males <30 years of age. Five-year (April 2012 to March 2017) prevalence estimates were calculated and all-cause direct HRU and costs were examined in the first-year post-diagnosis. Results: Overall, 111 patients (median age: 12.0 years (IQR 4.7-18.3)) with DMD were identified. The estimated five-year period prevalence was 35.72 (95% CI 31.88-39.91) per 100,000 persons. All-cause HRU in the first-year post-diagnosis included a mean (SD) of 0.48 (1.19) hospitalizations (length of stay: 9.37 days (36.47)), 3.96 (6.16) general practitioner visits, 28.52 (62.98) specialist visits, and 20.14 (16.49) ambulatory care visits. Mean (SD) all-cause direct costs were $18,868 ($29,206) CAD in the first-year post-diagnosis. Conclusions: Patients with DMD had multiple interactions with the healthcare system in the year following diagnosis, resulting in substantial direct medical costs. More effective treatment strategies are needed to improve health outcomes and reduce the burden of DMD.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), underscoring the urgent need for simple, efficient, and inexpensive methods to decontaminate masks and respirators exposed to severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We hypothesized that methylene blue (MB) photochemical treatment, which has various clinical applications, could decontaminate PPE contaminated with coronavirus.
The 2 arms of the study included (1) PPE inoculation with coronaviruses followed by MB with light (MBL) decontamination treatment and (2) PPE treatment with MBL for 5 cycles of decontamination to determine maintenance of PPE performance.
MBL treatment was used to inactivate coronaviruses on 3 N95 filtering facepiece respirator (FFR) and 2 medical mask models. We inoculated FFR and medical mask materials with 3 coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, and we treated them with 10 µM MB and exposed them to 50,000 lux of white light or 12,500 lux of red light for 30 minutes. In parallel, integrity was assessed after 5 cycles of decontamination using multiple US and international test methods, and the process was compared with the FDA-authorized vaporized hydrogen peroxide plus ozone (VHP+O3) decontamination method.
Overall, MBL robustly and consistently inactivated all 3 coronaviruses with 99.8% to >99.9% virus inactivation across all FFRs and medical masks tested. FFR and medical mask integrity was maintained after 5 cycles of MBL treatment, whereas 1 FFR model failed after 5 cycles of VHP+O3.
MBL treatment decontaminated respirators and masks by inactivating 3 tested coronaviruses without compromising integrity through 5 cycles of decontamination. MBL decontamination is effective, is low cost, and does not require specialized equipment, making it applicable in low- to high-resource settings.
Current treatments for schizophrenia are often associated with increased rates of metabolic syndrome (MetSy). MetSy is defined as meeting 3 of the following 5 criteria: waist circumference >40in (men) or >35in (women), triglycerides =150mg/dL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) <40mg/dL (men) or <50mg/dL (women), systolic blood pressure (BP) =130mmHg or diastolic BP =85mmHg, fasting glucose =100mg/dL. Patients with MetSy have an elevated risk of developing type II diabetes and increased mortality due to cardiovascular disease. Lumateperone (lumateperone tosylate, ITI−007), a mechanistically novel antipsychotic that simultaneously modulates serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate neurotransmission, is FDA approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. This distinct pharmacological profile has been associated with favorable tolerability and a low risk of adverse metabolic effects in clinical trials. This post hoc analysis of 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia compared rates of MetSy with lumateperone and risperidone. Data from an open-label long-term trial of lumateperone were also evaluated.
The incidence and shift in MetSy were analyzed in data pooled from 2 short-term (4 or 6 week) placebo- and active-controlled (risperidone 4mg) studies of lumateperone 42mg (Studies 005 and 302). The pooled lumateperone data were compared with data for risperidone. Data from an open-label 1-year trial (Study 303) evaluated MetSy in patients with stable schizophrenia switched from prior antipsychotic (PA) treatment to lumateperone 42mg.
In the acute studies (n=256 lumateperone 42mg, n=255 risperidone 4mg), rates of MetSy were similar between groups at baseline (16% lumateperone, 19% risperidone). At the end of treatment (EOT), MetSy was less common with lumateperone than with risperidone (13% vs 25%). More lumateperone patients (46%) compared with risperidone (25%) patients improved from having MetSy at baseline to no longer meeting MetSy criteria at EOT. Conversely, more patients on risperidone than on lumateperone developed MetSy during treatment (13% vs 5%). Differences in MetSy conversion rates were driven by changes in triglycerides and glucose. In the long-term study (n=602 lumateperone 42mg), 33% of patients had MetSy at PA baseline. Thirty-six percent of patients (36%) with MetSy at PA baseline improved to no longer meeting criteria at EOT. Fewer than half that percentage shifted from not meeting MetSy criteria to having MetSy (15%).
In this post hoc analysis, lumateperone 42mg patients had reduced rates of MetSy compared with risperidone patients. In the long-term study, patients with MetSy on PA switched to lumateperone 42mg had a reduction in the risk of MetSy. These results suggest that lumateperone 42mg is a promising new treatment for schizophrenia with a favorable metabolic profile.