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We examined the growth trajectories of reading in a consistent orthography (Greek) in two developmental periods (from Grade 1 to Grade 4 and from Grade 4 to Grade 10) and what cognitive skills predict the growth patterns. Seventy-five Greek-speaking children were assessed in Grades 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 on word-, nonword-, and text-reading fluency. In Grades 1 and 4, they were also assessed on phonological awareness, rapid naming, phonological memory, orthographic knowledge, and articulation rate. Results of growth curve modeling showed that during the first developmental period, there was a rapid initial growth from Grade 1 to Grade 2 followed by a less rapid growth from Grade 2 to Grade 4. In the second developmental period, the slow growth continued. In both developmental periods, rapid naming and orthographic knowledge predicted the initial status of all reading outcomes and phonological memory predicted the initial status of nonword-reading fluency. Phonological awareness predicted the initial status of nonword-reading fluency in the first developmental period and the initial status of word- and text-reading fluency in the second developmental period. None of the cognitive skills predicted the growth rate in reading skills. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
We performed family psychoeducation for depression, and investigated the association between the education and expressed emotion of patients’ families and relapse of depression.
Of 103 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, and their primary family members, 53 patients and their primary family members gave consent. The patients were randomly allocated to an intervention or control group, consisting of 24 and 30 patients, respectively. The intervention group underwent 4 educational sessions and education in coping techniques. The relapse rate was compared between the intervention and control groups. In addition, the subjects were divided into high- and low-EE groups based on the EE judgment, and the effect of psychoeducation was compared in each group.
The relapse rate during a 9-month period was 8.3% in the intervention group, being significantly lower than that (50%) in the control group. The relapse rate in the intervention group was slightly lower than that in the control group in the high-EE group, and significantly lower in the low-EE group. Regarding the influence of EE, in the control group, the relapse rate was 70% in the high-EE group, being significantly higher than that (40%) in the low-EE group. On multiple logistic regression analysis, psychoeducation (odds ratio: 25.53, 95% CI: 2.83-229.92) and the Hamilton score at the time of entry (odds ratio: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.045-1.298) were significantly associated with relapse.
It was suggested that the psychoeducation of families is very effective for the prevention of relapse in adult depressive patients.
There are no effective programs on return-to-work (RTW) despite an increase of stress related disorders. We developed an original rehabilitation program,’Ultra-short daily briefings care (USDBC)’. USDBC is based on a key concept of European Framework for Psychosocial Risk Management (PRIMA-EF; WHO, 2008) that provides the good practice guidelines at the workplace. We carried out USDBC at the worksite of Panasonic Healthcare Co., Ltd. to determine whether USDBC facilitates RTW.
To develop and establish the appropriate intervention that reduces depressive severity of sick-listed employees.
The aim of the study was to determine whether USDBC strengthen the sense of coherence (SOC; Antonovsky, 1985).
We compared two groups in a cross-sectional study design: 16 depressed RTW employees (USDBC group) vs. 121 healthy employees (control group) (Fig.1). USDBC group was received the instant face-to-face rehabilitation program in every workday (Fig.2). The primary outcome was the ability to cope with stress, measured by self-reported 13-items SOC scale for Japanese (Yamazaki, 1999).
In the USDBC group, significant changes were observed between baseline and measurement point in SOC score (40.3 vs. 54.4; 95% CI (20.6 to (7.5), whereas in the control group, no significant changes were observed (58.3 vs. 57.9; 95% CI (0.1 to 0.9) (Table.1).
The study suggests that USDBC strengthen the depressed employees’ SOC.
Participant now climt
Flow diagram showing the selection of USDBC group and control group
Intervention with USDBC
Depressive employees behave according to this flow in every workday.
Subjects’ characteristics and SOC.
USDBC group (n=l6)
39 (32 - 53)
Control group (n=121)
41 (21 - 59)
-0 1 to 0.9
In the USDBC goroup, significant change was found between baselne and tneasurment point. In the control group, no significant change was found.
Recently huge amount of dust Mdust ≃ 106−7M⊙ in galaxies at z = 7–8 has been discovered by ALMA observations. The suggested timescale of the dust production was a few–several×108 yr, while the stellar mass was several × 109M⊙. This amount of dust cannot be easily explained only by a supply from supernovae if we consider the dust destruction by reverse shocks. We propose that these values can be consistently explained if we take into account the grain growth in the interstellar medium (ISM). This scenario successfully reproduces the evolution of the dust mass, as well as the SFR, and stellar mass simultaneously. We conclude that even at such an early epoch of the Universe, the dust grain growth in the ISM plays a significant role in galaxies.
The spectral energy distribution (SED) model should treat the evolution of a galaxy from its birth. Dust in galaxies affects the formation and evolution of galaxies in various ways. For example, dust grains scatter and absorb stellar emitted ultraviolet (UV) photons and re-emit the radiation at infrared (IR) wavelengths. In this work, we construct a galaxy SED model based on our dust evolution model (Asano et al. 2013a,b, 2014) with a rigorous treatment of the chemical evolution. To reduce the computational cost, we adopt mega-grain approximation (MGA; (MGA; Inoue, 2005). MGA regards a high density dusty region as a huge size (10 pc) dust grain for calculating dust scattering. In this approximation, we can solve the radiative transfer easily and provide SEDs and attenuation curves of galaxies. This model can be used to fit any galaxy in the wavelength range of 10 nm-3 mm.
Recently, spectroscopic detections of O[III] 88 μm and Ly-α emission lines from the z ≍ 9.1 galaxy MACS1149-JD1 have been presented, and with these, some interesting properties of this galaxy were uncovered. One such property is that MACS1149-JD1 exhibits a significant Balmer break at around rest-frame 4000 Å, which may indicate that the galaxy has experienced large variations in star formation rate prior to z ∼ 9, with a rather long period of low star formation activity. While some simulations predict large variations in star formation activity in high-redshift galaxies, it is unclear whether the simulations can reproduce the kind of variations seen in MACS1149-JD1. Here, we utilize synthetic spectra of simulated galaxies from two simulation suites in order to study to what extent these can accurately reproduce the spectral features (specifically the Balmer break) observed in MACS1149-JD1. We show that while the simulations used in this study produce galaxies with varying star formation histories, galaxies such as MACS1149-JD1 would be very rare in the simulations. In principle, future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope may tell us if MACS1149-JD1 represents something rare, or if such galaxies are more common than predicted by current simulations.
We have developed a new SED fitting tool specialized for frontier redshift galaxies. It is a common case for high-z galaxies that the available data are restricted to rich optical to near-infrared photometry and few far-infrared (FIR) data deep enough to detect the faint object (e.g., HST/WFC3 + Spitzer/IRAC + ALMA). In such situation, one cannot perform a complicated modeling of dust emission in FIR regime. We then adopt simple treatment for the dust emission using empirical LIRG templates. Instead, we adopt a sophisticated and physically motivated modeling for stellar and nebular emission parts in rest-frame UV-to-optical regime. Our new code fits not only broad band photometry but also spectral emission line flux. There is an option to fit observed SED with two templates with different physical properties. Our new code, PANHIT, is now in public, and was already applied to some high-z frontier galaxies.
Panchromatic modeling is one of the most powerful tools at our disposal to measure reliably the physical properties of galaxies across cosmic times. We present here an entirely new implementation in python of one such tool: CIGALE. Developed along three main design principles: simplicity, modularity, and efficiency, it has proven to be a versatile code that in addition to estimating the physical properties of galaxies (or regions within galaxies), can generate arbitrary sets of theoretical models or be used as a library to build other tools. Among its defining features, it is a truly panchromatic code ranging from the far-ultraviolet to the radio that takes into account numerous physical components (including active nuclei or synchrotron emission), that can fit non-photometric data, handle upper limits, determine photometric redshifts, and even build mock catalogs.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
Metallic glasses have attractive properties, but since the glassy state is inherently metastable, they are not normally considered for applications at elevated temperatures. Yet, studies have shown that multicomponent and pseudo high-entropy (PHE) compositions can confer useful heat resistance. The formation, thermal stability, and mechanical and chemical properties of multicomponent Fe-(Cr, Mo)- and Zr-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are reviewed to assess their potential as heat-resistant structural materials. The composition Fe43Cr16Mo16C15B10 is castable and fully glassy with rod diameters up to 2.7 mm. Glassy coatings of this material with low porosity, good mechanical properties, and good corrosion resistance can be produced by high-velocity spray coating. The compositions Zr55–65Al7.5–10(TM1,TM2)27.5–35 (TM1 = Fe, Co, Ni, TM2 = Cu, Pd, Ag, Au) yield PHE BMGs, in which a stable cluster-like glassy phase without crystalline precipitates is formed by annealing at temperatures well above the first calorimetric transformation. It is suggested that proliferation of alloy components is an effective method to synthesize metastable metallic materials that retain high strength at elevated temperatures.
We report fourteen and twenty-eight protocluster candidates at z = 5.7 and 6.6 over 14 and 19 deg2 areas, respectively, selected from 2,230 Lyα emitters (LAEs) photometrically identified with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) deep images. Six out of the 42 protocluster candidates include at least 1 spectroscopically confirmed LAEs at redshifts up to z = 6.574. By the comparisons with the cosmological Lyα radiative transfer (RT) model reproducing LAEs with the reionization effects, we find that more than a half of these protocluster candidates might be progenitors of the present-day clusters with a mass of ≳ 1014M⊙. We also investigate the correlation between LAE overdensity and Lya rest-frame equivalent width (EW), because the cosmological Lyα RT model suggests that a slope of EW-overdensity relation is steepened towards the epoch of cosmic reionization (EoR), due to the existence of the ionized bubbles around galaxy overdensities easing the escape of Lyα emission from the partly neutral intergalactic medium. The available HSC data suggest that the slope of the EW-overdensity correlation does not evolve from the post-reionization epoch z = 5.7 to the EoR z = 6.6 beyond the moderately large statistical errors.
We present a 4.7σ detection of the [OIII] 88 μm line in a gravitationally-lensed Lyman break galaxy, RXC J2248-ID3, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). We did not detect [CII] 158 μm and rest-frame 90 μm dust continuum emission, suggesting that the bulk of the interstellar medium (ISM) is ionized. Our two-component SED model combining the previous Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data and new photometry obtained from Very Large Telescope (VLT), Spitzer and ALMA suggests the presence of young (∼2 Myr) and mature (∼600 Myr) stellar components with the metallicity of Z = 0.2Z⊙. Our findings are in contrast with previous results claiming a very young, metal-poor stellar component.
We examined the cross-lagged relations between word reading fluency in the two orthographic systems of Japanese: phonetic (syllabic) Hiragana and morphographic Kanji. One hundred forty-two Japanese-speaking children were assessed on word reading fluency twice in Grade 1 (Times 1 and 2) and twice in Grade 2 (Times 3 and 4). Nonverbal IQ, vocabulary, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and rapid automatized naming were also assessed in Time 1. Results of path analysis revealed that Time 1 Hiragana fluency predicted Time 2 Kanji fluency after controlling for the cognitive skills. Time 2 Hiragana fluency did not predict Time 3 Kanji fluency or vice versa after the autoregressor was controlled, but Hiragana and Kanji fluency were reciprocally related between Times 3 and 4. These findings provide evidence for a cross-script transfer of word reading fluency across the two contrastive orthographic systems, and the first evidence of fluency in a morphographic script predicting fluency development in a phonetic script within the same language.
To investigate whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) modify the impact of exposure to a natural disaster (the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami) on the occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among older people.
Data were collected as part of the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), which is an on-going epidemiological survey investigating social determinants of health among older people across Japan. Information on PTSD symptoms based on the Screening Questionnaire for Disaster Mental Health, traumatic exposure to the earthquake (i.e., house damage and loss of relatives/friends during the earthquake/tsunami) and ACEs was obtained from 580 participants aged 65 or older living in Iwanuma City, Miyagi Prefecture, which suffered severe damage as a result of the earthquake and the subsequent tsunami in March 2011. Associations were examined using Poisson regression analysis with a robust variance estimator after adjusting for covariates.
The prevalence of PTSD was 9.7% in this population; compared to those with no traumatic experience, the prevalence of PTSD was approximately two times higher among those who experienced the loss of close friends/relatives (PR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.11–3.03, p = 0.018), or whose house was damaged (PR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.07–4.34, p = 0.032). ACE was not significantly associated with PTSD. Stratified analyses by the presence of ACE showed that damage due to the earthquake/tsunami was associated with PTSD only among those without ACEs; more specifically, among non-ACE respondents the PR of PTSD associated with house damage was 6.67 (95% CI = 1.66–26.80), while for the loss of a relative or a close friend it was 3.56 (95% CI = 1.18–10.75). In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed among those with ACEs.
Following the Great East Japan earthquake/tsunami in 2011 a higher risk of developing PTSD symptoms was observed in 2013 especially among older individuals without ACEs. This suggests that ACEs might affect how individuals respond to subsequent traumatic events later in life.
The objectives of this study were to infer phenotypic causal networks involving gestation length (GL) and calving difficulty (CD) for the primiparity of 1850 Japanese Black heifers, and the birth weight (BWT), withers height (WH) and chest girth (CHG) of their full blood calves, and to compare the causal effects among them. The inductive causation (IC) algorithm was employed to search for causal links among these traits; it was applied to the posterior distribution of the residual (co)variance matrix of a multiple-trait sire-maternal grand sire (MGS) model. The IC algorithm implemented with 95% and 90% highest posterior density intervals detected only one structure with links between GL and BWT (WH or CHG) and between BWT (WH or CHG) and CD, although their directions were not resolved. Therefore, a possible causal structure based on the networks obtained from the IC algorithm [GL→BWT (WH or CHG)→CD] was fitted using a structural equation model to infer causal structure coefficients between the traits. The structural coefficients of GL on BWT and of BWT on GL on the observable scale showed that an extra day of GL led to a 270-g gain in BWT, and a 1-kg increase in BWT increased the risk for dystocia by 1.1%, in the causal structure. Similarly, an increase in GL by 1 day resulted in a 2.1 (2.0)-mm growth in WH (CHG), and a 1-cm increase in WH (CHG) increased the risk of dystocia by 1.2% (0.9%). The structural equation model was also fitted to alternative causal structures, which involved the addition of a directed link from GL to CD, or GL→CD to the structures described above. The inferred structural coefficients with the alternative structures were almost the same as the corresponding ones that had GL→BWT (WH or CHG)→CD. However, the direct causal effect of the extra link from GL on CD was similar to the indirect causal effect of GL through the mediating effect of BWT (WH or CHG) on CD and significant (P<0.05). This suggest that maternal genetic effects might not be removed completely from the residual variance components in the sire-MGS model, and the application of the IC algorithm to the variances from the model could detect an incorrect structure. Nonetheless, fitting the structural equation model to the causal structure provided useful information such as the magnitude of the causal effects between the traits.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005–2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji.
As the characteristic length scale of electronic devices shrinks, so does the required scale for measurement techniques to provide useful feedback during development and fabrication. The current capabilities of atom probe tomography (APT), such as detecting a low number of dopant atoms in nanoscale devices or studying diffusion effects in a nanowire (NW), make this technique important for metrology on the nanoscale. Here we review recent APT investigations applied to transistors (including regions such as gate oxide, channel, source, drain, contacts, etc.), heterogeneous dopant incorporation in NWs, and Pt-based nanoparticles.
Nitrate and nitrite are probable human carcinogens when ingested under conditions that increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds. There have been limited efforts to develop US databases of dietary nitrate and nitrite for standard FFQ. Here we describe the development of a dietary nitrate and nitrite database and its calibration.
We analysed data from a calibration study of 1942 members of the NIH–AARP (NIH–AARP, National Institutes of Health–AARP) Diet and Health Study who reported all foods and beverages consumed on the preceding day in two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls (24HR) and completed an FFQ. Based on a literature review, we developed a database of nitrate and nitrite contents for foods reported on these 24HR and for food category line items on the FFQ. We calculated daily nitrate and nitrite intakes for both instruments, and used a measurement error model to compute correlation coefficients and attenuation factors for the FFQ-based intake estimates using 24HR-based values as reference data.
FFQ-based median nitrate intake was 68·9 and 74·1 mg/d, and nitrite intake was 1·3 and 1·0 mg/d, in men and women, respectively. These values were similar to 24HR-based intake estimates. Energy-adjusted correlation coefficients between FFQ- and 24HR-based values for men and women respectively were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·59 and 0·58 for nitrite; energy-adjusted attenuation factors were 0·59 and 0·57 for nitrate and 0·47 and 0·38 for nitrite.
The performance of the FFQ in assessing dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes is comparable to that for many other macro- and micronutrients.