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Civil disobedience is typically characterized as morally principled, deliberate, and publicly enacted violation of law by individuals, who do not then seek to evade arrest. It is framed as a “civil” way for citizens to challenge possibly unjust laws or policies: one that is in broad fidelity to their domestic rule of law and good citizenship, even when it involves the refusal to obey some specific law.1 Similarly, a number of commentators have sought to show that some acts which cross state territorial or citizenship boundaries should be understood as trans-state or global civil disobedience. They have focused on deliberate, principled violations of a state’s law by non-citizen activists, asylum seekers, and unauthorized migrants, among others.2
This chapter details a conceptual framework of global citizenship within which such principled lawbreaking beyond the state can be situated. It also highlights a significant underlying distinction between domestic and suprastate civil disobedience which has received relatively little attention in the recent literature.
As agricultural areas expand, interactions between wild animals and farmland are increasing. Understanding the nature of such interactions is vital to inform the management of human–wildlife coexistence. We investigated patterns of space use of two Critically Endangered Galapagos tortoise species, Chelonoidis porteri and Chelonoidis donfaustoi, on privately owned and agricultural land (hereafter farms) on Santa Cruz Island, where a human–wildlife conflict is emerging. We used GPS data from 45 tortoises tracked for up to 9 years, and data on farm characteristics, to identify factors that influence tortoise movement and habitat use in the agricultural zone. Sixty-nine per cent of tagged tortoises used the agricultural zone, where they remained for a mean of 150 days before returning to the national park. Large male tortoises were more likely to use farms for longer periods than female and smaller individuals. Tortoises were philopatric (mean overlap of farmland visits = 88.7 ± SE 2.9%), on average visiting four farms and occupying a mean seasonal range of 2.9 ± SE 0.3 ha. We discuss the characteristics of farm use by tortoises, and its implications for tortoise conservation and coexistence with people.
Prior research has identified behavioural health outcomes as key sequelae to combat deployment. However, relatively little is known about differential patterns of change in depression or generalised anxiety linked to deployment to a combat zone. In this paper, we add to the existing trajectory literature and examine key predictive factors of behavioural health risk.
The primary aim is to leverage growth mixture modelling to ascertain trajectories of psychological distress, operationalised as a coherent construct combining depression and generalised anxiety, and to identify factors that differentiate adaptive and maladaptive patterns of change.
Data were collected from a brigade combat team prior to a combat deployment to Afghanistan, during deployment, at immediate re-integration and approximately 2–3 months thereafter. The main outcome was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety and Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS).
Three latent trajectories were identified: a low–stable trajectory, a declining trajectory and a rising trajectory. Most individuals aligned with the low–stable trajectory. A conditional model using covariates measured during deployment showed that the low–stable trajectory differed consistently from the remaining trajectories on self-reported loneliness and non-combat deployment stressors.
The examination of differential patterns of adaptation, to identify individuals at higher risk, is critical for the efficient targeting of resources. Our findings further indicate that loneliness may be a useful leverage point for clinical and organisational intervention.
We hypothesize that spatial spillovers among neighboring farms are not only driven by spatial proximity, but also by farm profitability considerations. This hypothesis is tested by examining the role of spatial spillovers in shaping somatic cell counts (SCC) on Wisconsin dairy farms. Results show that neighborhood links defined both in terms of geographic proximity and farm profitability give rise to spatial spillovers that affect SCC. Significant differences in the estimated spatial spillovers are observed when defining the neighborhood space in terms of both farm profitability and geographic proximity as opposed to geographic proximity alone, with the data favoring the former specification.
COVID-19 altered research in Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) hubs in an unprecedented manner, leading to adjustments for COVID-19 research.
CTSA members volunteered to conduct a review on the impact of CTSA network on COVID-19 pandemic with the assistance from NIH survey team in October 2020. The survey questions included the involvement of CTSAs in decision-making concerning the prioritization of COVID-19 studies. Descriptive and statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data.
60 of the 64 CTSAs completed the survey. Most CTSAs lacked preparedness but promptly responded to the pandemic. Early disruption of research triggered, enhanced CTSA engagement, creation of dedicated research areas and triage for prioritization of COVID-19 studies. CTSAs involvement in decision-making were 16.75 times more likely to create dedicated diagnostic laboratories (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17–129.39; P < 0.01). Likewise, institutions with internal funding were 3.88 times more likely to establish COVID-19 dedicated research (95% CI = 1.12–13.40; P < 0.05). CTSAs were instrumental in securing funds and facilitating establishment of laboratory/clinical spaces for COVID-19 research. Workflow was modified to support contracting and IRB review at most institutions with CTSAs. To mitigate chaos generated by competing clinical trials, central feasibility committees were often formed for orderly review/prioritization.
The lessons learned from the COVID-19 pandemic emphasize the pivotal role of CTSAs in prioritizing studies and establishing the necessary research infrastructure, and the importance of prompt and flexible research leadership with decision-making capacity to manage future pandemics.
For decades confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been the preeminent method to study the underlying structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, methodological limitations of CFA have led to the emergence of other analytic approaches. In particular, network analysis has become a gold standard to investigate the structure and relationships between PTSD symptoms. A key methodological limitation, however, which has significant clinical implications, is the lack of data on the potential impact of item order effects on the conclusions reached through network analyses.
The current study, involving a large sample (N = 5055) of active duty army soldiers following deployment to Iraq, assessed the vulnerability of network analyses and prevalence rate to item order effects. This was done by comparing symptom networks of the DSM-IV PTSD checklist items to these same items distributed in random order. Half of the participants rated their symptoms on traditionally ordered items and half the participants rated the same items, but in random order and interspersed between items from other validated scales. Differences in prevalence rate and network composition were examined.
The prevalence rate differed between the ordered and random item samples. Network analyses using the ordered survey closely replicated the conclusions reached in the existing network analyses literature. However, in the random item survey, network composition differed considerably.
Order effects appear to have a significant impact on conclusions reached from PTSD network analysis. Prevalence rates were also impacted by order effects. These findings have important diagnostic and clinical treatment implications.
Disruptive telemedicine tools can help overcome the lack of specialized care and electroencephalographic (EEG) support for diagnosing and treating nervous system disorders such as epilepsy in remote communities. However, evidence on how such cloud-based platforms could enhance data-driven health care is limited. The utility of telemedicine-based apps to achieve EEG screening of communities in rural areas of Paraguay was investigated.
This descriptive study was carried out by the Telemedicine Unit of the Ministry of Public Health in collaboration with the Department of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging of the Health Science Research Institute in Paraguay and the Basque Country University in Spain to evaluate the utility of telediagnostic apps for EEG screening. For this purpose, the results obtained by tele-EEG apps implemented in nineteen public community hospitals were analyzed to determine the utility of the apps as epidemiological surveillance tools.
Among the 10,791 remote EEG studies performed, the most common reasons for the test included epileptic seizure (44%), headache (22%), seizure disorder (8%), follow up (6%), attention deficits in children (5%), cognitive impairment (4%), cranioencephalic trauma (3%), brain death (1%), history of seizure (0.9%), abnormal movements (0.7%), and behavioral disorders (0.5%).
The results showed that telemedicine apps can significantly enhance nationwide EEG screening by freeing up professional time and increasing productivity, improving access and equity, and reducing costs. However, before their systematic implementation a contextualization of the apps using the regional epidemiological profile must be performed.
Nutrition during the first 1000 days of life represents a window of opportunity to reduce the risk of metabolic dysfunctions later in life. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and adequate introduction of solid foods are essential to promote metabolic and nutritional benefits. We evaluated the association of infant feeding practices from birth to 6 months (M) with adiposity indicators at 12 M. We performed a secondary analysis of 106 healthy term infants born from a cohort of healthy pregnant women. Type of breastfeeding (exclusive or nonexclusive), the start of complementary feeding (CF) (before (<4 M) or after (≥4 M)), and adiposity (body mass index – BMI, body mass index-for-age – BMI/A, waist circumference – WC, and waist circumference–length ratio – WLR) were evaluated at 12 M using descriptive statistics, mean differences, X2, and linear regression models. During the first 6 M, 28.3% (n = 30) of the infants received EBF. Early CF (<4 M) was present in 26.4% (n = 28) of the infants. Children who started CF < 4 M were less breastfed, received added sugars as the most frequently introduced food category, and showed higher BMI, BMI/A, WC, and WLR; those who consumed added sugars early (<4 M) had a higher WC. Starting CF < 4 M was the main factor associated with a higher WC at 12 M. Unhealthy infant feeding practices, such as lack of EBF, early CF, and early introduction of sugars, may be associated with higher adiposity at 12 M.
George L. Cowgill had a major influence on the study of the ancient city of Teotihuacan and the development and promotion of quantitative methods in archaeology. His wit, teaching, and research influenced many in the profession. We draw on two published autobiographical works (Cowgill 2008a, 2013a), some unpublished autobiographical notes (Cowgill 1983), his many publications, and our own associations with George.
Functional impairment is a defining feature of psychotic disorders. A range of factors has been shown to influence functioning, including negative symptoms, cognitive performance and cognitive reserve (CR). However, it is not clear how these variables may affect functioning in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. This 2-year follow-up study aimed to explore the possible mediating effects of CR on the relationship between cognitive performance or specific clinical symptoms and functional outcome.
A prospective study of non-affective FEP patients was performed (211 at baseline and 139 at follow-up). CR was entered in a path analysis model as potential mediators between cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning.
At baseline, the relationship between clinical variables or cognitive performance and functioning was not mediated by CR. At follow-up, the effect of attention (p = 0.003) and negative symptoms (p = 0.012) assessed at baseline on functioning was partially mediated by CR (p = 0.032 and 0.016), whereas the relationship between verbal memory (p = 0.057) and functioning was mediated by CR (p = 0.014). Verbal memory and positive and total subscales of PANSS assessed at follow-up were partially mediated by CR and the effect of working memory on functioning was totally mediated by CR.
Our results showed the influence of CR in mediating the relationship between cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning in FEP. In particular, CR partially mediated the relationship between some cognitive domains or clinical symptoms and functioning at follow-up. Therefore, CR could improve our understanding of the long-term functioning of patients with a non-affective FEP.
One of the main health-related worries for older adults is becoming dependent. Even healthy older adults may worry about becoming dependent, generating guilt feelings due to the anticipation of future needs that others must solve. The guilt associated with self-perception as a burden has not been studied in older adults, and there is no instrument available to measure these feelings.
To adapt the Self-Perceived Burden Scale (SPBS; Cousineau et al., 2003) for the assessment of feelings of guilt for perceiving oneself as a burden for the family in older adults without explicit functional or cognitive impairment.
Participants were 298 older adults living independently in the community. Participants completed the assessment protocol, which included measures of guilt associated with self-perception as a burden, depressive and anxious symptomatology, self-perceived burden, and sociodemographic information.
Results from exploratory, parallel and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the scale, named Guilt associated with Self-Perception as a Burden Scale (G-SPBS), has a unidimensional structure, explaining 57.04% of the variance of guilt. Good reliability was found (Cronbach’s alpha = .94). The results revealed significant (p < .01) positive associations with depressive and anxious symptomatology.
These findings suggest that the G-SPBS shows good psychometric properties which endorse its use with healthy community older adults. Also, guilt associated with perceiving oneself as a burden seems to be a relevant variable that can contribute to improving our understanding of psychological distress in older adults.
San José 520 is a Classic period hamlet of single-family residences in the urban periphery of Teotihuacan, just beyond the southeast edge of the city. Three burial features were associated with one of the residences, AF2. One of the features contained the burial of a single adult, another the successive burials of eight adults and one neonate, and the third held a neonate. We analyzed 29 bone and enamel samples from the adults for bioapatite phosphate oxygen-isotope composition; we also considered isotopic data for another five bone samples analyzed in a separate project. The isotopic results suggest a pattern of birth in the Teotihuacan region and then movement in early childhood to a “relocation” region, the geographic location of which is unknown. Later, probably in adolescence, the individuals returned to live, and eventually die, in San José 520. Without knowing more about the occupation of the relocation region, it is difficult to say what concerns or beliefs underlay this unusual but long-established settlement system.
The purpose of this research was to determine biosecurity measures at the dental office after the appearance of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A search was conducted in the main databases of the scientific literature using the words “COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-Cov2, biosecurity, disinfection and dentistry.” We analyzed biosecurity and disinfection standards at the dental office and dental health personnel to date, and their adaptation to the needs and way of working of each. As a result, according to the information collected the following procedure was identified: a telephone appointment must be made and a questionnaire should be given before dental care; at arrival to the appointment, the temperature of the patient should be taken and proper cleaning and disinfection of the waiting room should be maintained. Panoramic radiography and CBCT are the auxiliary methods of choice. Absolute isolation and atraumatic restorative therapy techniques are a good alternative to decrease fluid exposure. The removal of protective clothing and accessories must follow a specific order and washing hands before and after is essential. In conclusion, the efficient biosecurity for dentists and patients in all dental care processes before, during, and immediately after the appointment reduces the risk of COVID-19 infection and allows healthy dental care environments.
The giant gypsum crystals of Naica cave have fascinated scientists since their discovery in 2000. Human activity has changed the microclimate inside the cave, making scientists wonder about the potential environmental impact on the crystals. Over the last 9 years, we have studied approximately 70 samples. This paper reports on the detailed chemical–structural characterization of the impurities present at the surface of these crystals and the experimental simulations of their potential deterioration patterns. Selected samples were studied by petrography, optical and electronic microscopy, and laboratory X-ray diffraction. 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, X-ray μ-fluorescence, and X-ray μ-absorption near-edge structure were used to identify the impurities and their associated phases. These impurities were deposited during the latest stage of the gypsum crystal formation and have afterward evolved with the natural high humidity. The simulations of the behavior of the crystals in microclimatic chambers produced crystal dissolution by 1–4% weight fraction under high CO2 concentration and permanent fog, and gypsum phase dehydration under air and CO2 gaseous environment. Our work suggests that most surface impurities are of natural origin; the most significant anthropogenic damage on the crystals is the extraction of water from the caves.
US Army Combat Medics and Navy Combat Corpsmen serve as a critical element of any fighting unit. Their professional responsibilities are for providing the emergency and preventive medical needs of their soldiers with whom they live and serve. These medical professionals are also expected to do any job that maintains the mission of their fighting unit. Because of their importance to sustaining the US fighting forces, Combat Medics may be an ideal group to study because of the high levels of adversity and stress endured while serving both roles. The Medic Mettle Study was established to develop a model of combat stress resilience and a prevention of PTSD. The first step was to identify the psychosocial and bio-behavioral characteristics of combat stress injury. A mixed methods model was utilized and over 700 recently deployed Combat Medics were enrolled. The presentation discusses both the early quantitative results and elaborates on the qualitative interviews conducted with the most resilient combat medics, as nominated by their peers. Preliminary findings of the 16 intensive, videotaped interviews with Combat Medics between war deployments using a Variable Generating Activity (VGA) protocol
(1) found 138 variables that appear to provide some missing pieces in our understanding of combat stress injury and its psychosocial markers;
(2) Identified five variable domains within a nomothetic network of medic resilience;
(3) utility of annual surveys to validate the qualitative findings.
A functional polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) Val66Met has been associated with cognitive function and symptom severity in patients with schizophrenia. It has been suggested that the Val66Met polymorphism has a role as a modulator in a range of clinical features of the illness, including symptoms severity, therapeutic responsiveness, age of onset, brain morphology and cognitive function. However, little work has been done in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on cognitive function and clinical symptomatology in FES patients.
Using a cross-sectional design in a cohort of 204 patients with FES or a schizophrenia spectrum disorder and 204 healthy matched controls, we performed BDNF Val66Met genotyping and tested its relationship with cognitive testing (attention, working memory, learning/verbal memory and reasoning/problem-solving) and assessment of clinical symptom severity.
There was no significant influence of the BDNF allele frequency on cognitive factor scores in either patients or controls. An augmented severity of negative symptoms was found in FES patients that carried the Met allele.
The results of this study suggest that in patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia or a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism does not exert an influence on cognitive functioning, but is associated with negative symptoms severity. BDNF may serve as suitable marker of negative symptomatology severity in FES patients within the schizophrenia spectrum.