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Genetically accessible variation to some of the abiotic and biotic stresses are limited in the cultivated lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) germplasm. Introgression of novel alleles from its wild relative species will be useful for enhancing the genetic improvement of the crop. L. ervoides, one of the wild relatives of lentil, is a proven source of disease resistance for the crop. Here we introduce a lentil advanced backcross (LABC-01) population developed in cultivar ‘CDC Redberry’ background, based on L. ervoides alleles derived from an interspecific recombinant inbred population, LR-59-81. Two-hundred and seventeen individuals of the LABC-01 population at BC2F3:4 generation were screened for the race 0 of anthracnose (Colletotrichum lentis) and stemphylium blight (Stemphylium botryosum) under controlled conditions. The population showed significant variations for both diseases and the transfer of resistance alleles into the elite cultivar was evident. It also segregated for other traits such as days to flowering, seed coat colour, seed coat pattern and flower colour. Overall, we showed that LABC-01 population can be used in breeding programmes worldwide to improve disease resistance and will be available as a valuable genetic resource for future genetic analysis of desired loci introgressed from L. ervoides.
Cultivated lentil suffers yield loss from stemphylium blight, caused by Stemphylium botryosum Wallr. Identification of sources of stemphylium blight resistance and knowledge of the mode of inheritance of resistance are important for developing resistant cultivars. The interspecific recombinant inbred line (RIL) population developed from a cross between the moderately resistant parent Lens culinaris cv. ‘Eston’ and the resistant parent L. ervoides (Brign.) Grande accession IG 72815 was evaluated for stemphylium blight resistance under controlled conditions at the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada, and under field conditions at the Pulses Research Centre (PRC), Ishurdi, Bangladesh. We hypothesized that resistance from both parents will lead to transgressive segregation indicative of pyramiding of resistance genes from the same. However, no resistant transgressive segregants were observed in the RIL population. A large proportion (50%) of the RILs had disease severity levels similar to the resistant parent IG 72815 in experiments conducted under natural disease pressure in Bangladesh. Under controlled conditions in Saskatoon, 38% of RILs had resistance levels similar to IG 72815. Across all environments, 14 RILs consistently had resistance levels similar to IG 72815. The distribution of disease severity scores for all RILs indicated polygenic inheritance of stemphylium blight resistance in the population. RILs with consistent resistant reactions should prove useful for lentil improvement programmes. This will contribute to increasing the productivity of lentil crops in North America and the Indo-Gangetic region, which account for more than 68% of world lentil production.
Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lentis is an important fungal disease of lentil in western Canada. Two known pathogenic C. lentis races, race 0 and race 1 have been identified and current cultivars of lentil have little or no resistance to the virulent race 0. Seven Lens culinaris subsp. culinaris landrace accessions were previously reported to have resistance to C. lentis race 0. In this study, accession VIR-2633, with reported resistance to both races of C. lentis, and seven accessions were assessed for race 0 resistance relative to LR-59-81, an interspecific line derived from a L. culinaris subsp. culinaris × Lens ervoides cross. The results showed a lack of effective resistance to race 0 among the tested L. culinaris accessions when compared to that of LR-59-81. A few sublines displayed modest improvements in resistance compared to the susceptible check ‘Eston’, but were significantly more susceptible than LR-59-81. Moreover, screening of the sublines of accession VIR-2633 identified 12 sublines with resistance to race 1, but all VIR-2633 sublines were susceptible to race 0. The study underlined the importance of wild lentil germplasm for broadening the genetic base of cultivated lentil and their usefulness in disease screening experiments as positive checks.
Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) is an important and expanding crop in southern Australia and a significant crop in western Canada. Currently, production in both countries is limited by an inability to effectively control weeds, due in part to a lack of registered safe and effective herbicides. Metribuzin is a broad-spectrum herbicide providing an alternative weed control option to the imidazolinones, but it has low crop safety in lentil. Two methods, germplasm screening using a hydroponic sand assay and field screening of a large mutated population of the Australian cultivar ‘PBA Flash’ were initially used to identify lines with putative metribuzin tolerance over current cultivars. Dose–response experiments showed the germplasm line SP1333 had GR50 (the rate required to reduce dry weight 50%) values up to four times higher than PBA Flash. However, the mutation selections M043 and M009 had GR50 values more than 25 times higher than PBA Flash. A field study in Canada, under conditions of induced shade and no shade 72 h before POST application of metribuzin, confirmed the intermediate level of tolerance in SP1333 and the high level in the two mutant lines compared with 20 Canadian and Australian genotypes. This relative increase in metribuzin tolerance of the two mutant lines over the parent cultivar is higher than all previous reports in a range of crop species. The development of large mutant populations combined with large M2 field screens was a successful method for developing high levels of metribuzin tolerance in lentil. The estimated mutation rate of the mutant lines was 9.4×10−8. All three lines are currently being used as parents in lentil breeding programs.
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a valuable grain legume and a staple protein crop in many countries. Its large and complex genome requires novel approaches for its genetic dissection. Here we introduce a multi-parent population developed from four founders (ILB 938/2, Disco/2, IG 114476 and IG 132238). The selection of parental lines was based on geographic (Colombia, France, Bangladesh and China), genetic and phenotypic diversity. The parental lines were inbred and then genotyped using 875 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Based on molecular data, the parents had high homozygosity and high genetic distance among them. The population segregates for several important traits such as seed morphology, seed chemistry, phenology, plant architecture, drought response, yield and its components, and resistance to Botrytis fabae. The population was checked for unbiased segregation in each generation by observing simply inherited Mendelian traits such as stipule spot pigmentation (SSP) and flower colour at different generations. All 1200 four-way cross F1 plants had pigmented flowers and stipule spots. The segregation ratios for white flower colour (single gene, zt2) fit 7:1, 13:3 and 25:7 at F2, F3 and F4 generations, respectively, and the segregation ratio of SSP (two recessive unlinked genes, ssp1 and ssp2) fit 49:15 and 169:87 at the F2 and F3 generations, respectively, demonstrating unbiased generation advance. We will subject the F5 generation of this population to a high-throughput SNP array and make it available for further phenotyping and genotyping.
Lentil is now an integral part of prairie cropping systems. Climate forecasts point to variable and increased drought frequency, putting lentil production in jeopardy. Future lentil genotypes will require root systems that can extract more water under drought conditions. This study focuses on root diameter and root tip number, traits known to play an important role in water uptake during drought. We compared the total root length (TRL) in three soil horizons of both wild and cultivated lentil genotypes for three root diameter classes when plants were grown under moderate or severe drought, and when re-watered after exposure to moderate drought conditions. Our study demonstrates that roots of both wild and cultivated lentil genotypes can be categorized into very fine, fine and small diameter classes. Some wild lentil genotypes had significantly higher TRL in the B and C soil horizons when grown under severe or moderate drought and therefore, could act as resources for the transfer of root traits to cultivated lentil genotypes. Further evaluations focused on the root systems of interspecific recombinant inbred lines under drought conditions will be required to determine whether these traits are heritable.
Climate change forecasts point to increased frequency of droughts which may affect plant growth. For protein crops such as lentil, genetic improvement of both water use and drought tolerance is necessary. Wild lentil species are known to have evolved in drought prone areas and can be introgressed into cultivated lentil, making them candidates for the evaluation of high transpiration efficiency (TE) and drought tolerance. We assessed TE, water use and drought tolerance at the plant level for five wild lentil species and in cultivated lentil. Under fully watered and moderate drought conditions, wild lentil genotypes consumed significantly less water to fix similar or more dry matter compared with their cultivated counterparts. Under severe drought conditions, the wild lentil genotype L. ervoides IG 72815 had significantly higher TE compared with L. culinaris Eston. Lens ervoides L-01-827A, had significantly higher yield compared with all other species in the presence or absence of drought and showed significantly higher (α = 5%) TE under moderate drought. Drought susceptibility index was identified as a tool to identify drought-tolerant lentil genotypes grown under severe drought. The numerous small seeds of wild lentil made it difficult to estimate drought indices that are weight based and require formulae that incorporate seed numbers.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are well recognized as effective antidepressant agents but are rarely used due, in part, to the risk of hypertensive crisis following the ingestion of foods high in tyramine (“cheese reaction”). A selegiline transdermal system (STS) was developed to provide antidepressant concentrations of selegiline in the brain, while preserving the gastrointestinal monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) barrier. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of the STS 6 mg/24 hour on cardiovascular safety following the ingestion of ∼400 mg of tyramine consumed as a component of aged cheeses.
In this open-label, single-center phase I study, cardiovascular vital signs were recorded following tyramine challenges during placebo and STS 6 mg/24 hr treatment. Subjects were observed for clinical signs and symptoms of a pressor response and/or potential hypertensive crisis during and following the challenges.
Ingestion of tyramine-enriched meals following 13 consecutive days of treatment with the STS 6 mg/24 hr (pharmacokinetic steady-state) produced no clinically significant changes in cardiovascular vital signs in 12 healthy adult male subjects. No evidence of a tyramine pressor effect on systolic blood pressure or evidence of hypertensive crisis occurred during the STS treatment.
These results suggest that STS 6 mg/24 hr may be administered without concern for dietary tyramine consumption.
Lens culinaris Medik. ssp. culinaris is the only cultivated species in the genus Lens. Intensive selection pressure to develop new cultivars, a narrow genetic base, co-evolution of pathogens to partially resistant cultivars and other factors have accelerated susceptibility to different fungal diseases in this species. Few sources for resistance to stemphylium blight (SB) caused by Stemphylium botryosum Wallr. exist among commercial lentil cultivars. A total of 70 accessions were selected from seven species of the genus Lens to screen for SB resistance. The L. culinaris accessions were screened in four different environments, and the accessions of Lens ervoides, L. culinaris ssp. orientalis, Lens tomentosus,Lens nigricans, Lens odemensis and Lens lamottei in growth chamber or greenhouse experiments to identify resistance sources for potential use in lentil breeding. A highly aggressive isolate of SB was used as an inoculum to screen them under controlled conditions. Lentil cultivars ‘Eston’ (resistant) and ‘CDC Glamis’ (susceptible) were used as checks with consistent results in all experiments. Most of the L. culinaris accessions were susceptible to SB, whereas more than 70% of the wild lentil accessions had disease severity scores equal to or significantly lower than that of the SB-resistant check ‘Eston’. Some wild species accessions previously identified with resistance to anthracnose (Colletotrichum truncatum) and ascochyta blight (Ascochyta lentis) were also highly resistant to SB. The highest frequency of resistance to SB was found in L. lamottei followed by L. ervoides of the secondary gene pool. These sources can potentially be used to develop new commercial cultivars with multiple or single disease resistance.
The metabolic and performance benefits of prior consumption of low-glycaemic index (GI) meals v. high-GI meals were determined in extended high-intensity intermittent exercise. Participants (ten males and four females, aged 25·8 (sd 7·3) years) completed two testing days (each consisting of back-to-back 90-min intermittent high-intensity treadmill running protocols separated by 3 h) spaced by at least 7 d. Using a randomised counterbalanced cross-over design, low-GI, lentil-based meals (GI about 42) or high-GI, potato-based meals (GI about 78) matched for energy value were consumed 2 h before, and within 1 h after, the first exercise session. Performance was measured by the distance covered during five 1-min sprints (separated by 2·5 min walking) at the end of each exercise session. Peak postprandial blood glucose was higher by 30·8 % in the high-GI trial compared with the low-GI trial, as was insulin (P = 0·039 and P = 0·003, respectively). Carbohydrate oxidation was lower by 5·5 % during the low-GI trials compared with the high-GI trials at the start of the first exercise session (P < 0·05). Blood lactate was significantly higher (6·1 v. 2·6 mmol/l; P = 0·019) and blood glucose significantly lower (4·8 v. 5·4 mmol/l; P = 0·039) at the end of the second exercise session during the high-GI trial compared with the low-GI trial. Sprint distance was not significantly different between conditions. A low-GI meal improved the metabolic profile before and during extended high-intensity intermittent exercise, but did not affect performance. Improvements in metabolic responses when consuming low-GI meals before exercise may be beneficial to the long-term health of athletes.
Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) was used as the rootstock for lentil scions to test the feasibility of using in vivo inter-generic grafting techniques as a substitute for root induction and as a tool in lentil genetic improvement. An accession of each of the six wild Lens species was used as the scion in grafts to faba bean breeding line FB50-9 rootstock. Successful grafts were obtained for all species with survival of grafts to seed maturity between 70.7 and 87.7% except for Lens orientalis PI 72735 with 55.3% survival. Days to flower remained the same after grafting, except for scions of L. nigricans PI 72560 and L. orientalis PI 72735 which had a lag phase of 9 and 7 d, respectively. For all six wild species, seed diameter and seed weight were not significantly different between non-grafted controls and scions grafted onto faba bean rootstocks. This simple approach opens the possibility of using in vivo grafting techniques to rescue inter-specific hybrids of lentil. The technique has potential as a useful tool in lentil breeding, as a means of improving seed multiplication rate of rare genetic resources of wild lentil and as a way to reduce the costs of germplasm multiplication of wild lentil species.
Extensive collections of lentil germplasm now exist in various genebanks around the world. This germplasm including wild Lens species has been used in plant introduction strategies and in efforts to widen the potential sources of increasing genetic diversity in the breeding programmes of lentil. Improved techniques are emerging to overcome hybridization barriers between species and as a result, interspecific hybrids have been successfully obtained between species. Several interspecific recombinant inbred line populations have been developed. Selected and backcrossed lentil lines are currently in advanced yield trial stages, and desirable traits such as yield, disease resistance and agronomic traits have been incorporated into cultivated lentil especially from Lens ervoides, generating a wider spectrum of variability. Secondly, further expansion of the overall pool of germplasm and examination of allelic variation at the nucleotide level will benefit lentil-breeding programmes by augmenting phenotype-based variation to further advance cultivar development. Genomic resources for lentil are limited now, but this situation is changing rapidly as the cost of genotyping has declined. As a result, two successive expressed sequence tags (EST) projects were undertaken under the NAPGEN EST project initiative (http://www.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/eng/programs/pbi/plant-products/napgen/.htm) and an Agricultural Development Fund project initiative. We emphasize that creation of intraspecific and interspecific genetic populations, genetic maps, association maps, quantitative trait loci and marker-assisted selection technologies for implementation in the breeding programme will enhance deployment of genes responsible for traits of interest. The economical use of genomic technologies for use in germplasm resource management and genetic improvement is on the near horizon.
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