Malnutrition is a common feature of chronic and acute diseases, often associated with a poor prognosis, including worsening of clinical outcome, owing, among other factors, to dysfunction of the most internal organs and systems affecting the absorption, metabolism and elimination of drugs and nutrients. Taurine is involved in numerous biological processes and is required in increased amounts in response to pathological conditions. The aim of this study was to describe the behaviour of taurine in well-nourished (WN) rats and to analyse the influence of protein–energy undernutrition on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of taurine, using a PK model. Wistar rats were randomly distributed into two groups, WN and undernourished (UN), and taurine was administered intravenously or orally at different doses: 1, 10 and 100 mg. Population pharmacokinetic modelling of plasma levels was performed using the NONMEM 7.2 program. Several distribution and absorption models were explored in combination with dose and/or time covariate effects. Covariates such as nutritional status, serum albumin, body weight and score of undernutrition were used. A two-compartment population pharmacokinetic model with zero-order endogenous formation, passive absorption, first-order kinetics distribution and non-linear elimination with parallel Michaelis–Menten excretion and reabsorption processes best described taurine pharmacokinetics. Undernutrition acted as a covariate reducing the Vmax of the active elimination process. Data analysis showed linear absorption and distribution, and non-linear elimination processes for taurine. Elimination of taurine was reduced in UN animals, suggesting that the reabsorption process via the secretion transporter was modified in that group.