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Rising flood damages have prompted local communities to implement buyout and property acquisition programmes to eliminate repetitive losses for at-risk properties. However, buyouts are often costly to implement and are reactionary solutions to flooding. This study quantifies the benefits of acquiring vacant private properties in flood-prone areas rather than acquiring such properties after they are built up. Using a geodesign framework that integrates concepts and analytical approaches derived from geographical, spatial and statistical-based disciplines, we analyse vacant properties with high development potential that intersect current and future floodplain areas in Houston (TX, USA). We use geospatial proximity analysis to select candidate properties, land-use prediction modelling to estimate future development and sea-level rise and benefit–cost analysis to assess the economic viability of buyouts. The results indicate that cumulative avoided flood losses exceed the cost of vacant land acquisition by a factor of nearly two to one, and up to a factor of ten to one in selected areas. This study emphasizes the benefits of proactive property buyouts that focus on acquiring parcels before they are built up, while also avoiding the social and institutional problems associated with traditional buyout programmes.
New observations are probing the structures and kinematics of massive galaxies at a much greater level of detail than previously possible, especially during the first half of cosmic history. ALMA data now resolve the distribution of dust and molecular gas in massive galaxies to z ˜ 5. The stellar kinematics of several massive galaxies at z ˜ 2 – 3 have been spatially resolved using gravitational lensing, providing new information on the connection between quenching and morphological transformation. Star formation histories have been reconstructed for growing samples at z ˜ 0.8–2, revealing a wide range of timescales that correlate with galaxies’ sizes and environments, providing evidence for multiple paths to quiescence. I review these and other developments and summarize the insights they have provided into massive galaxies’ evolution.
This chapter is based on data from a large-scale, mixed methods project wherein groups of people with dementia were invited to take part in visual arts activities. The project generated a wide range of data, but this chapter takes a fine-grained approach to analysing the qualitative data from the project. Through this the authors explore the narrative processes and identity work that were evoked through the activities. These are considered from the perspective of resilience to explore how such activities might contribute to the resilience of people with dementia.
This chapter explores how visual arts enrichment activities might play a role in the resilience of people in later life living with dementia in care homes, through the development or preservation of narrative identities. This complements previous work on the role of arts enrichment activities in the resilience of older people with dementia (Newman et al, 2018) that originated from the results of the same research project, entitled Dementia and Imagination. That paper concluded that arts enrichment activities support resilience in the domains of creative expression, communication and self-esteem and through their effects on carers and family members. This chapter differs in that it explores the role that the arts enrichment activities might have in supporting narrative agency and expression, and how that might facilitate resilience in older people living with dementia (Randall, 2013). This is viewed as a way through which the personhood of a person living with dementia might be supported or enhanced (Kitwood and Bredin, 1992; Kitwood, 1997). The wider contribution is that the work provides an understanding of the potential of narrative care, where ‘people make sense of their experiences, and indeed their identity, through the creation and sharing of stories’ (Villar and Serrat, 2017, p 44) to improve the lives of people in later life with dementia.
The Dementia and Imagination project examined how arts enrichment activities might improve the lives of people in later life living with dementia in different settings. The research was funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council's Connected Communities Programme and the UK Economic and Social Research Council (reference AH/J011029/1) and was undertaken between 2013 and 2017.
A multidisciplinary collection examining how cultural engagement can enhance resilience, reduce social isolation and help older people to thrive and overcome challenging life events and everyday problems associated with ageing.
How and why older people create narrative identities in response to encounters with contemporary visual art is explored using the results from ‘Contemporary visual art and identity construction – Well-being among older people’, a 28-month study (May 2009-October 2011) that examined the responses of 38 older people who were taken to three contemporary visual art galleries in North East England, UK. Participants visited the galleries in pre-existing groups – a writers’ group, an older person's advocacy organisation, a film club for the over-60s, a charity providing activities for older men and a group from a sheltered accommodation unit. Baseline interviews provided background information about participants including their engagement with art and culture, the art forms that they preferred, as well as general demographic information, such as marital status, social networks, education and employment history. The groups visited galleries three times over the duration of the project – each visit included a guided tour, and then participants discussed their impressions and reflected on what they had seen in focus groups.
The project's overall aim was to determine how older adults consume contemporary visual art as content for identity construction practices, and how that relates to wellbeing. This chapter explores the influence of encounters with contemporary visual art on the construction of older persons’ narrative identities, and how this involves the process of positioning in respect to wider societal meta-narratives, specifically those to do with age, class and gender.
This section provides an introduction to the theory that has been used to support the analysis of the data. It starts with a description of narrative identities and then considers the role of meta-narratives in identity formation. Following this is an account of how negative meta-narratives of ageing may influence the self-construct of people in later life.
Recent approaches to understanding identity (De Fina and Georgakopoulou, 2012) emphasise its social nature and its narrative component. As McAdams (1993, p 5) states:
Identity is a life story. A life story is a personal myth that an individual begins working on in late adolescence and young adulthood in order to provide his or her life with a purpose.
This study responds to a gap in the literature relating to the resilience of people living with dementia in care homes. We applied an ecopsychosocial framework of resilience, theorising that sources of resilience may be personal, social and structural. Visual arts enrichment activities were examined to see how they might provide opportunities for resilience. The data used for this study were qualitative and originated from people with dementia aged between 70 and 99 years old (N = 48) living in four care homes in North East England, United Kingdom and staff/carers/family members (N = 37). The results showed that visual arts enrichment activities supported the resilience of those with dementia through creative expression, increased communication, improved self-esteem, and influenced relationships with carers and family members. It is concluded that even those with advanced dementia are capable of demonstrating resilience which can be supported by, and explored through, visual arts enrichment activities.
Research reviews highlight methodological limitations and gaps in the evidence base for the arts in dementia care. In response, we developed a 12-week visual art program and evaluated the impact on people living with dementia through a mixed-methods longitudinal investigation.
One hundred and twenty-five people living with mild to severe dementia were recruited across three research settings in England and Wales (residential care homes, a county hospital, and community venues). Quantitative and qualitative data on quality of life (QoL), communication and perceptions of the program were obtained through interviews and self-reports with participants and their carers. Eight domains of well-being were measured using a standardized observation tool, and data compared to an alternative activity with no art.
Across all sites, scores for the well-being domains of interest, attention, pleasure, self-esteem, negative affect, and sadness were significantly better in the art program than the alternative condition. Proxy-reported QoL significantly improved between baseline and 3-month follow-up, but no improvements in QoL were reported by the participants with dementia. This was contrasted by their qualitative accounts, which described a stimulating experience important for social connectedness, well-being, and inner-strength. Communication deteriorated between baseline and follow-up in the hospital setting, but improved in the residential care setting.
The findings highlight the potential for creative aging within dementia care, the benefits of art activities and the influence of the environment. We encourage dementia care providers and arts and cultural services to work toward embedding art activities within routine care provision.
This anthology of excerpts from histories and travel accounts composed during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries features representations of indigenous oral traditions about the founding of European colonies in Sri Lanka, Melaka, Gujarat, Cambodia, Manila, Jakarta, Taiwan, New York, and the Cape of Good Hope. According to these accounts, the colonists first requested as much land as the hide of an ox could cover, and then cut that hide into strips and claimed all the land they could encircle. The “oxhide measure” is a widely-attested folkloric motif. The introduction, however, questions assumptions about the unreliability of oral traditions and looks to history instead of folklore for an explanation for the colonial parallels. It proposes that Portuguese, Spanish, and Dutch colonists performed the “hide trick” in emulation of the classical story of the Phoenician Queen Dido’s founding of Carthage.
Surficial stratigraphic units of Aroostook County, Maine, have been mapped and formal stratigraphic names for these units are proposed. Evidence exists for at least two distinct glacial phases which are represented by three tills. Two of these tills were deposited penecontemporaneously either as the result of coalescing ice sheets or as the result of the thermal regime existing within a single ice sheet. The oldest till is named the St. Francis and is correlated with the Chaudière Till of southeastern Quebec. The other tills are named the Mars Hill and Van Buren tills, respectively, and are correlated with the Lennoxville till of southeastern Quebec. Interbedded stratified sediments associated with the St. Francis till are correlated with the Gayhurst Formation. Stratified sediments associated with Van Buren and Mars Hill tills are correlated with post Lennoxville sediments of Quebec. Granite-gneiss erratics of Canadian Shield provenance in the Van Buren till indicate advance of the Laurentide ice into northern Maine during late Wisconsinan time. Moraines in southern Aroostook County with associated outwash and eskers record general recession from coastal Maine. Recession occurred after the formation of the Pineo Ridge moraine in Maine and the St. Antonin-Highland Front moraine complex in Quebec. The Caribou-Winterville moraine complex in northern Maine marks the boundary between the penecontemporaneously deposited Van Buren and Mars Hill surface tills and is correlated with the Grand Falls moraine at Grand Falls, New Brunswick.
Objectives: A limited body of research is available on the relationships between multiplicity of birth and neuropsychological functioning in preterm children who were conceived in the age of assisted reproductive technology and served by the modern neonatal intensive care unit. Our chief objective was to evaluate whether, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and perinatal complications, twin birth accounted for a unique portion of developmental outcome variance in children born at-risk in the surfactant era. Methods: We compared the neuropsychological functioning of 77 twins and 144 singletons born preterm (<34 gestational weeks) and served by William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI. Children were evaluated at preschool age, using standardized tests of memory, language, perceptual, and motor abilities. Results: Multiple regression analyses, adjusting for sociodemographic and perinatal variables, revealed no differences on memory or motor indices between preterm twins and their singleton counterparts. In contrast, performance of language and visual processing tasks was significantly lower in twins despite reduced perinatal risk in comparison to singletons. Effect sizes ranged from .33 to .38 standard deviations for global language and visual processing ability indices, respectively. No significant group by sex interactions were observed, and comparison of first-, or second-born twins with singletons yielded medium effect sizes (Cohen’s d=.56 and .40, respectively). Conclusions: The modest twin disadvantage on language and visual processing tasks at preschool-age could not be readily attributable to socioeconomic or perinatal variables. The possibility of biological or social twinning-related phenomena as mechanisms underlying the observed performance gaps are discussed. (JINS, 2016, 22, 865–877)