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The strontium-to-calcium ratio (Sr/Ca) in aragonitic shells and statoliths often depends on temperature, and has been investigated for its potential availability as a sclerochronological record of the temperatures experienced during the life of the animal. Only a few cephalopod species have been subjected to rearing experiments to validate the temperature dependence of statolith Sr/Ca despite the strong demand for estimating their historical ecology, particularly of migratory squid populations. In this context, we examined the relationship between temperature and statolith Sr/Ca in the spear squid, Heterololigo bleekeri, by maintaining wild-caught immature individuals at one of three constant temperatures: 12, 14 or 16°C. A portion of statolith precipitated during the experiment was optically identified by daily increment analysis, and then subjected to Sr/Ca measurement using an electron probe micro-analyser. Regression analysis (N = 29) demonstrated the dependence of statolith Sr/Ca on temperature and the relationship was estimated as an equation Y = 9.93 (±0.29) − 0.11 (±0.02) X. However, ~90% of the total residual variance was accounted for by the among-individual variation of statolith Sr/Ca within each temperature group. Consequently, the 95% confidence interval ranged over ± 7.85°C when the temperature was estimated by inserting a Sr/Ca value into this equation. The statolith Sr/Ca values are unlikely to provide reliable estimates for absolute temperatures, but it may allow reconstruction of a time-series of relative temperatures experienced by a particular individual.
Previous studies have examined the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake in supplement form or fish oil capsules, but there are few studies based on other foods. Perilla oil is a traditional Japanese seed oil rich in n-3 fatty acids. This randomised trial aimed to determine the appropriate n-3 fatty acid dose through consumption of perilla oil, which improves gut function and microbiota in trained athletes, and the amount of fat fuel required to provide energy to athletes involved in high-intensity training to improve athletic performance. Thirty-six female athletes training six times per week were randomly assigned to three groups according to perilla oil intake: 9 g/d (high oil intake (HOI)), 3 g/d (low oil intake (LOI)) and placebo-supplementation (PLA) groups. The HOI and LOI groups had perilla oil-containing jelly and the PLA group had placebo jelly for 8 weeks. Gut microbiota, constipation score and urinary biochemical index were measured pre- and post-intervention. The spoilage bacteria, Proteobacteria, significantly decreased (P = 0·036, d = 0·53), whereas Butyrate-producing bacteria, Lachnospiraceae, significantly increased (P = 0·007, d = 1·2) in the HOI group. Urinary indoxyl sulphate significantly decreased in the HOI group only (P = 0·010, d = 0·82). Changes in the constipation score were significantly lower in the HOI group (P = 0·020) and even lower in the LOI group (P = 0·073) than in the PLA group; there were significant differences between groups (P = 0·035). Therefore, perilla oil intake may improve gut function and microbiota in athletes, with higher doses resulting in further improvement.
Tiny samples of ancient atmosphere in air bubbles within ice cores contain argon (Ar), which can be used to reconstruct past temperature changes. At a sufficient depth, the air bubbles are compressed by the overburden pressure under low temperature and transform into air-hydrate crystals. While the oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2) molecules have indeed been identified in the air-hydrate crystals with Raman spectroscopy, direct observational knowledge of the distribution of Ar at depth within ice sheet and its enclathration has been lacking. In this study, we applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to five air-hydrate crystals in the Greenland NEEM ice core, finding them to contain Ar and N. Given that Ar cannot be detected by Raman spectroscopy, the method commonly used for O2 and N2, the SEM-EDS measurement method may become increasingly useful for measuring inert gases in deep ice cores.
Neonatal Marfan syndrome is a rare condition with poor prognosis because of severe mitral and/or tricuspid valve insufficiency. Mitral valve replacement is sometimes required in early infancy, while tricuspid valve replacement is rarely done. We report the first infant neonatal Marfan syndrome case with a missense variant of c.3706T>C in the fibrillin-1 gene that was successfully managed by mitral and tricuspid valve replacement. Early multiple-valve replacement may sometimes be required during infant age in this genetic syndrome.
The association between a dietary pattern characterised by high alcohol intake and dyslipidaemia has not been fully investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the association between alcohol dietary patterns and the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and its components. This cross-sectional study enrolled 2171 men and women aged ≥40 years who were alumni of a Japanese university. To identify dietary patterns, a principal component analysis was performed based on the energy-adjusted food intake estimated by a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were identified, the second of which was named the alcohol dietary pattern and was characterised by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken and fish. This alcohol dietary pattern was associated with reduced LDL-cholesterol levels. The fully adjusted OR (95 % CI) of high LDL-cholesterol for the lowest through highest quartile of alcohol dietary pattern score were 1·00 (reference), 0·83 (0·64, 1·08), 0·84 (0·64, 1·10) and 0·68 (0·49, 0·94), respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the alcohol dietary pattern was inversely associated with the prevalence of dyslipidaemia in women, whereas it was positively associated with high TAG levels in men. In conclusion, the alcohol dietary pattern, characterised by a high intake of alcoholic beverages, liver, chicken and fish, was associated with the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and its components. This finding provides useful information for the prevention and treatment of dyslipidaemia by modifying the diet.
Fireballs are infrequently recorded by seismic sensors on the ground. If recorded, they are usually reported as one-off events. This study is the first seismic bulk analysis of the largest single fireball data set, observed by the Desert Fireball Network (DFN) in Australia in the period 2014–2019. The DFN typically observes fireballs from cm-m scale impactors. We identified 25 fireballs in seismic time series data recorded by the Australian National Seismograph Network (ANSN). This corresponds to 1.8% of surveyed fireballs, at the kinetic energy range of
J. The peaks observed in the seismic time series data were consistent with calculated arrival times of the direct airwave or ground-coupled Rayleigh wave caused by shock waves by the fireball in the atmosphere (either due to fragmentation or the passage of the Mach cone). Our work suggests that identification of fireball events in the seismic time series data depends on both physical properties of a fireball (such as fireball energy and entry angle in the atmosphere) and the sensitivity of a seismic instrument. This work suggests that fireballs are likely detectable within 200 km direct air distance between a fireball and seismic station, for sensors used in the ANSN. If each DFN observatory had been accompanied by a seismic sensor of similar sensitivity, 50% of surveyed fireballs could have been detected. These statistics justify the future consideration of expanding the DFN camera network into the seismic domain.
This chapter presents previously unknown historical documents related to literacy in Wakayama Prefecture. The materials are useful because they paint a detailed picture of Wakayama literacy during the transition from the early modern period to the beginning of Meiji (roughly 1850s– 1870s), an era that has largely been underreported in terms of individual reading and writing skills of the non-elite population.
The Meiji government issued an edict calling for a modern national education system (Gakusei) in 1872. Because the new schools were compulsory and focused on basic literacy, it is important to consider how quickly and how comprehensively these schools influenced national literacy rates. It was not instantaneous. This chapter addresses these early Meiji years before the new system had the enormous impact it eventually would have.
In the first chapter of this book, Kimura Masanobu critiqued previous research on literacy in the early modern period and pointed out that: (1) Estimates of school attendance based on government statistical records like Nihon kyōiku shi shiryō (NKSS) have generally lost their validity as measurements of literacy, and (2) the greatest current need in literacy research is detailed primary source data at the regional level. This chapter will address that need.
It has been noted in this book and elsewhere how important the primary research on literacy by Yakuwa Tomohiro, Richard Rubinger and others has been. They have confirmed enormous regional and gender distinctions that existed with regard to literacy in early modern Japan. They have also shown that literacy increased in all areas during the Meiji period, with the greatest improvements made in areas that started at the lowest. But even the best of these earlier studies have serious limitations. Yakuwa's data, for example, did not distinguish between the ability to sign and practical or functional (jitsuyōteki) literacy. The Tokiwa Village survey (see Chart 4), which did do that and covered the transition between Tokugawa and Meiji, was limited to 883 men in one remote village.
Chart 4 is based on a survey of males in Kita Azumi District's Tokiwa Village in Nagano Prefecture. This is a valuable survey in that it specifically distinguishes between abilities of literacy.
The amathillopsid subfamily Cleonardopsinae Lowry, 2006 is reviewed. The only species of the subfamily, Cleonardopsis carinata K.H. Barnard, 1916, should be regarded as a species-complex. A new genus and species of the subfamily, Carinocleonardopsis seisuiae gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Sea of Kumano, Japan as the second species of the subfamily Cleonardopsinae as well as the first record of the subfamily from the North Pacific. This new genus can be easily distinguished from Cleonardopsis by the presence of distinct large eyes and the dorsal carination on head, pereonites and pleonites.
Yāska's Nirukta (ca. fifth-third century bce), the seminal text of the Sanskritic discipline of nirvacana or ‘etymology’, is one of the most important yet least studied late Vedic texts. Particularly little attention has been paid to Nirukta Chapter 7. This chapter outlines Yāska's views on Vedic deities and articulates the hermeneutic principles whereby they are classified and defined. It plays a crucial, yet underappreciated, role in the history of ancient India's theological and hermeneutical speculations. The absence of an accessible English translation, which tackles the text's many conceptual and linguistic complexities, is the main reason why Nirukta Chapter 7 has not received the attention it deserves. We offer the first complete annotated English translation in a century. A comprehensive introduction clarifies the structure and rationale of Chapter 7 and elucidates the salient features of Yāska's theology.
Recent studies suggest that depression is associated with somatic pain. Despite growing research interest in the topic, the effects of depression-related somatic pain remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate the relationships between depression-related somatic pain, treatment satisfaction, and functions of daily living, and to compare them with the relationships between these factors and mental health measures.
We administered an Internet-based survey to 663 patients with depression in Japan, including questions about pain symptoms, mental health, functions of daily living, and dissatisfaction with depression treatment. The SF-8 questionnaire was used to assess functions of daily living. We conducted a multiple linear regression analysis to examine the associations between depression-related somatic pain, functions of daily living and treatment satisfaction, and between mental health measures, somatic pain and functions of daily living.
An increase per unit in the number of pain symptoms was associated with a 1.04-unit decrease in physical functioning score (P < 0.001), a 0.67-unit decrease in the role functioning-physical score (P < 0.001), and a 0.53-unit decrease in role functioning-emotional score (P = 0.0010). Meanwhile, we found no significant association between the number of pain symptoms and patients’ satisfaction with treatment, and no significant association between the number of pain symptoms and social functioning.
These results suggest that even when patients report satisfaction with their treatment, they may be suffering from reduced physical functioning and role functioning. These impairments may escape clinical recognition when clinicians or patients fail to discuss pain symptoms.
There is increasing recognition that pain often coexists with depression. the current survey was undertaken to ascertain patients’ and clinicians’ perceptions of pain as a physical symptom associated with depression.
Web-based surveys were undertaken for patients with depression, and for physicians treating patients with depression (psychiatrists, psychosomatic physicians, general internists).
848 patients aged 20–59 years entered the main survey, of whom 663 returned the completed survey (78.2%). of the respondents, 424 (64.0%) experienced at least one painful symptom, with almost three-quarters (72.1%) reporting that the pain affected mental symptoms and 68.6% indicating that it prevented recovery from depression itself. Among 337 patients who discussed their painful symptoms with their physician, 52.5% initiated the discussion.
456 physicians completed the physician survey. When asked about the influence of pain associated with depression, 61.7% of physicians indicated that they ask their patients about pain during a consultation, and 79.9% considered that painful symptoms might disturb the patients’ daily life and 52.8% felt that they would delay recovery from depression.
The survey provides further evidence of the association between depression and pain, highlighting the fact that pain is prevalent in this patient population. Increased patient and physician awareness of pain in association with depression and improved doctor-patient communication, enabling patients to discuss painful symptoms with their physicians, and vice-versa, should lead to better overall management and treatment strategies.
A new species of ampithoid amphipod, Sunamphitoe gigantea sp. nov., is described from Katsurakoi, Hokkaido, Japan. The new species most closely resembles S. eoa, but can be distinguished from it by the shorter flagellum of antenna 1, the maxilla 1 inner plate that bears two slender setae, the short dactylus of male gnathopod 2, and the presence of a group of long setae on anterior margins of pereopods 3 and 4 bases. Nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I obtained from the type specimens also differentiated this new species from the congeners. Ontogenetic morphological changes of the male gnathopod 2 are briefly discussed.
Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University has been conducting astronomy outreach programs in Kyoto University Hospital since 2006. In this proceeding, we report our activities in the hospital, survey results from graduate students, and discuss future directions.
For a compact metric space (K, d), LipK denotes the Banach algebra of all complex-valued Lipschitz functions on (K, d). We show that the continuous Hochschild cohomology Hn(LipK, (LipK)*) and Hn(LipK, ℂe) are both infinite-dimensional vector spaces for each n ≥ 1 if the space K contains a certain infinite sequence which converges to a point e ∈ K. Here (LipK)* is the dual module of LipK and ℂe denotes the complex numbers with a LipK-bimodule structure defined by evaluations of LipK-functions at e. Examples of such metric spaces include all compact Riemannian manifolds, compact geodesic metric spaces and infinite compact subsets of ℝ. In particular, the (small) global homological dimension of LipK is infinite for every such space. Our proof uses the description of point derivations by Sherbert [‘The structure of ideals and point derivations in Banach algebras of Lipschitz functions’, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.111 (1964), 240–272] and directly constructs non-trivial cocycles with the help of alternating cocycles of Johnson [‘Higher-dimensional weak amenability’, Studia Math.123 (1997), 117–134]. An alternating construction of cocycles on the basis of the idea of Kleshchev [‘Homological dimension of Banach algebras of smooth functions is equal to infinity’, Vest. Math. Mosk. Univ. Ser. 1. Mat. Mech.6 (1988), 57–60] is also discussed.
Pipe inspection robots have been developed to reduce the cost and time required for gas pipe inspection. However, these robots have been developed using a scrap and build method and are not used in practice. In this paper, we propose a method of virtual pipe inspection simulation to clarify the parameters that are important in increasing the robot's ease of use. This paper presents the results obtained by a feasibility study with regard to pipe simulation. We developed a virtual pipe by simulating eight actual turns of an external gas pipe, and a robot equipped with camera at the tip. In the experiments, three individuals working in the field of gas inspection carried out the operation. We obtained questionnaire, time, and brain activity data. The results revealed various important points that must be considered in practical simulation and robot design. In conclusion, the virtual pipe simulation can be useful in developing the design of a pipe inspection robot.
In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism to compensate for gravity and the gripping force in a hand-arm robot. This mechanism compensates for the gravitational torque produced by an object gripped by the hand-arm robot. The gripping force required for the robot hand to prevent the object from dropping is also simultaneously compensated for. This mechanism requires only one actuator placed on the shoulder part of the robot. Therefore, this mechanism can reduce the torque requirement of joint actuators and lower the weight of the robot. The gear ratio of the reduction gears in each robot joint can then also be reduced. These advantages are critical for future robots that perform tasks in unstructured environments and collaborate with humans. We carried out experiments with a 6-DoF robot arm having a 1-DoF gripper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism.
Eighty-six new acoustic survey lines along and across the Japan Trench revealed active sediment creep deformation on a deep-sea terrace at water depths of 400–1200 m in an area of arcuate-shaped depressions that are probably associated with tectonic erosion. The most active region of creep is located on the top at the surface of the depression south of 38° N. The area of creep deformation is characterized by arcuate-shaped topographic lineaments with active folds and active normal faults stepping down trenchward. In contrast to the southern region, normal faults at the top of the depression north of 38° N cut a sedimentary sequence (Unit 1) that is acoustically transparent with continuous weak reflectors, and this is covered by the undeformed layered sediment sequence of Unit 2. Unit 2 corresponds to the period of rising sea level that extended from the latest Pleistocene to the early Holocene (14–6 ka). Thus, creep is ongoing at the top of the depression south of 38° N in the surface layer, whereas it stopped north of the depression between 14 and 6 ka. These observations might indicate that the active region jumped from north to south due to probably retrogressive sliding.
Various herbivorous invertebrates in seagrass beds are considered to be generalists in food use and their diets may temporally fluctuate according to the availability of food sources. We assessed whether food sources of herbivorous gastropods vary in a subtropical seagrass bed in Nagura Bay, Ishigaki Island, where coexisting seaweeds grow densely in spring but minimally in summer. Abundant gastropods and their possible food sources were collected in spring and summer of 2013 and 2015, and their stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured. Between the two seasons, each possible food source had similar isotopic values, but all the herbivorous gastropod species in summer were more enriched in 13C than the gastropod samples in spring. The mixing models in SIAR (Stable Isotope Analysis in R) showed that the total contribution rates of seaweeds, i.e. rhodophytes, phaeophytes and chlorophytes, for all herbivorous gastropod species decreased from spring to summer; in contrast, the contribution rate of seagrasses increased. Linear Mixed Models showed that the seasonal variation in δ13C of the herbivorous gastropods was larger than that of the possible food sources, adding further evidence to the seasonal change in food sources of the herbivorous gastropods. This seasonal change in food use appears to correspond to the change in seaweed biomass, suggesting that herbivorous gastropods flexibly change their diets depending on food availability.
The eastern Nankai accretionary prism toe was surveyed to evaluate the nature and deformation of its frontal thrust. According to the determined porosities and yield strengths, turbidites were successively buried down to depths of 250–300 m before accretion, and were then exposed at the prism toe by uplift along the Tenryu frontal thrust during 3.4–1.98 Ma. Consolidation tests provided reasonable estimates of burial depth and, when combined with exposed sediment dates, yield prism toe uplift rates of 0.74–2.27 m ka–1. The displacement along the frontal thrust is estimated to be 500–900 m and the slip rates are 1.47–4.55 m ka–1, corresponding to the highest class of active faults on land in Japan. During the surveys of the Tenryu frontal thrust zone, we discovered a new active fault scarp that was several tens of centimetres high, interpreted to be a protothrust located c. 100 m south of the frontal thrust. This scarp is associated with chemosynthetic biocommunities. The thrust might potentially be the result of displacement during the East Nankai (To-Nankai) earthquake (Mw 8.1) in 1944. These lines of evidence indicate that the Tenryu frontal thrust is still active and that displacement along the thrust might induce a tsunami during future Tokai or To-Nankai earthquakes.
To investigate molecular composition of low-metallicity environments, we conducted spectral line survey observations in the 3 mm band toward three dwarf galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, IC 10, and NGC 6822 with the Mopra 22 m, the Nobeyama 45 m and the IRAM 30 m, respectively. The rotational transitions of CCH, HCN, HCO+, HNC, CS, SO, 13CO, and 12CO were detected in all three galaxies. We found that the spectral intensity patterns are similar to one another regardless of star formation activities. Compared with Solar-metallicity environments, the molecular compositions of dwarf galaxies are characterized by (1) deficient nitrogen-bearing molecules and (2) enhanced CCH and suppressed CH3OH. These are interpreted (1) as a direct consequence of the lower elemental abundance of nitrogen, and (2) as a consequence of extended photon dominated regions in cloud peripheries due to the lower abundance of dust grains, respectively.