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This study investigated differences in the English referencing behaviors in the context of oral narrative retell between typically developing first- and second-grade Spanish–English emergent bilingual children in dual language immersion and English-only instructional contexts (N = 105). Children heard and retold Mercer Mayer wordless picture books, and analyses were conducted to examine how they used nominals and pronominals to maintain and switch reference to potential thematic protagonists in the story. Multivariate analysis of variance showed significant grade-level differences in the proportion of pronominals used to switch and maintain reference to BOY/S (boy and dog or frog), as well as to switch to BOY. In contrast, instructional context differences were significant only for reference to the DOG or FROG. The finding that second graders in both dual language immersion and English-only programs continued to demonstrate an overreliance on pronominal forms to switch reference in a second language suggests that differences in literacy and oral language development may extend beyond the grades that we investigated. It is therefore important to continue investigating the referencing behaviors of emergent bilingual children throughout the elementary years of schooling.
To evaluate diets in terms of nutritional characteristics and quality from the perspectives of health, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and possible associations with each other in a representative sample of students at a public university.
Cross-sectional. Dietary intake was evaluated with a validated FFQ, and diet quality was assessed through the Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) and MedDietScore (MDS). GHGE data were obtained from the literature. In addition, sex, socio-economic status (SES) and body fat (BF) status were analysed as covariates.
Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.
Totally, 26 165 healthy adults aged 18–28 years.
Student diets were characterised by low consumption of carbohydrates (38·72 % of total energy intake (TEI)) and a high intake of lipids (39·08 % of TEI). Over half of the participants had low dietary quality. The low-emitting diets were more likely to be consumed by subjects with low HEI-2010 scores (β: 0·039 kg eCO2/1000 kcal/d) and high MDS scores (β: −0·023 kg eCO2/1000 kcal/d), after controlling for sex, SES and BF status. Both the low-emitting and healthy diets were more likely to be consumed by women and by those with normal BF percentage.
UPV/EHU university students’ diets were characterised by moderate quality from a nutritional perspective and moderate variation in the size of carbon footprints. In this population, diets of the highest quality were not always those with the lowest diet-related GHGE; this relationship depended in part on the constructs and scoring criteria of diet quality indices used.
A Black middle class has emerged in many Latin American countries. Yet given the fluidity of Black identity, it is unclear if socioeconomic gains will result in the consolidation of a Black middle-class group identity with a sense of political responsibility or purpose. In this article, we use qualitative interviews with twenty-two Black professionals in Cali, Colombia, plus a small convenience survey, to explore the following research questions: Does the intersection of being Black and middle class cohere into a group identity? If so, does it translate into a Black political consciousness? And if not, what are the obstacles? We find that while respondents individually identify with a Black middle-class label, they do not experience it as a group that feels symbolic bonds of attachment or acts in a coordinated or mutually cognizant manner. It is a category without shape or coherence. It is amorphous. There are four primary explanations for Black middle class amorphism: the absence of shared or positive markers of collective Black identity; a lack of organizational infrastructure; taboos against organizing along racial lines in the workplace; and a strong individualist ethos towards protecting opportunities and enhancing personal status. We situate our findings within the field of Black politics to discuss what might be lost or gained by this amorphism.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: The implementation of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) as a diagnostic tool to understand the phenotypic/genotypic profiles of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD) in Puerto Rico (PR) will be translated in early disease diagnosis, avoidance of comorbidities, and increase survival in our population. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This study aims to evaluate the role of nNO levels in PCD diagnosis in the Puerto Rican population. Also, we aim to describe the clinical, genetic, and physiological characteristics of PCD in Puerto Ricans to develop a better understanding of the disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We plan to conduct a cross-sectional study on participants recruited from patients of the Pediatric Rare Lung and Asthma Institute in PR. We will compare nNO levels among genetically confirmed PCD patients, suspected PCD patients with variant of unknown significance (VUS) mutations, suspected PCD patients without genetic mutations, and age-matched healthy subjects. We plan to analyze clinical data and genetic variants to understand the natural history of the disease. The nNO measurements will be completed following previous published protocols. We will also assess the accuracy of the nNO measurements by repeating the measurements two weeks after the initial measurement. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that many of the VUS present in our population may represent potential new founder mutations not previously reported in the literature. Our expectation is to identify new atypical PCD phenotypes contemplating the heterogenous genetic Puerto Rican pool. We anticipate that nNO levels will help to screen, identify, and confirm diagnosis of patients with clinical PCD in PR. Our findings will be translated in avoidance of further comorbidities and mortality due to earlier disease PCD diagnosis and will expand our genetic understanding about PCD in PR and other diverse populations with heterogenous genetic admixture. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: We present a significant and novel research proposal that plan to impact the quality of life of patients living with PCD in PR. The implementation of state-of-the-art diagnostic tools like nNO measurement will positively impact and expand our current capabilities to diagnose rare lung diseases like PCD on the island.
Type of feeding during early life influences growth trajectory and metabolic risk at later ages. Modifications in infant formula composition have led to evaluate their effects on growth and energetic efficiency (EE) compared with breast-feeding. Main goal was to analyse type of feeding potential effects during first months of life, plus its EE, on growth patterns in healthy formula fed (standard infant formula (SF) vs. experimental infant formula enriched with bioactive nutrients (EF)) and breastfed (BF) infants participating in the COGNIS RCT (http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02094547) up to 18 months of age. Infants follow-up to 18 months of age (n 141) fed with a SF (n 48), EF(n 56), or BF (n 37), were assessed for growth parameters using WHO standards. Growth velocity (GV) and catch-up were calculated to identify growth patterns. EE of breast milk/infant formula was also estimated. Infants’ growth at 6 months showed higher length and lower head circumference gains in SF and EF infants than BF infants. Both weight-for-length and weight-for-age catch-up growth showed significant differences in formula fed groups compared with the BF. No significant differences in GV or catch-up were found at 6–12 and 12–18 months. Regarding EE, infant formula groups showed significantly lower weight and length gains/g of milk protein, and higher weight and length gains/g of milk lipids, than the BF infants. GV during first 6 months, which may be influenced by feeding, seems to be the main predictor of subsequent growth trajectory. Breast-feeding may have positive effects on growth programming due to its nutrients’ EE.
Previous research has shown that individuals suffering from depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) seem to have inhibitory control deficits compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have been conducted in Spanish-speaking countries. Thus, this study aims to analyze the performance on the Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) between groups of Colombian participants with clinical levels of depression and GAD symptoms and a nonclinical control group. According to previous research, we expected to find significant differences in inhibitory control among groups. An ex post facto design was implemented. The SCWT was administered to a total sample of 105 individuals (64.8% women, M = 22.94 years, SD = 4.62), including 27 depressed and 15 anxious participants according to their scores on the Personal Health Questionnaire–9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder–7, respectively. Bayesian t-tests showed that depressed participants showed the same processing speed but lower scores on inhibitory control than healthy controls, BF = 13.70, δ = 0.50, 95% CI [0.08, 0.94]. Conversely, anxious participants showed deficits in processing speed, SCWT-Word: BF = 16.19, δ = 0.68, 95% CI [0.15, 1.24]; SCWT-Color: BF = 5.98, δ = 0.50, 95% CI [–0.01, 1.04], but not in inhibitory control compared with the nonanxious counterparts. This study provides preliminary evidence concerning the inhibitory control deficits in Colombian depressed individuals and processing speed deficits in those experiencing clinical levels of GAD symptoms.
Ainslie advances our understanding of self-control by theoretically unifying multiple forms of willpower. But one crucial question remains unanswered: How do agents pick the right forms of willpower in each situation? I argue that willpower requires tactical skill, which detects willpower-demanding contexts, selects context-appropriate tactics, and monitors their implementation. Research on tactical skill will significantly advance our understanding of willpower.
Michael Bacharach has shown how framing is a powerful tool for reconceptualizing game theory. There are different ways of framing strategic interactions. One way is to frame them individualistically, in the “I”-frame. Agents reasoning in the “I”-frame pay attention only to their own pay-offs. They seek to identify best response strategies. Best response strategies produce the best outcome for the agent, whatever other players end up doing. When each player plays a best response strategy then we have a Nash equilibrium, which is a situation where nobody can benefit from changing strategy. Nash equilibrium is the solution concept for game theory considered within the “I”-frame.
So far we’ve been looking at frames and rational decision-making purely at the individual level. Agamemnon and Macbeth were grappling on their own account with issues of life and death. Our imaginary agent struggling with temptation was trying to control herself. Other people are involved, of course. Without Iphigenia, Duncan, and Lady Macbeth, Agamemnon and Macbeth would have been tackling very different problems, probably ones that we would not be talking about today. And although actually struggling with temptation can be a very private matter, there are often plenty of other people around ready to pass judgment and offer helpful (or unhelpful) advice. But still, all the decision-making we have been considering has been individual. We have not looked at any examples where multiple agents are making decisions simultaneously, with how things turn out for each agent depending not just on what they decide to do, but also on what other agents decide to do.
In Book XXVI of The Library of History, written in the second half of the first century BCE, the historian Diodorus Siculus relates some enduring anecdotes about Archimedes, the famous Greek mathematician and inventor. Prominent among these is the story of Archimedes supposedly having often said: “Give me a place to stand and I shall move the whole world.” This may be a complete invention, but the phrase has stuck. Descartes famously refers to his cogito ergo sum as an Archimedean point. For Descartes the Archimedean point was the lever that would allow him to move the world. More generally, an Archimedean point is a fixed perspective that provides intellectual leverage.
Many of the examples of framing that we’ve been looking at have been dramatic, both literally and metaphorically. It is hard to imagine anything much more dramatic than Agamemnon contemplating the sacrifice of his beloved daughter, or Macbeth grappling with remorse as he fights to retain his ill-won kingdom. It’s now time to come back down to earth. It’s time to put these ideas about quasi-cyclical preferences and ultra-intensionality to work, so that we can see how framing can be important in everyday decision-making of the sort that we all grapple with on a daily, or near-daily, basis.
My topic for this chapter is individual self-control. The problem here is really one of coordination. How do individuals coordinate their present, past, and future selves over time? How do they stick to their commitments and avoid falling into temptation? In the next chapter we will move from the individual to the group and look at how social groups can come together to collaborate and cooperate.
This is a book about frames and framing effects. So, let’s start with some examples, to get a preliminary feel for what is at stake here. I will present five framing effects, without much by way of discussion or analysis. In each of these cases, people come to view a single outcome in very different ways, depending on how it is framed.
The first three cases are experimentally induced in a lab. They display the framing effects cleverly and very clearly, even though they are not the most celebrated cases of experimental framing effects such as the celebrated Asian disease paradigm, which we’ll look at in more detail in Chapter 2.
We now have all the machinery we need to move out of the laboratory and into the world of investments and markets. It’s time to look at some key exhibits from studies of investor behavior in behavioral economics and behavioral finance. It turns out that the concepts introduced in Chapter 2 (framing effects, hedonic editing, and varying attitudes to risk depending on whether gains or losses are on the horizon) really help make sense of puzzling questions about how individuals make their investment decisions and how financial markets work.
As before, we will spend much of the time identifying and explaining patterns of choices and patterns of behavior. But running through the background is the recurrent theme that these patterns of choice are fundamentally irrational. The picture that emerges is one of powerful and persistent illusions driving investor and market behavior.