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Although covert warfare does not readily lend itself to scientific inquiry, new technologies are increasingly providing scholars with tools that enable such research. In this note, we examine the effects of drone strikes on patterns of communication in Yemen using big data and anomaly detection methods. The combination of these analytic tools allows us to not only quantify some of the effects of drone strikes, but also to compare them to other shocks. We find that on average drone strikes leave a footprint in their aftermath, spurring significant but localized spikes in communication. This suggests that drone strikes are not a purely surgical intervention, but rather have a disruptive impact on the local population.
The purpose is to define the range of feasible speeds for two walking motions for a particular planar biped robot, which differ in the definition of their finite-time double support phases. For each speed, these two walking motions are numerically obtained by using a parametric optimization algorithm, regarding a sthenic criterion. Results allow us to define the range of allowable speeds for each walking. One result is that the first gait is less consuming in energy for moderate to fast velocity with respect to the second one, while the second gait is more efficient for low walking velocity.
Barry Eidlin’s book, Labor and the Class Idea in the United States and Canada (Cambridge University Press, 2018) explains why unions are weaker in the United States than they are in Canada, but have not always been that way. Indeed, unionization rates were virtually identical for much of the twentieth century, then diverged in the 1960s. Against dominant accounts focused on long-standing differences in political cultures and institutions, Eidlin argues that the divergence resulted from different ruling party responses to working class upsurge in both countries during the Great Depression and World War II. In Canada, an initially more hostile state response ended up embedding “the class idea”—the idea of class as a salient, legitimate political category—more deeply in policies, policies, and practices than in the United States, where class interests were reduced to “special interests.” In this symposium, three noted labor scholars engage critically with the book. Cedric de Leon interrogates Eidlin’s account of the role of racial divisions in explaining divergence, noting “more persistence and convergence than there is rupture and divergence” between these two countries on this issue. Nelson Lichtenstein’s critique focuses on the exceptionally vociferous character of US employer hostility, which he argues that Eidlin downplays. And Judith Stepan-Norris notes the surprising lack of actual class actors in a book about class organization, while raising interpretive questions about the relation between labor and the Communist Party in both countries. Eidlin concludes the symposium with a response to the critics.
We investigated the effects of pathogens associated with subclinical intramammary infections on yield, composition and quality indicators of goat milk. By means of a longitudinal study, individual half udder milk samples (n = 132) were collected at different lactation periods and assessed for milk yield and physicochemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC), total bacteria count (TBC) and microbiological culture. Staphylococci species accounted for the great majority of the isolates (96.1%). Intramammary infections significantly reduced fat and total solids in goat milk and increased both SCC and TBC. However, these indicators were significantly higher in udder halves affected by S. aureus compared with other staphylococci species.
Studies of the causes of social unrest typically focus on structural factors or diffusion. This article demonstrates the importance of considering their interaction and reveals a complex interplay between the two. This interaction is examined in the context of the English Swing riots of 1830–1831, in which it is possible to observe the structural factors relevant to each specific incident; this is often impossible when analyzing more recent cases of unrest. The authors find that the riots were triggered by economic factors and that diffusion more than tripled the direct effect of changes in local factors. Economic factors and the presence of potential riot leaders made an area more susceptible to the incoming diffusion of riots. The ways in which structural factors and diffusion interact is relevant to both historical and recent instances of social unrest.
Field studies were conducted to evaluate linuron for POST control of Palmer amaranth in sweetpotato to minimize reliance on protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides. Treatments were arranged in a two by four factorial where the first factor consisted of two rates of linuron (420 and 700 g ai ha−1), and the second factor consisted of linuron applied alone or in combinations of linuron plus a nonionic surfactant (NIS) (0.5% v/v), linuron plus S-metolachlor (800 g ai ha−1), or linuron plus NIS plus S-metolachlor. In addition, S-metolachlor alone and nontreated weedy and weed-free checks were included for comparison. Treatments were applied to ‘Covington’ sweetpotato 8 d after transplanting (DAP). S-metolachlor alone provided poor Palmer amaranth control because emergence had occurred at applications. All treatments that included linuron resulted in at least 98 and 91% Palmer amaranth control 1 and 2 wk after treatment (WAT), respectively. Including NIS with linuron did not increase Palmer amaranth control compared to linuron alone, but increased sweetpotato injury and subsequently decreased total sweetpotato yield by 25%. Including S-metolachlor with linuron resulted in the greatest Palmer amaranth control 4 WAT, but increased crop foliar injury to 36% 1 WAT compared to 17% foliar injury from linuron alone. Marketable and total sweetpotato yield was similar between linuron alone and linuron plus S-metolachlor or S-metolachlor plus NIS treatments, though all treatments resulted in at least 39% less total yield than the weed-free check resulting from herbicide injury and/or Palmer amaranth competition. Because of the excellent POST Palmer amaranth control from linuron 1 WAT, a system including linuron applied 7 DAP followed by S-metolachlor applied 14 DAP could help to extend residual Palmer amaranth control further into the critical period of weed control while minimizing sweetpotato injury.
High-quality habitats presumably have the resources required to sustain relatively high rates of survival and reproduction. We assessed how habitat type and local environmental conditions determine the distribution of individuals of Canthon cyanellus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), an eurytopic dung beetle, according to age category and sexual gonadic maturity. Beetles were surveyed in forest fragments, live fences, and pastures in Mexico. Individuals were categorised into six age categories according to the glandular volumes in males and oocyte number and length in females. Mature females in forest fragments were the most abundant females found among the habitats. Air humidity and soil hardness were positively and negatively related to mature female abundance, respectively. Mature beetles were the most abundant among males, and higher abundance of males occurred in forest fragments than in live fences and pastures. Light quantity was negatively related to the abundance of young males. Compared to forest fragments, females in pastures had larger oocytes. However, sites with higher soil hardness and air humidity had females with lower numbers of oocytes. Our results demonstrate that, although C. cyanellus occurs across a wide range of habitats, forest habitats might host sexually mature individuals, which translates into more effective individual dispersion and potential reproduction.
To assess the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) in adult medical–surgical intensive care units (MS-ICUs) in Latin America.
Quasi-experimental prospective with continuous time series.
The study included 77 MS-ICUs in 9 Latin American countries.
Adult patients admitted to an MS-ICU for at least 24 hours were included in the study.
This multicenter study was conducted over 12 months. To evaluate the ASPs, representatives from all MS-ICUs performed a self-assessment survey (0–100 scale) at the beginning and end of the study. The impact of each ASP was evaluated monthly using the following measures: antimicrobial consumption, appropriateness of antimicrobial treatments, crude mortality, and multidrug-resistant microorganisms in healthcare-associated infections (MDRO-HAIs). Using final stewardship program quality self-assessment scores, MS-ICUs were stratified and compared among 3 groups: ≤25th percentile, >25th to <75th percentile, and ≥75th percentile.
In total, 77 MS-ICU from 9 Latin American countries completed the study. Twenty MS-ICUs reached at least the 75th percentile at the end of the study in comparison with the same number who remain within the 25th percentile (score, 76.1 ± 7.5 vs 28.0 ± 7.3; P < .0001). Several indicators performed better in the MS-ICUs in the 75th versus 25th percentiles: antimicrobial consumption (143.4 vs 159.4 DDD per 100 patient days; P < .0001), adherence to clinical guidelines (92.5% vs 59.3%; P < .0001), validation of prescription by pharmacist (72.0% vs 58.0%; P < .0001), crude mortality (15.9% vs 17.7%; P < .0001), and MDRO-HAIs (9.45 vs 10.96 cases per 1,000 patient days; P = .004).
MS-ICUs with more comprehensive ASPs showed significant improvement in antimicrobial utilization.
To test the feasibility of implementing and evaluating a healthier checkout pilot study in a convenience store chain.
A quasi-experimental study was conducted comparing a 3-month ‘healthier checkouts’ intervention in ten convenience stores which stocked eight healthier items in the checkout space and ten comparison stores assigned to continue stocking their current checkout space product mix. All aspects of the intervention were implemented by the retailer. The research team conducted in-person fidelity checks to assess implementation. Sales data were collected from the retailer in order to compare mean baseline to intervention sales of the eight healthier items in intervention and comparison groups while controlling for overall store sales.
Convenience store chain.
Twenty convenience stores in New Hampshire.
The increases in sales of healthier items between the baseline and intervention periods among the intervention and comparison stores were not statistically significant; however, the overall pattern of the results showed promising changes that should be expanded on in future studies. Intervention fidelity checks indicated that results may have been attenuated by variability in intervention implementation.
This study advances the evidence for effective promotion of healthier food purchases in the convenience store chain setting and adds to the current literature on retail checkout space interventions. Additional research is needed to confirm and expand these results.
Ethiopian mustard (Brassica carinata A. Braun) is a biofuel crop recently introduced in the southeastern United States. For this crop to be successful, integrated weed management strategies that complement its rotation with summer cash crops must be developed. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of previous season summer crops on winter weed emergence patterns during Ethiopian mustard growing season and to assess the impact of planting Ethiopian mustard on the emergence patterns of summer weed species. Gompertz models were fit to winter and summer weed emergence patterns. All models represented more than 80% of the variation, with root mean-square error values less than 0.20. The emergence pattern for winter weed species was best described using growing degree-day accumulation, and this model can be utilized for implementing weed control strategies at the critical Ethiopian mustard growth stages. The results also showed that summer weeds can emerge during the winter in northern Florida but do not survive frost damage, which might create off-season seedbank reductions before the summer crop growing season.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are prevalent in older people living with HIV (PLWH) worldwide. HAND prevalence and incidence studies of the newly emergent population of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated older PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa are currently lacking. We aimed to estimate HAND prevalence and incidence using robust measures in stable, cART-treated older adults under long-term follow-up in Tanzania and report cognitive comorbidities.
A systematic sample of consenting HIV-positive adults aged ≥50 years attending routine clinical care at an HIV Care and Treatment Centre during March–May 2016 and followed up March–May 2017.
HAND by consensus panel Frascati criteria based on detailed locally normed low-literacy neuropsychological battery, structured neuropsychiatric clinical assessment, and collateral history. Demographic and etiological factors by self-report and clinical records.
In this cohort (n = 253, 72.3% female, median age 57), HAND prevalence was 47.0% (95% CI 40.9–53.2, n = 119) despite well-managed HIV disease (Mn CD4 516 (98-1719), 95.5% on cART). Of these, 64 (25.3%) were asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, 46 (18.2%) mild neurocognitive disorder, and 9 (3.6%) HIV-associated dementia. One-year incidence was high (37.2%, 95% CI 25.9 to 51.8), but some reversibility (17.6%, 95% CI 10.0–28.6 n = 16) was observed.
HAND appear highly prevalent in older PLWH in this setting, where demographic profile differs markedly to high-income cohorts, and comorbidities are frequent. Incidence and reversibility also appear high. Future studies should focus on etiologies and potentially reversible factors in this setting.
With the rise of data journalism, ideas around what can be considered a journalistic source are changing. Sources come in many forms now: Public data sets, leaked troves of emails, scanned documents, satellite imagery and sensor data. In tandem with this, new methods for finding stories in these sources are emerging. Machine learning, text analysis and some of the other techniques explored elsewhere in this book are increasingly being deployed in the service of the scoop.
But data, despite its aura of hard objective truth, can be distorted and misrepresented. There are many ways in which data journalists can introduce error into their interpretation of a data set and publish a misleading story. There could be issues at the point of data collection which prevent general inferences being made to a broader population. This could, for instance, be a result of a self-selection bias in the way a sample was chosen, something that has become a common problem in the age of Internet polls and surveys. Errors can also be introduced at the data-processing stage. Data processing or cleaning can involve geocoding, correcting misspelled names, harmonizing categories or excluding certain data points altogether if, for instance, they are considered statistical outliers. A good example of this kind of error at work is the inaccurate geocoding of IP addresses in a widely reported study that purported to show a correlation between political persuasion and consumption of porn (Harris, 2014). Then, of course, we have the meat of the data journalist's work, analysis. Any number of statistical fallacies may affect this portion of the work, such as mistaking correlation with causation or choosing an inappropriate statistic to summarize the data set in question.
Given the ways in which collection, treatment and analysis of data can change a narrative—how does the data journalist reassure the reader that the sources they have used are reliable and that the work done to derive their conclusions is sound?
The relevance of the episodic memory in the prediction of brain aging is well known. The Face Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME) is a valued associative memory measure related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarkers, such as amyloid-β deposition preclinical AD individuals. Previous validation of the Spanish version of the FNAME test (S-FNAME) provided normative data and psychometric characteristics. The study was limited to subjects attending a memory clinic and included a reduced sample with gender inequality distribution. The purpose of this study was to assess S-FNAME psychometric properties and provide normative data in a larger independent sample of cognitively healthy individuals.
S-FNAME was administered to 511 cognitively healthy volunteers (242 women, aged 41–65 years) participating in the Barcelona Brain Health Initiative cohort study.
Factor analysis supported construct validity revealing two underlying components: face-name and face-occupation and explaining 95.34% of the total variance, with satisfactory goodness of fit. Correlations between S-FNAME and Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test were statistically significant and confirmed its convergent validity. We also found weak correlations with non-memory tests supporting divergent validity. Women showed better scores, and S-FNAME was positively correlated with education and negatively with age. Finally, we generated normative data.
The S-FNAME test exhibits good psychometric properties, consistent with previous findings, resulting in a valid and reliable tool to assess episodic memory in cognitively healthy middle-aged adults. It is a promising test for the early detection of subtle memory dysfunction associated with abnormal brain aging.
Field studies were conducted in 2019 and 2020 to compare the effects of shade cloth light interception and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) competition on ‘Covington’ sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. Treatments consisted of a seven by two factorial arrangement, in which the first factor included shade cloth with an average measured light interception of 41%, 59%, 76%, and 94% and A. palmeri thinned to 0.6 or 3.1 plants m−2 or a nontreated weed-free check; and the second factor included shade cloth or A. palmeri removal timing at 6 or 10 wk after planting (WAP). Amaranthus palmeri light interception peaked around 710 to 840 growing degree days (base 10 C) (6 to 7 WAP) with a maximum light interception of 67% and 84% for the 0.6 and 3.1 plants m−2 densities, respectively. Increasing shade cloth light interception by 1% linearly increased yield loss by 1% for No. 1, jumbo, and total yield. Yield loss increased by 36%, 23%, and 35% as shade cloth removal was delayed from 6 to 10 WAP for No. 1, jumbo, and total yield, respectively. F-tests comparing reduced versus full models of yield loss provided no evidence that the presence of yield loss from A. palmeri light interception caused yield loss different than that explained by the shade cloth at similar light-interception levels. Results indicate that shade cloth structures could be used to simulate Covington sweetpotato yield loss from A. palmeri competition, and light interception could be used as a predictor for expected yield loss from A. palmeri competition.
Ms. L is having a regular ongoing follow-up with a psychiatrist in private practice for a history of bipolar disorder (BP). She reported a first major depressive episode at the age of 17 as well as one manic episode several years later. She had a last depressive episode 10 years ago and is currently stabilized under antipsychotic medication. Before being prescribed antipsychotics, she was under sodium valproate medication. She also reported a suicide attempt at the age of 11. In addition to her BP, she reported a dysthyroidia treated with L-thyroxine.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) not fulfilling the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case definition underwent severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) screening. Risk of exposure, adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE), and symptoms were assessed. In total, 2,000 HCWs were screened: 5.5% were positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There were no differences in PPE use between SARS-CoV-2–positive and –negative HCWs (adherence, >90%). Nursing and kitchen staff were independently associated with positive SARS-CoV-2 results.
Globally, organizations are becoming increasingly more diverse. In Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD) contexts, this is often the consequence of globalization and increased migration. For plural, non-WEIRD contexts such as South Africa, this is different. In South African organizations, diversity is a consequence of labor legislation that advances “Brown” (i.e., Black African, Coloured [mixed race], and Indian) people, who were disadvantaged during apartheid, in the employment market. This chapter presents the Dual Process Model of Diversity (DPMD) as a means for understanding pathways towards positive diversity management. The DPMD combines an acculturation framework (Berry, 1997) with a dual-process model of occupational health (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007) and makes a distinction between positive (enhancing) and negative (encumbering) factors influencing the pathways (cf. Ely & Thomas, 2001). We argue that organizations should consider their institutional role (e.g., organizational norms, culture, policies, and practices) to promote the integration of employees.