Kochia growing on an industrial site where chlorsulfuron was applied repeatedly over several seasons was confirmed to be resistant to chlorsulfuron and several other acetolactate synthase (ALS) -inhibiting herbicides. In growth room experiments, resistant (R) plants were 2 to >180 times more resistant to five sulfonylurea herbicides and one imidazolinone herbicide (imazethapyr) than susceptible (S) plants, as measured by the ratio of dosages required to inhibit shoot dry matter accumulation by 50% (GR50 R/S). Similarly, in vitro assays of ALS activity indicated that from 3 to 30 times more herbicide was required to inhibit the enzyme from R plants than from S plants. Results of ALS enzyme assays indicated that R kochia was approximately equally resistant to metsulfuron, triasulfuron, and thifensulfuron, and 2.5 times more resistant to tribenuron than thifensulfuron. However, the response of R kochia growing in a spring wheat crop in the field was not consistent with results of the ALS enzyme assays. In field experiments, thifensulfuron at 32 g ai ha−1 had little effect on R kochia. In contrast, metsulfuron, triasulfuron, and tribenuron at 8 g ha−1 did not reduce R kochia seedling densities, but caused severe stunting such that 2 mo after treatment the shoot biomass of plants in untreated plots was four times greater than in sprayed plots. Herbicides with alternative modes of action including fluroxypyr, bromoxynil/MCPA ester, dichlorprop/2,4-D ester, and 2,4-D ester provided good control of R kochia in the field. Quinclorac did not reduce kochia densities, but surviving plants were stunted. To delay or avoid development of ALS inhibitor-resistant kochia populations, these alternative herbicides applied alone or in tank mixtures could be incorporated into a herbicide rotation.