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Recent evidence suggests that quitline text messaging is an effective treatment for smoking cessation, but little is known about the relative effectiveness of the message content.
A pilot study of the effects of gain-framed (GF; focused on the benefits of quitting) versus loss-framed (LF; focused on the costs of continued smoking) text messages among smokers contacting a quitline.
Participants were randomized to receive LF (N = 300) or GF (N = 300) text messages for 30 weeks. Self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence and number of 24 h quit attempts were assessed at week 30. Intent-to-treat (ITT) and responder analyses for smoking cessation were conducted using logistic regression.
The ITT analysis showed 17% of the GF group quit smoking compared to 15% in the LF group (P = 0.508). The responder analysis showed 44% of the GF group quit smoking compared to 35% in the LF group (P = 0.154). More participants in the GF group reported making a 24 h quit attempt compared to the LF group (98% vs. 93%, P = 0.046).
Although there were no differences in abstinence rates between groups at the week 30 follow-up, participants in the GF group made more quit attempts than those in the LF group.
This chapter focuses on the forms of regulation that shape food habits in ways that we are often unaware of. Invisible rules comprise the forms of regulation that influence food production and consumption at levels that we may be unable to control, such as globalising economic processes, labour processes, dynamics of supply and demand, advertising, and marketing. However, they also comprise the ‘cultural’ rules that – often in implicit ways – dictate who can use which spaces, how it is appropriate to shop or cook, and who may associate with whom. The invisibility of both sets of rules within urban spaces lead many people to answer, in the first instance, that they are the ones who get to decide what is in their fridge. However, through collective reflection, we unearthed the ways in which: labelling misleads us; work and life rhythms combine with street design to influence where we shop; and advertising affects what our children want us to buy. Consequently, the agenda to transform the invisible rules that shape urban food spaces is strongly grounded in the need to render these rules more visible as part of a ‘re-regulation’ (as opposed to a deregulation) of the forces that overdetermine and enclose our food habits, driven by the experience of people whose concerns have been marginalised.
Here, we present some of the results of our co-produced research project that explored how people experience the regulation of food habits in their communities. We draw on multiple sources produced through the project (audio recordings, visual mapping, photography, workshop notes, focus groups and interviews with participants) to explore three key ideas. We begin by exploring the notion of food justice, which seeks to embed discussion of food regulation in attention to the spatial dimensions of food access. Here, we point to the ways in which the project sought to make visible invisible rules and to develop processes of ‘commoning’ in order to address the spatial inequalities of urban food spaces. In the second section, we challenge notions of ‘cheapness’ and instead present ideas of food affordability, following Michael Carolan's (2013) argument that cheap food is part of the problem of unequal food access.
Background: Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) has shown efficacy in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with infective endocarditis (IE). The possibility to undertake advanced histopathological clot analysis following EVT offers a new avenue to establish the etiological basis of the stroke – which is often labelled “cryptogenic.” In this paper, we present our findings from four consecutive patients with IE who underwent EVT following an AIS at our tertiary referral comprehensive stroke centre. Methods: Comprehensive histopathological analysis of clot retrieved after EVT, including morphology, was undertaken. Results: The consistent observation was the presence of dense paucicellular fibrinoid material mixed/interspersed with clusters of bacterial cocci. This clot morphology may be specific to septic embolus due to IE unlike incidental bacteraemia and could possibly explain the refractoriness of such clots to systemic thrombolysis. Conclusion: Detailed morphological and histopathological analysis of EVT-retrieved clots including Gram staining can assist in etiological classification of the clot. Understanding the composition of the clot may be of clinical value in early diagnostics and mapping treatment planning in IE.
Ni-based bulk metallic glasses and composites with high absolute densities exceeding 11 g/cm3 were synthesized via spark plasma sintering of Ni45Co10Ta25Nb20 powders produced from pulverized, melt-spun amorphous ribbons. Optimizing the synthesis via selection of sintering temperature, uniaxial load pressure, and powder mechanical screening yielded samples with relative densities of nearly 100% and hardness values in excess of 12.5 GPa without cracking. Mechanical testing included Weibull modulus determination for hardness and compression testing at 10-3 s-1 and 103 s-1 strain rates. The capability of using spark plasma sintering to fabricate high hardness, high density, large scale metallic glasses is demonstrated. The mechanical properties of these compacted comminuted melt-spun glass ribbons are presented.
Short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are an extremely elusive family of cosmic explosions. They are thought to be related to the violent merger of compact objects (such as a neutron stars or black holes). Their optical counterparts were not discovered until 2005, and since then, there had been no successful spectroscopic observations. Here we present the first spectra of a short GRB, which we use to study the environment and derive implications on the progenitors of these cosmic explosions. This poster is based on the work by de Ugarte Postigo et al. (2014).
Cygnus A, the nearest truly powerful radio galaxy, resides at the centre of a massive galaxy cluster. Chandra X-ray observations reveal its cocoon shocks, radio lobe cavities and an X-ray jet, which are discussed here. It is argued that X-ray emission from the outer regions of the cocoon shocks is nonthermal. The X-ray jets are best interpreted as synchrotron emission, suggesting that they, rather than the radio jets, are the path of energy flow from the nucleus to the hotspots. In that case, a model shows that the jet flow is non-relativistic and carries in excess of one solar mass per year.
We study the effects of providing subsidies to the fisheries in small island developing states (SIDS), where fisheries are important to both the food security and livelihoods of the populations. By analyzing data on current and potential catch and computing the potential catch losses from the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of SIDS, we find that, collectively, SIDS have currently overfished their waters to the extent that their current catch is just under 50 per cent of the maximum catch potential. This catch loss results in direct and indirect food security impacts in terms of losses in healthy, varied and nutrient-rich food, revenues, incomes and economic impacts in SIDS. Our results also demonstrate that capacity-enhancing subsidies contribute to overfishing while the effect of good subsidies is unclear and needs further analysis.
This systematic review included controlled clinical trials comparing tracheal intubation (TI) with alternative airway techniques (AAT) (bag-mask ventilation and use of extraglottic devices) performed by paramedics in the prehospital setting. A priori outcomes to be assessed were survival, neurologic outcome, airway management success rates and complications. We identified trials using EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, author contacts and hand searching. We included 5 trials enrolling a total of 1559 patients. No individual study showed any statistical difference in outcomes between the TI and AAT groups. Because of study heterogeneity, we did not pool the data. This is the most comprehensive review to date on paramedic trials. Owing to the heterogeneity of prehospital systems, administrators of each system must individually consider their airway management protocols.
The appropriate timing of intervention in patients with chronic aortic incompetence allows recovery of ventricular function. We sought to determine the optimal timing of the Ross procedure for chronic aortic incompetence in young patients. We retrospectively analysed case notes, and measured pre- and postoperative echocardiographic indexes of left ventricular function, in patients who had undergone the Ross procedure for chronic aortic incompetence. Methods and results: We found 21 patients with preoperative and postoperative data suitable for analysis. Their age at operation ranged from 5.6 to 26 years, with a median of 13.8 years, and the duration of follow-up was from 0.5 to 6.8 years, with a median of 2.4 years. The preoperative left ventricular end-diastolic dimension was converted to a z-score, and this was used as a threshold to divide the population. Using the threshold of a preoperative left ventricular z-score of more than 3 to divide the population did not show any difference in postoperative parameters of left ventricular function. Significant differences were found postoperatively, however, in both the left ventricular z-score and the ratio of left ventricular end-diastolic radius to posterior wall thickness in diastole, with a cutoff preoperative threshold z-score greater than 4. Conclusion: The increase in the ratio of left ventricular end-diastolic radius to the thickness of the posterior wall in diastole would suggest that there is disruption of left ventricular short axis architecture and myocardial contractile function when intervention is postponed. The significantly larger left ventricular dimension at end-diastole, despite the reduction in volume loading post surgery, may also demonstrate irreversible structural changes. Our data would suggest that recovery of left ventricular function is less likely when the left ventricular z-score has reached the value of 4, and that, ideally, intervention should be performed when the z-score approaches or exceeds 3.
To identify the tuberculosis (TB) skin-testing practices of long-term care facilities for the elderly in Toronto, Ontario.
A telephone survey using a 25-item questionnaire.
Twenty-nine nursing homes (NHs) and 26 Homes for the Aged (HFAs) in metropolitan Toronto.
Thirty-one percent of facilities (17 of 55) had no formal tuberculin skin-testing program, including 52% of NHs (15 of 29) versus 8% of HFAs (2 of 26; P= 0.001). Ninety-two percent of HFAs (24 of 26) compared with 45% of NHs (13 of 29), obtained preadmission or admission skin-test status of residents (P= 0.0005). Annual testing was performed at 46% of HFAs (12 of 26) and 27% of NHs (8 of 29; P= 0.28). Of facilities that carried out any skin testing, 64% of HFAs (16 of 25) versus 32% of NHs (6 of 19) measured induration to establish test positivity (P=0.068). Fifty-two percent of HFAs (13 of 25), compared with 21% of NHs (4 of 19), recorded the actual size of induration in the patient record (P=0.085). Only 28% of HFAs (7 of 25) and 21% of NHs (4 of 19) correctly defined a positive tuberculin skin test.
TB surveillance practices in long-term care institutions in Toronto are inadequate and often yield results that do not predict the risk of infection and cannot be used to investigate outbreaks. Tuberculin skin-testing practices were better at HFAs, which are subject to provincial legislation regarding TB surveillance, than at NHs, which are not subject to this legislation. Staff at HFAs and NHs require education regarding tuberculin skin-testing policies and procedures.
In the search of a high quality thin inter-polysilicon dielectric which has high breakdown voltage and low leakage current for high density non-volatile memory applications, thin (150±) inter-polysilicon reoxidized nitrided oxide capacitors were fabricated with multiple rapid thermal processing. While rapid thermal nitridation degraded the breakdown field if compared to the rapid thermal oxide capacitors, rapid thermal reoxidation greatly enhanced the dielectric strength of the rapid thermal nitrided samples. The short reoxidations increased the film thickness by less than 10 \. Breakdown field of optimized inter-polysilicon RTO/RTN/RTO capacitors up to 14 MV/cm has been measured.
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