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Later Cambrian and earliest Ordovician trilobites and brachiopods spanning eight horizons from five localities within the Sông Mã, Hàm Rồng and Đông Sơn formations of the Thanh Hóa province of Việt Nam, constrain the age and faunal affinities of rocks within the Sông Đà terrane, one of several suture/fault-bounded units situated between South China to the north and Indochina to the south. ‘Ghost-like’ preservation in dolomite coupled with tectonic deformation leaves many of the fossils poorly preserved, and poor exposure precludes collecting within continuously exposed stratigraphic successions. Cambrian carbonate facies pass conformably into Lower Ordovician carbonate-rich strata that also include minor siliciclastic facies, and the recovered fauna spans several uppermost Cambrian and Lower Ordovician biozones. The fauna is of equatorial Gondwanan affinity, and comparable to that from South China, North China, Sibumasu and Australia. A new species of Miaolingian ‘ptychopariid’ trilobite, Kaotaia xuanensis, is described. Detrital zircon samples from Cambrian–Ordovician rocks of the North Việt Nam and Sông Đà terranes, and from Palaeozoic samples from the Trường Sơn sector of Indochina immediately to the south, contain a predominance of ages spanning the Neoproterozoic period and have a typical equatorial Gondwanan signature. We associate the Cambrian and Tremadocian of the Sông Đà terrane with areas immediately to the north of it, including the North Việt Nam terrane and the southern parts of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces of China.
During emergency responses, public health leaders frequently serve in incident management roles that differ from their routine job functions. Leaders’ familiarity with incident management principles and functions can influence response outcomes. Therefore, training and exercises in incident management are often required for public health leaders. To describe existing methods of incident management training and exercises in the literature, we queried 6 English language databases and found 786 relevant articles. Five themes emerged: (1) experiential learning as an established approach to foster engaging and interactive learning environments and optimize training design; (2) technology-aided decision support tools are increasingly common for crisis decision-making; (3) integration of leadership training in the education continuum is needed for developing public health response leaders; (4) equal emphasis on competency and character is needed for developing capable and adaptable leaders; and (5) consistent evaluation methodologies and metrics are needed to assess the effectiveness of educational interventions.
These findings offer important strategic and practical considerations for improving the design and delivery of educational interventions to develop public health emergency response leaders. This review and ongoing real-world events could facilitate further exploration of current practices, emerging trends, and challenges for continuous improvements in developing public health emergency response leaders.
Gravity–capillary waves propagating along extended liquid cylinders in the inviscid limit are studied in the context of experiments on sessile cylinders deposited upon superhydrophobic substrates, with tunable geometries. In Part 1 of this work (Pham et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 891, 2020, A5), we characterised the non-dispersive regime of the varicose waves. In this second part, we characterise the varicose waves in the dispersive regime, as well as the sinuous and the sloshing modes. We numerically study the shape function of the system (the counterpart of the standard $\tanh$ function of the dispersion relation of a gravity–capillary wave in a rectangular channel) and the cutoff frequencies of the sloshing modes, and show how they depend on the geometry of the substrate. A reduced-gravity effect is evidenced and the transition between a capillary- and a gravity-dominated regime is expressed in terms of an effective Bond number and an effective surface tension. Semiquantitative agreement is found between the theoretical computations and the experiments. As a consequence of these results, resorting to the inviscid section-averaged Saint-Venant equations, we propose a Korteweg–de Vries equation with adapted coefficients that governs the propagation of localised nonlinear waves. We relate these results to the propagation of depression solitons observed in our experimental set-up and along Leidenfrost cylinders levitating above a hot substrate (Perrard et al., Phys. Rev. E, vol. 92, 2015, 011002(R)). We extend our derivation of the Korteweg–de Vries equation to solitary-like waves propagating along Plateau borders in soap films, evidenced by Argentina et al. (J. Fluid. Mech., vol. 765, 2015, pp. 1–16).
Emergency management responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in nursing homes lacked preparation and nuance; moving forward, responses must recognize nursing homes are not generic organizations or services, and individually appreciate each’s unique nature, strengths, and limitations. The objective of this study was to describe an approach to stratifying nursing homes according to risk for COVID-19 outbreak.
Population-based cross-sectional study of all accredited nursing homes in Victoria (n = 766), accommodating 48,824 permanent residents. We examined each home’s facility structure, governance history, socio-economic status, proximity to high-risk industry, and proximity and size of local acute public hospital, stratified by location, size, and organizational structure.
Privately owned nursing homes tend to be larger and metropolitan-based, and publicly owned homes regionally based and smaller in size. The details reveal additional nuance, eg, privately owned metropolitan-based medium- to large-sized facilities tended to have more regulatory noncompliance, no board of governance, and fewer Chief Executive Officers with clinical background. In contrast, the smaller, publicly owned, remote facilities perform better on those same metrics.
Nursing homes should not be regarded as generic entities, and there is significant underlying heterogeneity. Stratification of nursing homes according to risk level is a viable approach to informing more nuanced policy direction and resource allocation for emergency management responses.
The DVLA has strict guidelines regarding how long a driver should stay off driving when they have certain mental health illnesses or severity of symptoms. It is difficult to give such advice if we are unaware of the patients’ that drive; especially when they do not volunteer this information for various reasons.
This audit was aimed at identifying people who have been admitted to the Ward 3 at the Mount Hospital and if they were asked about driving. The audit also looked at whether there were discussions around the driving requirements and DVLA guidelines in terms of their mental health diagnosis. The expected outcome of this project was to improve information gathering when clerking in a new patient and to ensure that elderly patients’ who drive are made aware of the DVLA guidelines.
This audit retrospectively examined the care of 50 patients on Ward 3 at the Mount Hospital, a mixed acute psychiatric ward for older people, between 1st April 2020 and 11th November 2020. All patients’ aged 65 years and over who were on admission within that period were audited. Data collection took place between 17th November and 17th December 2020; this involved reviewing patient records throughout their inpatient stay including paper notes and electronic records (on Care Director). Results were compiled using a pre-determined data collection tool and analysed using Microsoft Excel. The audit used the standards within the DVLA Guidance- Psychiatric Disorders: Assessing fitness to drive.
Only 1 (2%) patient had sufficiently documented evidence around driving and the impact of psychotropic medication on driving. DVLA information was given verbally in 3 (9%) patients and only 2 patients had this information passed on to their General Practitioner (GP). Only 3 (6%) patients were made aware of the DVLA guidelines and 2 (4%) patients made aware of their obligation to inform the DVLA
Generally, the compliance of psychiatrists in identifying all patients’ who drive is poor and seems even worse with elderly patients’. There was little documented evidence that patients were asked about their driving status on or during their admission, were given verbal or written information, had discussions around the impact of medication on driving or informed about their obligation to notify the DVLA. This study provides opportunity to improve practice by educating the medical workforce and raising awareness within the wider team. There also needs to be greater involvement and communication with GPs when completing discharge summaries.
In the context of water waves, we consider a resonator with deep subwavelength resonance, analogue to the Helmholtz resonator in acoustics. In the shallow water regime, using asymptotic analysis, a one-dimensional model is derived in which the effect of the resonator is reduced to effective transmission conditions. These conditions clearly highlight two contributions. The first is associated with the dock on its own and it is responsible for a jump of the potential at the free surface. The second is due to the resonant cavity and it is responsible for a jump in the horizontal velocity. It involves as well the uniform amplitude within the resonant cavity with a transient dynamics explicitly given by the equation of a damped oscillator forced by the incident waves. The one-dimensional model is validated in the harmonic regime by comparison to direct two-dimensional numerics. It is shown to reproduce accurately the scattering coefficients and the amplitude within the resonator; interestingly, this remains broadly true for finite water depths. We further inspect the spatio-temporal behaviour of different types of wave packets interacting with the resonating and radiating cavity.
We prove a necessary and sufficient condition for isogenous elliptic curves based on the algebraic dependence of p-adic elliptic functions. As a consequence, we give a short proof of the p-adic analogue of Schneider’s theorem on the linear independence of p-adic elliptic logarithms of algebraic points on two nonisogenous elliptic curves defined over the field of algebraic numbers.
It is fitting that the last example we introduced in the book was about the Internet Research Agency’s (IRA) use of social media, analytics, and recommendation systems to wage disinformation campaigns and sow anger and social discord on the ground. At first glance, it seems odd to think of that as primarily an issue of technology. Disinformation campaigns are ancient, after all; the IRA’s tactics are old wine in new boxes. That, however, is the point. What matters most is not particular features of technologies. Rather, it is how a range of technologies affect things of value in overlapping ways. The core thesis of our book is that understanding the moral salience of algorithmic decision systems requires understanding how such systems relate to an important value, viz., persons’ autonomy. Hence, the primary through line of the book is the value itself, and we have organized it to emphasize distinct facets of autonomy and used algorithmic systems as case studies.
A little after 2 a.m. on February 11, 2013, Michael Vang sat in a stolen car and fired a shotgun twice into a house in La Crosse, Wisconsin. Shortly afterward, Vang and Eric Loomis crashed the car into a snowbank and fled on foot. They were soon caught, and police recovered spent shell casings, live ammunition, and the shotgun from the stolen and abandoned car. Vang pleaded no contest to operating a motor vehicle without the owner’s consent, attempting to flee or elude a traffic officer, and possession of methamphetamine. He was sentenced to ten years in prison.
This chapter connects our arguments about agency and autonomy in chapters 2-4 to conceptions of freedom and its value. We argue that freedom has two fundamental conditions: that persons be undominated by others and that they have an adequate degree of autonomy and agency. We then explain that algorithmic systems can threaten both the domination-based and the agency-based requirements, either by facilitating domination or by exploiting weaknesses in human agency. We explicate these types of threats as three sorts of challenges to freedom. The first are “affective challenges,” which involve the role of affective, nonconscious processes (such as fear, anger, and addiction) in human behavior and decision-making. These processes, we argue, interfere with our procedural independence, thereby threatening persons’ freedom by undermining autonomy. The second are “deliberative challenges.” These involve strategic exploitation of the fact that human cognition and decision-making are limited. These challenges also relate to our procedural independence, but they do not so much interfere with it as they exploit its natural limits. A third sort of challenge, which we describe as “social challenges,” involve toxic social and relational environments. These threaten our substantive independence and thus, our freedom.
This chapter outlines the conception of autonomy that grounds the arguments throughout the book. We begin with a basic definition of autonomy as self-government, distinguish global and local autonomy, and explain how autonomy may be understood as a capacity, as the exercise of that capacity, as successful self-government, and as a right. We then describe a key split in the philosophical literature between psychological autonomy and personal autonomy. We offer an ecumenical view of autonomy that incorporates facets of both psychological and personal autonomy. Finally, we rehearse some key objections to traditional conceptions of autonomy, and explain how contemporary accounts address those criticisms.
In this chapter, we address some distinctively epistemic problems that algorithms pose in the context of social media and argue that in some cases that epistemic problems warrant paternalistic interventions. Our paternalistic proposal to these problems is compatible with respect for freedom and autonomy; in fact, we argue that freedom and autonomy demand some kinds of paternalistic interventions. The chapter proceeds as follows. First, we discuss an intervention that Facebook has run in hopes of demoting the spread of fake news on the site. We explain why the intervention is paternalistic and then, using the framework of this book, defend the intervention. We argue that while Facebook’s intervention is defensible, it is limited. It is an intervention that may pop some epistemic bubbles but will likely be powerless against echo chambers. We then discuss heavier-handed interventions that might be effective enough to dismantle some echo chambers, and we argue that at least some heavier-handed epistemically paternalistic interventions are permissible.
When agents insert technological systems into their decision-making processes, they can obscure moral responsibility for the results. This can give rise to a distinct moral wrong, which we call “agency laundering.” At root, agency laundering involves obfuscating one’s moral responsibility by enlisting a technology or process to take some action and letting it forestall others from demanding an account for bad outcomes that result. We argue that the concept of agency laundering helps in understanding important moral problems in a number of recent cases involving automated, or algorithmic, decision-systems. We apply our conception of agency laundering to a series of examples, including Facebook’s automated advertising suggestions, Uber’s driver interfaces, algorithmic evaluation of K-12 teachers, and risk assessment in criminal sentencing. We distinguish agency laundering from several other critiques of information technology, including the so-called “responsibility gap,” “bias laundering,” and masking.