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Investigations of the Proyecto Arqueológico Tlajinga Teotihuacan (PATT) in 2019 focused on the southern neighborhood center of this cluster of non-elite residences in the southern periphery of the ancient Mexican metropolis. Our objective was to better understand the social infrastructure of public space within the district and how it tied its inhabitants together. Our methods included excavations at two large architectural complexes, geophysical prospection of these and adjacent structures and plazas, and chemical residue analysis of floors and sediments. They revealed architecturally elaborate complexes decorated with mural painting that appear to have been the loci of civic-ceremonial activities. Materials from the excavated portions of the complexes are inconsistent with residential uses, although it is possible that local elites lived elsewhere in the complexes or in others located nearby. The investigations therefore demonstrate that the semipublic spaces of neighborhood centers were distributed as distantly as this periphery of Teotihuacan and could be as elaborate as those in the urban epicenter, underscoring the city's more muted social inequality.
Since the beginning of 2020, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically influenced almost every aspect of human life. Activities requiring human gatherings have either been postponed, canceled, or held completely virtually. To supplement lack of in-person contact, people have increasingly turned to virtual settings online, advantages of which include increased inclusivity and accessibility and a reduced carbon footprint. However, emerging online technologies cannot fully replace in-person scientific events. In-person meetings are not susceptible to poor Internet connectivity problems, and they provide novel opportunities for socialization, creating new collaborations and sharing ideas. To continue such activities, a hybrid model for scientific events could be a solution offering both in-person and virtual components. While participants can freely choose the mode of their participation, virtual meetings would most benefit those who cannot attend in-person due to the limitations. In-person portions of meetings should be organized with full consideration of prevention and safety strategies, including risk assessment and mitigation, venue and environmental sanitation, participant protection and disease prevention, and promoting the hybrid model. This new way of interaction between scholars can be considered as a part of a resilience system, which was neglected previously and should become a part of routine practice in the scientific community.
Archaeological analyses of child funerary remains have often revolved around discussions of ascribed status and demographic trends. Other social and spatial dimensions of child burial are often left unexplored. This article introduces a novel perspective, through the analysis of child burials in Predynastic Egypt. My analysis focuses on the changing rates and spatial distribution of child burials in community necropoleis, with special attention to how their placement was used to renegotiate power relationships, and perhaps even concepts of personhood, in Predynastic society. The importance of children's funerals for creating of a sense of community through attachment to place is also considered. Criticizing analyses that rely on quantitative data to the exclusion of other factors, I emphasize the contribution of childhood, practice theory, emotions and personhood for the study of social complexity. My arguments point towards significant changes in the emotional dimension of children's funerary practices experienced during the later fourth millennium bc, and links these transformations to processes of state formation in Egypt.
Outpatient group psychotherapy began in our department in 2002 as a complement to the acute inpatient unit. Patients with heterogeneous diagnoses were included before or after a short-duration stay in the unit. Clinicians’ impression was that re-entries to the acute unit were less frequent and shorter after group therapy.
The objective is to determine the real impact of group psychotherapy on the number and mean duration of these re-entries.
Data was collected for 156 patients during period of two years. The number and mean duration of hospitalization in the psychiatric acute unit were registered for each patient during the year before and in the year after therapy to be analyzed and compared.
Before attending group psychotherapy 60.3% of the patients were hospitalized in the acute unit (39.1% once, 12.8% twice, 6.4% three times, 1.9% four times). 65.4% had no re-entries in the following year; 71% of those who did had one re-entry. The mean number of entries per year in the acute unit before therapy was 0.92, while the mean after therapy was 0.52. The mean stay was 7.86 days before therapy, and 4.62 days after. The mean differences between before and after entries were significant in statistical analyses.
Group psychotherapy seems to have effects on number and duration of re-entries to the acute unit for most patients in the different diagnostic categories. These findings have important implications, as this form of therapy is cost-effective and available for a wide range of psychiatric patients.
Introdution: Attitudes and opinions of people about schizophrenia is very important in order to understand the true situation of the disease. It is necessary to maneging the disease and developing good and realistic social and health politics addressed to fighing against the stigma and discrimination of people ho suffer this disease.
Knowing the opinions of general people about schizophrenia using a survey.
2895 People have answered the survey. 57,2% men and 42,5% men. 71,8% are 20 to 40 years old. Most of them are spanish (91,1%), but 6,5% anser from Latinamerica.
A question about the schizophrenia is given in order to compare with other events schizophrenia-related: : stigmatized, relation with violence, dificulties for living with others; for working alone, need to take drugs, difficult to obtain close relations, difficulties to obtain a job and not to be account.
Survey have been in the mundosalud website (www.mundosalud.es) for free access form 01/06/2006 to 15/09/2006. Everybody is invited to answer and a friendly interface is used in order to make easy participate. No payment is made for answering. During 2006 this web have been visited by 120.000 citizens.
Results and Conclusions
The results stablished that the most important problem considered by the schizophrenic patients is the difficulty for finding a job and maintaining social and personal relations. Besides, stigmatization is noticed very important too.
By the other hand, taking drugs and links between violence and disease are considered as a less important problem by the schizophrenic patients.
To determine which factors are associated with compliance with outpatient follow-up plan of discharged patients from a psychiatric ward of a general hospital.
A sample of 120 patients consecutively admitted to a psychiatric general ward, and referred to an outpatient clinic after discharge formed the sample.
To explore the factors predicting whether patients attended or did not attend to the outpatient clinic, a logistic regression analysis was conducted.
After controlling for age, gender, and overall clinical case severity (assessed by the Severity Psychiatric Illness Scale), have been previously attended in the outpatient clinic was the only factor that predicted the compliance with post-discharge outpatient plan (as dichotomous variable: attended/not attended), Odds Ratio (OR) = 12.53, P=0.042. Overall clinical case severity did not predict attendance to the outpatient clinic after discharge, OR=0.937, P=0.452.
Patients who were attended in an outpatient clinic prior to admission had 12-fold more likely to adhere with post-discharge outpatient plan than patients who were not previously attended. This result highlights the importance of strengthening community-hospital liaison strategies.
To verify whether most compliant patients with outpatient postdischarge follow-up plan remain in the community longer before readmission than those who don't adhere to outpatient follow-up plan.
From a total of 120 consecutive admissions to a psychiatric general ward, 63 patients were consecutively readmitted along a 2 year period after their reference first admission.
Out of the 63 patients, 25 patients were attended in an Outpatient Unit (OU) previously to their re-admission (group A), whereas 38 patients had not been attended in the OU between reference admission and readmission (group B). Patient's socio-demographic data (age, gender, marital status, and years of education) were obtained and a case-mix scale (Severity Psychiatric Illness Scale) was administered. Length of survival in community of both groups was compared by means of Analysis of Covariance, controlled for gender, age, diagnosis, clinical severity and number of previous admissions.
Group A had a mean length of survival in the community of 47.7 days (SD=44.3). Group B had a mean length of survival in the community of 23.2 days (SD=37.9). This difference was statistically significant (F=4.74, df=6, 63, p=0.034).
Being attended by OU after the discharge of reference admission lengthen significantly survival in the community after controlling for gender, age, diagnosis, clinical severity and number of previous admissions. Further research will be conducted to determine the cause of the observed differences in patient attendance to post-discharge appointments.
There are several studies evaluating the functioning in patients with schizophrenia. Nowadays, there are new tools and therapeutic alternatives to be considered.
Our hypothesis is administration of Depot antipsychotic improve patient adherence to treatment which reflect better social and personal performance, higher satisfaction with medication and less severity of the mental illness.
Sample of 68 patients with schizophrenia: 32 with Depot and 36 with oral antipsychotic.Scales: PSP assesses global function in terms of four functional domains: work/study, personal/social relationship, self care and disturbing/aggressive behavior. Other scales applied: CGI and MSQ.
PSP: Self care (t (67)=6.092,Pa=0.01),Personal Relationships (t(67)=3.368,Pa=0.05), Social Relationship(t(67)=5.0167,Pa=0.01) and disturbing behavior(t(67)=1.263,Pa>0.05).
Better response to the four areas studied in patients treated with Depot vs. patients treated with oral medication.The Global score of PSP in oral medication group was 68 which means barriers indentified by anyone but do not interfere with the role of the subject. and in the group of Depot the global score was 78 that mean mild difficulties indentified by relatives or close people to patient.
Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) has repeatedly been associated with anxiety and anxiety disorders, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and temporomandibular joint disorder. However, the neural underpinnings of these associations still remain unclear. This study explored brain responses to facial visual stimuli with emotional cues using fMRI techniques in general population with different ranges of hypermobility.
Fifty-one non-clinical volunteers (33 women) completed state and trait anxiety questionnaire measures, were assessed with a clinical examination for hypermobility (Beighton system) and performed an emotional face processing paradigm during functional neuroimaging.
Trait anxiety scores did significantly correlate with both state anxiety and hypermobility scores. BOLD signals of the hippocampus did positively correlate with hypermobility scores for the crying faces versus neutral faces contrast in ROI analyses. No results were found for any of the other studied ROIs. Additionally, hypermobility scores were also associated with other key affective processing areas (i.e. the middle and anterior cingulate gyrus, fusiform gyrus, parahippocampal region, orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum) in the whole brain analysis.
Hypermobility scores are associated with trait anxiety and higher brain responses to emotional faces in emotion processing brain areas (including hippocampus) described to be linked to anxiety and somatic symptoms. These findings increase our understanding of emotion processing in people bearing this heritable variant of collagen and the mechanisms through which vulnerability to anxiety and somatic symptoms arises in this population.
The benefits of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and positive psychology therapy (PPT) in patients with cardiovascular disease are still not well defined. We assessed the efficacy of CBT and PPT on psychological outcomes in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.
Randomized controlled trials evaluating CBT or PPT in CAD patients published until May 2018 were systematically analyzed. Primary outcomes were depression, stress, anxiety, anger, happiness, and vital satisfaction. Random effects meta-analyses using the inverse variance method were performed. Effects were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) or mean differences (MD) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs); risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool.
Nineteen trials were included (n = 1956); sixteen evaluated CBT (n = 1732), and three PPT (n = 224). Compared with control groups, depressive symptoms (13 trials; SMD −0.80; 95% CI −1.33 to −0.26), and anxiety (11 trials; SMD −1.26; 95% CI −2.11 to −0.41) improved after the PI, and depression (6 trials; SMD −2.08; 95% CI −3.22 to −0.94), anxiety (5 trials; SMD −1.33; 95% CI −2.38 to −0.29), and stress (3 trials; SMD −3.72; 95% CI −5.91 to −1.52) improved at the end of follow-up. Vital satisfaction was significantly increased at follow-up (MD 1.30, 0.27, 2.33). Non-significant effects on secondary outcomes were found. Subgroup analyses were consistent with overall analyses.
CBT and PPT improve several psychological outcomes in CAD patients. Depression and anxiety improved immediately after the intervention while stress and vital satisfaction improve in the mid-term. Future research should assess the individual role of CBT and PPT in CAD populations.
Clozapine is a neuroleptic commonly used in treatments resistant to schizophrenia. However, despite the benefits, clozapine might cause some serious side effects. Hence, it is of the utmost necessity to keep an exacting control of the patients.
To study some of the therapeutical approaches to the treatment of clozapine induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis.
Review of some articles in Mental Health Journals.
The treatment with clozapine, substratum of aminergic and muscarinic receptors, entails a 0.9% risk of causing agranulocytosis, and approximately a 2.7% risk of causing neutropenia. Both occur, over 80% of them, during the first 18 weeks of treatment. Thus, before starting it, it is necessary to draw some blood and analyze the complete blood count (CBC). Also, we must analyze CBCs weekly during the first 18 weeks. Other dyscrasias like leukopenia, leukocytosis, anaemia, eoshinophilia, thrombocythaemia or thrombocytopenia can also be observed. When agranulocytosis appears, it can be treated by discontinuing the clozapine treatment, but also using granulocyte-colony stimulating factor or lithium, both separated or combined with clozapine. Lithium produces reversible leukocytosis onceplasma levels of > 0.4 mmol/L are reached. Despite the simultaneous treatment with lithium, clozapine can trigger some neurological side effects, it seems that seizure risk remains invariable.
Some of the clozapine's side effects, like neutropenia or agranulocytosis, are potentially lethal. Their treatment consists of discontinuing clozapine or initiating granulocyte-colony stimulating factor or lithium. These are good options that can give rise to a later continued treatment with clozapine.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) takes place in patients in treatment with neuroleptics and it is potentially lethal, being important an early diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
To analyze from a clinical case the clinical and epidemiological features, and therapeutical approach to NMS.
Review of some articles in Mental Health journals and analysis of the following clinical case: 68-year-old woman with bipolar disorder, hospitalized in manic phase. Usual treatment: lithium, trazodone, quetiapine and asenapine. During the admission to hospital, the patient started presenting hyperthermia, sweating, electrolyte disturbances, limb rigidity, and elevation of CPK levels. The suspicion was NMS, so neuroleptics were stopped and fluids and dantrolene were initiated, with favorable evolution.
The discharge diagnosis was NMS. Neuroleptics were gradually reintroduced under vigilance. The patient is stable and has not had new complications. NMS is an uncommon (0.02% to 3% among patients taking neuroleptic agents), but life-threatening condition. Its symptoms are hyperthermia, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, limb rigidity, altered consciousness… The attendant infections, consume of lithium, dehydration, iron deficiency and sharp changes in neuroleptic treatment are predisposing factors. The withdrawal of neuroleptics is the key of the treatment. Benzodiazepines can improve the prognosis, and electroconvulsive therapy can be necessary if there is no response to previous measures.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a life-threatening medical complication we should try to avoid by a correct and careful use of neuroleptics. Additionally, it is important the early treatment, taking withdrawal of neuroleptics as the key starting point.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Eugenio Barba’s letter of farewell to several main responsibilities for the Nordisk Teaterlaboratorium in which the Odin Teatret was deeply rooted was not altogether unexpected, but came as a jolt, nevertheless. Eugenio has served for more than two decades as a contributing editor of NTQ, sending us such marvellous pieces as those to be
found in NTQ 86 (2006) and issue 102 (2010), which complement his prolific writing. The latter, crowned by The Five Continents of Theatre and written with long-term co-author Nicola Savarese (English edition, 2019), is another of the rich, multifarious activities that he initiated and steered through with his tireless ensemble of actors and other devoted collaborators to world renown. The unique and diverse achievements of this group are widely known and can be gleaned from Eugenio’s modest account below, but also from NTQ articles, which focus on specific aspects of his massive contribution. So we meet him in the journal’s pages in conversation on his early innovations with Maria Shevtsova (NTQ 90, 2007), Erik Exe Christoffersen’s discussion of the Eurasian Ur-Hamlet (94, 2008) and Shevtsova’s and contributing editor Ian Watson’s records of the fiftieth anniversary of the Festuge, which the Laboratorium creates with the communities of Holstebro (119, 2014; 122, 2015). Eugenio’s letter of love and solidarity for and with the theatre is by no means his last act, and we look forward to his continuing collaboration with NTQ.
While it has long been commonplace to advert to the Phenomenology of Spirit's peculiar prosaic form, there has been no sustained, thematic attempt to understand the relationship between that form—as a continuous, quasi-fictional narrative—and the work's philosophical content. I argue that some of what has been felt to be outlandish about the form may be better accounted for by reading it as connected to purposeful literary decisions, decisions in turn exhibiting philosophical claims about the new mode of modern self-understanding that the argument is concerned with advancing. Extending Allen Speight's suggestions that Hegel sees literature as closely connected to his theory of agency, I argue that the Phenomenology's narrative should be understood as itself specifically and deliberately novelesque. I focus on three points that help clarify the book's form as not simply in keeping with, but as expressing aspects of its content: (1) the narrative structure of consciousness (as a unified, unfolding activity through which Hegel explores the notion of actuality), (2) the theatricalizing counterpoint between the ‘in itself’ and ‘for itself’ (as a dramatic device that Hegel connects to the social underpinnings of consciousness), and (3) the role of confession and forgiveness in the argument (as a theme that Schlegel had singled out as essential to the novel, and that Hegel repurposes both to criticize and to overcome Romanticism). I do not say that the Phenomenology is itself a novel, but that construing some of its formal features and gestures as evoking the genre of the novel can help us to see more of what is philosophically at stake in them, and therefore in the work as a whole.
The Formative-period site of Altica in the Patlachique Range poses many methodological problems when designing an excavation strategy. Three millennia of erosion, twentieth-century chisel plowing, and modern reforestation efforts have destroyed or disturbed most surface architecture above the local tepetate bedrock. As such, in the early stages of the Altica Project, the primary concern was the detection and identification of subsurface features, especially deep pits as found at other Formative sites. Although Altica is located at the top of a low, flat ridge, strong localized rain frequently flooded the terraces of interest for days, making it impossible to detect subsurface features using the most common prospection techniques. Because of these practical and taphonomic limitations, we relied on magnetic gradient prospection. This technique had never been applied to an early village site in the Basin of Mexico. This paper presents the methods used, discusses various difficulties encountered during prospection, applies interprets the results of the magnetic gradient study using results from excavation and aerial multispectral remote sensing. We discuss how the method might be applied to similar Formative sites to remotely detect indicators of anthropogenic activity, including subsurface features.
Fichte’s Jena writings sought to combine the apparently conflicting requirements of settling philosophy on scientific grounds and of respecting its character as a self-determined vocation. In reconciling these tasks, he understood himself to be faced at once with the meta-philosophical one of motivating the questions he addressed, the pedagogical one of adequately communicating his position, and the polemical one of accounting for the incomprehension of his adversaries. I show how these layers constitute Fichte’s response to the larger problem of specifying the relation between the rote ‘letter’ of a philosophical doctrine and the intersubjective ‘spirit’ of its communicability.
Estudios geofísicos, técnicas de sensores remotos y realización de mapas topográficos con GPS diferencial y vehículos aéreos no tripulados (VANT) han proporcionado una mejor comprensión de la organización espacial de los conjuntos departamentales y barrios en Teotihuacán. Nuestras investigaciones demuestran que en contraste con el mapa producido por el Teotihuacan Mapping Project (TMP) (Millon et al. 1973), el distrito de Tlanjinga es más rectangular y está más formalmente organizado, mientras que los conjuntos individuales tienen formas más irregulares, como lo había mostrado la excavación de Tlajinga 33 (Widmer y Storey 1993). Esto difiere de los nítidos cuadrados y rectángulos interpretados por las reconstrucciones arquitectónicas del TMP. El estudio de las imágenes satelitales mostró manchas blanquecinas en el terreno que parecen corresponder con áreas elevadas del mismo y con la desintegración de los aplanados de cal, destruidos por el tiempo y el trabajo agrícola. También verificamos la continuación del trazo de la Calzada de los Muertos que cruza este distrito mediante la modificación del relieve ocasionada por la excavación realizada en la toba volcánica subyacente (tepetate).
Burnt lime has played a significant role in daily Maya life since at least as far back as 1100 b.c., and yet its ephemeral nature has limited archaeological studies of its production. The application of new surveying and remote sensing technologies in recent decades is now allowing for a more in-depth investigation of the burnt lime industries that existed in different subregions of the Maya area. This article provides an overview of the current understanding of pre-Hispanic Maya burnt lime production. It then presents an analysis of the factors influencing the development and identification of distinct subregional lime production industries, including: lime consumption requirements and inter-site spacing; natural environment; local social and economic trajectories; and the objectives and survey universes of archaeological investigations. In reporting the tremendous advances made over the past few decades, this paper encourages archaeologists to include a focus on identifying lime production features in their research agendas.