To save this undefined to your undefined account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your undefined account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Bispyribac is registered for postemergence control of broadleaf, sedge, and grass weeds in rice. Bispyribac inhibits the acetolactate synthase enzyme in sensitive plants. Herbicides in this class of chemistry require a spray adjuvant to achieve optimal efficacy, often achieve different levels of weed control according to the spray adjuvant used, and typically have rainfast periods of at least 6 to 8 h. Efficacy and rainfastness of bispyribac can be affected by spray adjuvant and the addition of urea ammonium nitrate (UAN). Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of spray adjuvant type, addition of UAN, and soil moisture on bispyribac efficacy on barnyardgrass. Control of barnyardgrass was improved when UAN was added to bispyribac at 0.4 or 0.8 g ha−1 plus an organosilicone-based nonionic surfactant (OSL/NIS) or methylated seed oil/organosilicone (MSO/OSL) spray adjuvant. The type of adjuvant added to the spray solution affected bispyribac efficacy on barnyardgrass. The addition of UAN decreased the rainfast period from 8 h (registered rainfast period) to 1 or 4 h (99 to 100% control) when either the OSL/NIS or MSO/OSL adjuvant was applied with bispyribac, respectively. Applying UAN and OSL/NIS or MSO/OSL adjuvant with bispyribac enhanced efficacy and reduced the time period required between bispyribac application and washoff during a rainfall event. Increasing soil moisture conditions resulted in greater efficacy from bispyribac when applied with and without UAN.
Inconsistent control of barnyardgrass with bispyribac may be alleviated through adjuvant technology. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of adjuvant and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) on absorption and translocation of bispyribac in barnyardgrass. Additional experiments were conducted to determine when maximum absorption and translocation occurred with the use of a methylated seed oil/organosilicone adjuvant (MSO/OSL) plus UAN (0.37 L ha−1 and 2% v/v). In the initial experiment, 14C-bispyribac–treated leaves, nontreated leaves, and roots were collected 6 and 24 h after application. Absorption was greatest with tank-mixed MSO/OSL (0.37 L ha−1) plus UAN (2% v/v) and the proprietary blend of MSO/OSL/UAN (2% v/v) at 80 and 74% of applied 14C-bispyribac, respectively. Translocation to nontreated leaves and roots was also highest with these treatments. Increased translocation appeared to be due to greater herbicide absorption, not an increase in translocation rate. The addition of 32% UAN to MSO/OSL and nonionic organosilicone (OSL/NIS) adjuvant systems resulted in a four to fivefold increase in absorption compared with treatments without UAN. Recovery of 14C-bispyribac in additional experiments generally decreased as time after application increased; however, recovery was 86% or greater for all time intervals. By 12 h after application, 68% of applied 14C-bispyribac was absorbed. At this time, 14C-bispyribac was partitioned within the plant in the following manner: 48% in the treated area, 10% in leaf tissue from treated area to tip of the treated leaf, 1.9% in leaf tissue from treated area to collar region of the treated leaf, 1.6% in remaining leaves from collar of treated leaf upward, 5.3% in remaining leaves from collar of treated leaf downward to soil line, and 0.7% in the roots. These data indicate that maximum absorption was achieved within 12 h with a tank mix of MSO/OSL and UAN or the MSO/OSL/UAN blend.
Hydrilla is one of the most serious aquatic weed problems in the United States, and fluridone is the only U.S. Environment Protection Agency (USEPA)–approved herbicide that provides relatively long-term systemic control. Recently, hydrilla biotypes with varying levels of fluridone resistance have been documented in Florida. One susceptible and five fluridone-resistant biotypes of hydrilla varying in resistance levels were maintained in 950-L tanks under ambient sunlight and day-length conditions from September 2004 to September 2005 in absence of fluridone. Because fluridone is an inhibitor of the enzyme phytoene desaturase (PDS), the gene for PDS (pds) was cloned from fluridone-susceptible and -resistant hydrilla biotypes. Somatic mutations in amino acid 304 of hydrilla PDS are known to confer herbicide resistance. We determined pds sequence from these hydrilla biotypes at planting and 12-mo after planting. Two independent mutations at the arginine 304 codon of pds were found in the resistant hydrilla plants. The codon usage for arginine 304 is CGT, and a single point mutation yielding either serine (AGT) or histidine (CAT) was identified in different resistant hydrilla biotypes. There were no differences at codon 304 in the PDS protein of any hydrilla biotype 12-mo after planting. Several other mutations were also found in resistant pds alleles, though their possible role in herbicide resistance is unclear.
In a survey of herbicide responses among Illinois waterhemp half-sib populations, several were observed with differential responses to imazethapyr and thifensulfuron, two acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides. Plants from two waterhemp populations were verified resistant to imazethapyr, but susceptible to chlorimuron, using a nondestructive leaf-disc assay. Sequencing of the ALS gene revealed that imazethapyr-resistant waterhemp plants from both populations had inferred amino acid substitutions at position 653 of ALS. Depending on the population, the serine at position 653 of ALS was substituted with either asparagine (S653N) or threonine (S653T). Waterhemp lines were derived from each population to create uniformly imidazolinone-resistant (IR) waterhemp biotypes, designated IR-62 and IR-101. ALS-inhibitor responses of each IR biotype were compared with a previously identified ALS inhibitor–resistant biotype with a tryptophan to leucine substitution at position 574 (W574L) and an herbicide-susceptible control. Whole-plant dose–response experiments with waterhemp biotypes containing W574L, S653N, or S653T mutations indicated that each biotype was resistant to imazethapyr, but only the biotype with a W574L mutation was resistant to thifensulfuron. In vitro ALS-activity assays revealed unique patterns of cross-resistance among protein extracts derived from each biotype in response to imazethapyr, thifensulfuron, cloransulam, and pyrithiobac. In conclusion, three different forms of target-site–based resistance to ALS inhibitors have been identified in waterhemp.
Studies were conducted to determine if altered absorption, translocation, or metabolism were the basis for the reduction in sulfonylurea herbicide efficacy on foxtail species when mesotrione was mixed with a sulfonylurea herbicide. Green foxtail and yellow foxtail plants were grown in the greenhouse and treated at the four-leaf stage with 14C-labeled nicosulfuron or rimsulfuron, applied alone or with mesotrione or mesotrione + atrazine. Absorption of nicosulfuron was greater in green foxtail and yellow foxtail 7 d after treatment (DAT) when applied alone, compared with absorption when mixing the herbicide with mesotrione or mesotrione + atrazine. When nicosulfuron was applied alone, 9% more of the nicosulfuron in green foxtail was translocated at 7 DAT, as compared with when nicosulfuron was applied in combination with mesotrione or mesotrione + atrazine. Translocation of nicosulfuron in yellow foxtail, however, was similar when nicosulfuron was applied alone or in combination with mesotrione or mesotrione + atrazine. The addition of mixing rimsulfuron with mesotrione did not reduce the absorption of rimsulfuron in green foxtail 7 DAT, but the addition of mesotrione + atrazine resulted in a 20% decrease in rimsulfuron absorption 7 DAT compared with absorption of rimsulfuron applied alone. Yellow foxtail absorption of rimsulfuron at 7 DAT was decreased by 11 or 20% when mixed with mesotrione or mesotrione + atrazine, respectively. Application of rimsulfuron alone resulted in 6% more herbicide being translocated to the treated tiller in green foxtail at 7 DAT, compared with an application of mesotrione + atrazine and rimsulfuron. Translocation of rimsulfuron in yellow foxtail was similar when applied alone or in combination with mesotrione or mesotrione + atrazine. Nicosulfuron and rimsulfuron metabolism in foxtail species was similar when applied alone or in combination with mesotrione or mesotrione + atrazine.
Glyphosate behavior was examined in Italian ryegrass plants from Chile that were sensitive (S) and resistant (R) to this herbicide. In order to explain the resistance to glyphosate, contact angles, spray retention, foliar uptake, herbicide translocation, and target enzyme activity were studied. Contact angles of glyphosate solutions at a field concentration were 40° to 45° on the abaxial surface of R leaves as compared to 70° on S. Glyphosate spray retention by R plants was 35% lower than by S plants. Glyphosate uptake by the abaxial leaf surface of R plants was about 40% lower than that of S plants. In addition, in the R plants more glyphosate migrated to the tip of the treated leaves. The target enzyme in R and S plants was sensitive to the herbicide. Based on these and previous results, it is concluded that resistance in this Italian ryegrass biotype results from lower spray retention, lower foliar uptake from the abaxial leaf surface, and altered translocation pattern. The decreases in spray retention and foliar uptake constitute new mechanisms of glyphosate resistance.
Hydrilla is one of the most serious aquatic weed problems in the United States, and fluridone is the only U.S. Environment Protection Agency (USEPA)–approved herbicide that provides relatively long-term systemic control. Recently, hydrilla biotypes with varying levels of fluridone resistance have been documented in Florida. Several biotypes of hydrilla varying in resistance levels were maintained in 950-L tanks under ambient sunlight and day-length conditions from September 2004 to September 2005 in absence of fluridone. Phenotypic measurements were performed during this 1-yr period to monitor differences in growth and reproductive physiology. All fluridone-resistant biotypes (except R3) were growing at the same rate or greater than the susceptible hydrilla. These data suggested that there are no deleterious effects on growth and reproductive physiology because of development of fluridone resistance. Aggressive spread of fluridone-resistant dioecious hydrilla in aquatic ecosystems can severely affect hydrilla management and, consequently, cause substantial and long-lasting ecological and economic problems throughout the southern United States.
Barnyardgrass, common lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, and wild mustard are among the most common weeds in cropping systems throughout North America. Crop and weed competition models that predict phenological development across environments are useful research tools for advancing our knowledge of population dynamics or crop and weed competition. Phenological parameter estimates for such models require verification under field conditions. Field studies were conducted in 1999 and 2000 to determine growth and phenological development of these species under noncropped conditions to compare parameters developed previously from controlled environment studies. Weeds were planted on three separate planting dates in each year. Growth and phenological development were recorded. Number of leaves on the mainstem of all weed species, except common lambsquarters, was not affected by planting dates. Rate of leaf appearance described as a function of days after emergence ranged from 0.48 to 0.89, 0.10 to 0.31, 0.33 to 0.65, and 0.24 to 0.29 leaves d−1 for common lambsquarters, barnyardgrass, redroot pigweed, and wild mustard, respectively. When expressed as a function of growing degree days (GDD), rate of leaf appearance for these species ranged from 0.04 to 0.05, 0.01 to 0.02, 0.04 to 0.07, and 0.02 to 0.03 leaves GDD−1, respectively. Planting date had differential effects on the rate of stem elongation and final plant height of each species in the 2 yr. Final plant biomass was also influenced by the time of planting; in general, weeds planted by mid-May had more biomass than those planted later. Parameters developed to describe phenological development under field conditions were comparable to those reported previously from controlled environment studies. We conclude that phenological parameters quantified under controlled environmental studies were comparable to those developed under field conditions for these weed species. Thus, either experimental method can be used to parameterize weed phenological development to initialize crop and weed competition models with reasonable confidence.
We evaluated the use of ornamental plants as phenological indicators for predicting giant foxtail emergence and compared their performance with predictions based upon Julian day, cumulative growing degree–days (GDD), and the WeedCast program. From 1997 to 2001, we monitored giant foxtail emergence in a field experiment with and without fall and spring tillage to estimate the dates of 25, 50, and 80% emergence; we also recorded dates of first and full bloom of 23 ornamental plant species. Dates of weed emergence and ornamental blooming for 1997 to 2000 were compiled in a phenological calendar consisting of 54 phenological events for each year, and events were ordered by average (1997 to 2000) cumulative GDD (January 1 start date, 10 C base temperature). Bloom events occurring just before the giant foxtail emergence events were chosen as the phenological indicators for 2001. The Julian day method used the average (1997 to 2000) dates of foxtail emergence to predict 2001 emergence. The GDD model (October 1 start date, 0 C base temperature) was chosen by determining the combination of start date and base temperature that provided the lowest coefficient of variation for the 1997 to 2000 data. The WeedCast prediction was generated using local soil and environmental data from 2001. The rank order of the 54 phenological events in 2001 showed little deviation from the 4-yr (1997 to 2000) average rank order (R2 = 0.96). The phenological calendar indicated that, on average, 25% of giant foxtail seedlings had emerged when red chokeberry was in first bloom, and 80% of seedlings had emerged around the time multiflora rose was in full bloom. We compared the phenological calendar predictions for 25, 50, and 80% emergence with those based on Julian day, cumulative GDD, and WeedCast. The average deviation in predictions ranged from 4.4 d for the phenological calendar to 11.4 d for GDD. In addition to being generally more accurate, the phenological calendar approach also offers the advantage of providing information on the order of phenological events, thus helping to anticipate the progress of emergence and to plan and implement management strategies.
There is much discussion as to why a plant becomes invasive in a new location but is not problematic in its native range. One example is yellow starthistle, which originates in Eurasia and is considered a noxious weed in the United States. We grew yellow starthistle originating from native and introduced regions in a common environment to test whether differences in growth would be observed. In growth chamber studies, seedlings originating from the invasive range were larger than seedlings from the native range after 2 wk. Seed starch content is an important component of initial seedling growth. The starch content of seeds from introduced populations was higher than that of seeds from native populations. Regression analysis showed a relationship between the amount of starch in the seeds and the weight of yellow starthistle seedlings after 2 wk growth. There was no difference in chromosome number, except in accessions originating from Sicily and Sardinia. Field studies conducted in France and Russia revealed that rosettes and mature plants grown under natural conditions were larger when grown from seeds originating from the invasive range than from seeds originating from the native range. The number of capitula per plant and stem diameters were not significant among all populations, but differences were noted. The F1 progeny of plants originating from U.S. seed, but grown and pollinated in France, showed no differences in seedling growth, mature plant characteristics, and seed starch content from the plants grown from field-collected U.S. seed. The changes in seed starch resource allocation and its relation to plant growth is useful in understanding factors that contribute to yellow starthistle's invasibility.
Field experiments were conducted in Pendleton, SC, in 2004 and 2005, to determine the influence of tillage with or without soybean on common cocklebur emergence. Treatments included no-till/no soybean (NTNS), no-till plus soybean (NTS), tillage/no soybean (TNS), and tillage plus soybean (TS). Emergence was monitored from an artificial seed bank in 2004 and a natural seed bank in 2005. Overall, common cocklebur emerged from early May through late October and presented multiple emergence. In no-till plots with or without soybean, initial emergence was delayed 7 d in both years. In TNS plots, major emergence (daily emergence > mean emergence plus standard deviation) of common cocklebur occurred from early May to late July. In NTNS plots, major emergence occurred from late May through late August. No-till reduced total common cocklebur emergence by 59 to 69% compared with tillage. At the V5 to V6 soybean growth stage, the daily soil thermal fluctuation at 2.5 cm soil depth diminished from approximately 15 to 5 C and reduced common cocklebur emergence by 84 to 91% for the rest of the growing season. Common cocklebur emergence was higher when the mean soil temperature was > 15 C, and the daily thermal fluctuation was > 7.5 C. This study suggests that strategies that promote early crop canopy development and minimum tillage should reduce common cocklebur emergence.
Germination response of perennial wall rocket to temperature, light, osmotic potential, and depth of burial emergence was evaluated under controlled environmental conditions. The effect of seed burial depth on seedling recruitment in the field was also investigated at Roseworthy, South Australia. Under optimal conditions (30 C, light/dark) germination of perennial wall rocket was rapid, with 90% of seeds germinating within 48 h of imbibition. Germination was reduced (20%) at lower, suboptimal temperatures (10 to 20 C) when seeds of perennial wall rocket were exposed to light. Germination declined with increasing osmotic potential and was completely inhibited at osmotic potentials of −1.5 MPa. Perennial wall rocket emergence was greatest from seeds placed on the soil surface, but some seedlings (< 10%) emerged from a depth of 0.5 to 2 cm. Under both field and growth-cabinet conditions, the greatest seedling emergence of perennial wall rocket occurred from seed present on the soil surface; however, the level of absolute recruitment from the seed bank was much lower (< 5%). Information gained from this study will further improve our understanding of the germination behavior of perennial wall rocket and contribute to developing sustainable strategies for its control.
The effect of mowing regime on lateral spread and rhizome growth of dallisgrass and bahiagrass was determined in field studies conducted in 2003 and 2004 in North Carolina over 5 mo. Treatments were selected to simulate mowing regimes common to intensively managed common bermudagrass turfgrass and include 1.3-, 5.2-, and 7.6-cm heights at frequencies of three, two, and two times per week, respectively. A nonmowed check was included for comparison. Lateral spread of dallisgrass was reduced 38 to 47% regardless of mowing regime when compared with the nonmowed check. Rhizome fresh weight of dallisgrass was reduced 49% in 2003 and 30% in 2004 when mowed at the 7.6-cm regime after 5 mo, whereas the 5.2-cm mowing regime caused a reduction of 31%. Rhizome fresh weight of dallisgrass was most negatively affected by the 1.3-cm regime, which caused reductions of 57% in 2003 and 37% in 2004. Lateral spread of bahiagrass was more strongly affected by mowing height and frequency than dallisgrass, with reductions of 21 to 27%, 40%, and 44 to 62% when mowed at 7.6, 5.2, and 1.3-cm regimes, respectively. Rhizome fresh weight of bahiagrass was reduced 24 to 33%, 55%, and 70 to 73% when mowed at 7.6, 5.2, and 1.3 cm, respectively. Based upon these results, areas mowed at a golf course rough height (≥ 5.2 cm) may be more conducive to bahiagrass spread, whereas dallisgrass may tolerate areas mowed at a fairway height (1.3 cm). Mowing at the shorter heights examined in this study clearly reduced the potential of Paspalum spp. vegetative spread and may help to explain observed distributions of Paspalum spp. infestations in bermudagrass turfgrass.
Injury to weeds from sublethal doses of POST herbicides may reduce the effect of weed interference on crop yield. Information on how herbicide dose influences weed mortality, growth, and seed production is needed to assess the potential benefit of applying reduced herbicide doses. Field experiments were conducted at Mead, NE, in 2001 and 2002 to quantify velvetleaf mortality, growth, and corn–velvetleaf interference in response to varying doses of three POST herbicides. Untreated velvetleaf at six densities (0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 20 plants m−1 corn row) was grown in mixture with corn to establish a baseline corn–velvetleaf interference relationship. Treated velvetleaf at a density of 20 plants m−1 row received one of five doses of dicamba, halosulfuron, or flumiclorac. Untreated velvetleaf height, biomass, and seed capsule production were greater in 2002 than 2001 and declined with increasing velvetleaf density in both years. Corn yield was not affected by untreated velvetleaf in 2001, but yield loss increased with increasing velvetleaf density in 2002. Mortality of herbicide-treated velvetleaf was 56% greater in 2001 than 2002 and increased with increasing herbicide dose. Maximum height of treated velvetleaf was similar for all treatments in 2001 but declined with increasing herbicide dose in 2002. Biomass and seed production of treated velvetleaf varied among herbicides in 2002 and decreased with increasing dose. Corn yield was not influenced by velvetleaf in 2001, but yield loss in response to herbicide-treated velvetleaf declined with increasing herbicide dose in 2002. Results show that the assumption that weeds surviving herbicide application are as competitive as untreated weeds is incorrect. Reduction in growth and resource consumption by herbicide-damaged weeds reduced the negative effects of weeds on corn.
Biological control of parthenium, a major weed in grazing areas in Australia, was initiated in the mid 1970s. Since then, nine species of insects and two rust fungi have been introduced. Evaluation using pesticide exclusion at two sites (Mt. Panorama and Plain Creek) in Queensland, Australia, revealed that classical biological control had a significant negative effect on the target weed, but the impact varied between years. In this study, I quantified the effects of biological control of parthenium on grass production. Grass production declined with the increase in parthenium biomass. Significant increase in grass production due to biological control was observed, but only in 1 of 4 yr at Mt. Panorama and 2 of 4 yr at Plain Creek. At Mt. Panorama, there was a 40% increase in grass biomass in 1997 because of defoliation by Zygogramma bicolorata and galling by Epiblema strenuana. At Plain Creek, grass biomass increased by 52% in 1998 because of E. strenuana and by 45% in 2000 because of combined effects of E. strenuana and the summer rust Puccinia melampodii. This study provides evidence on the beneficial effects of biological control of parthenium in areas under limited grazing.
Bioeconomic models are predicated upon the relationship between weed fecundity and crop yield loss in consecutive growing seasons, yet this phenomenon has received few empirical tests. Residual effects of wild proso millet (WPM) fecundity in sweet corn upon WPM seedling recruitment, weed management efficacy, and crop yield within a subsequent snap bean crop were investigated with field experiments in Urbana, IL, in 2005 and 2006. WPM fecundity in sweet corn showed strong positive associations with WPM seedbank density, seedling recruitment, and demographic transitions within snap bean. A negative exponential relationship between WPM initial seedling density and seedling survival of a single rotary hoe pass indicated that the rotary hoe was ineffective at low weed population densities, but its efficacy increased with increasing weed population density to a maximum of 75% seedling mortality. Efficacy of postemergent chemical control of WPM was unaffected by WPM population density. Path analysis models demonstrated dependence between WPM fecundity in sweet corn, WPM seedling recruitment in snap bean, and reductions in snap bean yield in subsequent growing season, mediated by negative impacts of WPM seedling establishment on snap bean stand. These results underscore the importance of expanding integrated weed management programs to include management of annual weed populations both at the end of their life cycle, by reducing fecundity and seed survival, and at the very beginning of their life cycle, by reducing seedling recruitment and establishment.
Horseweed is an increasingly problematic weed in soybean because of the frequent occurrence of glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of crop rotation, winter wheat cover crops (WWCC), residual nonglyphosate herbicides, and preplant herbicide application timing on the population dynamics of GR horseweed and crop yield. A field study was conducted at a site with a moderate infestation of GR horseweed (approximately 1 plant m−2) with crop rotation (soybean–corn or soybean–soybean) as main plots and management systems as subplots. Management systems were evaluated by quantifying horseweed plant density, seedbank density, and crop yield. Crop rotation did not influence in-field horseweed or seedbank densities at any data census timing. Preplant herbicides applied in the spring were more effective at reducing horseweed plant densities than when applied in the previous fall. Spring-applied, residual herbicide systems were the most effective at reducing season long horseweed densities and protecting crop yield because horseweed in this region behaves primarily as a summer annual weed. Horseweed seedbank densities declined rapidly in the soil by an average of 76% for all systems over the first 10 mo before new seed rain. Despite rapid decline in total seedbank density, seed for GR biotypes remained in the seedbank for at least 2 yr. Therefore, to reduce the presence of GR horseweed biotypes in a local no-till weed flora, integrated weed management (IWM) systems should be developed to reduce total horseweed populations based on the knowledge that seed for GR biotypes are as persistent in the seed bank as glyphosate-sensitive (GS) biotypes.
Small broomrape is a parasite of several broadleaf plant species. Consequences of small broomrape infestation in host cropping systems include seed contamination, reduction in crop seed yield, and host plant death. The effect of small broomrape parasitism on the biomass partitioning of its primary host, red clover, has not been documented. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between small broomrape and red clover biomass accumulation. Total biomass of parasitized red clover plants was 15 to 51% less than nonparasitized red clover plants. Small broomrape parasitism reduced the amount of dry matter allocated to red clover inflorescences by 50 to 80%. Small broomrape dry matter accumulation was strongly related to total red clover–small broomrape dry matter accumulation. Small broomrape attachment number per red clover plant was a poor indicator of relative small broomrape dry weight accumulation. The results of this study indicated that small broomrape accumulated resources from red clover at the greatest expense to the economically important reproductive tissues.
Field trials were conducted to determine potato response to parts per trillion (ppt) per weight concentrations of sulfometuron in soil. The herbicide was applied to achieve targeted, 0-d soil concentrations of 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480, and 960 ppt. Russet Burbank potatoes were planted immediately after application using standard agronomic practices. Based on midseason visual evaluations, root and tuber injury occurred with 0-d concentrations of only 7.5 ppt. Concentrations at or above 120 ppt caused a significant increase in number of tubers with deformities compared with the control. By the end of the growing season, 0-d concentrations between 120 and 240 ppt resulted in higher percentages of tubers with deformities, such as cracks, knobs, or folds. Using logistic models fit to U.S. No. 1 tuber yield and net return data, doses of 74, 156, and 324 ppt are predicted to result in 5, 10, and 20% U.S. No. 1 yield reductions, respectively. The model predicted a 20% net return loss, approximately $160/ha, occurring at 262 ppt, which is near the 240 ppt concentration determined by standard ANOVAs and means comparisons with single degree of freedom contrasts causing significant tuber quality and yield reductions in our study. Growers using the 240 ppt concentration as an indicator of a no-effect level would encounter actual losses too great to withstand. This modeling approach provides an initial attempt at giving growers the tools necessary for assessing potential losses.
Atrazine is widely used to control broadleaf weeds and grasses in corn, sorghum, and sugarcane. Field persistence data published before 1995 showed that the average half-life of atrazine in soil was 66 d, and farmers expect to achieve weed control with a single application for the full season. However, reports of enhanced atrazine degradation in soil from fields that have a history of atrazine applications are increasing. A rapid laboratory assay was developed to screen soils for enhanced atrazine degradation. Soil (50 g) was placed in a 250 ml glass jar and treated with 7.5 ml of water containing atrazine (5 µg ai ml−1) and capped with a Teflon-lined lid. The assay was conducted at room temperature (25 C). Soil subsamples (1.5 to 3 g) were removed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 d after treatment and extracted with an equal weight of water (wt/vol). The atrazine in the water extract was assayed with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The half-life of atrazine in soils with a history of use was ≤ 1.5 d, whereas the half-life in soils with no history of atrazine use was > 8 d. The advantages of this assay are (1) the ease of set up; (2) the rapidity of extraction, and (3) the simplicity of the quantification of the atrazine.